During the 17th century, the Tsardom of Russia was expanding east across Siberia, and into Tungusic-speaking lands, ending with the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk. The first published description of a Tungusic people to reach beyond Russia into the rest of Europe was by the Dutch traveler Isaac Massa in 1612. He passed along information from Russian reports after his stay in Moscow.
The word Tungus derives from "Donki", which means "men" in Tungusic languages. Some scholars think it was derived from the Chinese word Donghu (東胡, "Eastern Barbarians", cf. Tonggu 通古 = Tungusic). This "chance similarity in modern pronunciation led to the once widely held assumption that the Eastern Hu were Tungusic in language. However, there is little basis for this theory."
The Tungusic people are closely related to other Northern Asian populations and to the Mongols. Their main Y-DNA haplogroup is Haplogroup C-M217, with a small amount of Haplogroup N-M231. However, the modern Manchu people show relatively high amounts of Haplogroup O2, which is common among Chinese and Koreans, and Haplogroup O1b2, which is common among Japanese and Koreans. According to a study of Tungusic Evenks, Evens, and Udeges in Russia published in 2013, their main mtDNA haplogroups are Haplogroup C (55/283 = 19.43% C4b, 54/283 = 19.08% C4a, 11/283 = 3.89% C5, 121/283 = 42.76% C total), Haplogroup D (18/283 = 6.36% D4l2, 12/283 = 4.24% D5a2a2, 10/283 = 3.53% D4e4a, 8/283 = 2.83% D3, 8/283 = 2.83% D4o2, 5/283 = 1.77% D4i2, 5/283 = 1.77% D4j, 3/283 = 1.06% D4m2, 69/283 = 24.38% D total), and Haplogroup Z (12/283 = 4.24% Z1a(xZ1a1, Z1a2), 9/283 = 3.18% Z1a2, 4/283 = 1.41% Z1a1, 25/283 = 8.83% Z1a total), with overall small but variable amounts of Haplogroup A (7/283 = 2.47% A4(xA2a, A2b1, A8, A12a), 2/283 = 0.71% A12a, 2/283 = 0.71% A2a, 11/283 = 3.89% A total), Haplogroup N9 (10/283 = 3.53% N9b, observed only in the sample of Udege), Haplogroup G (9/283 = 3.18% G1b, 1/283 = 0.35% G2a1, 10/283 = 3.53% G total), Haplogroup Y (8/283 = 2.83% Y1a), Haplogroup M7 (6/283 = 2.12% M7a2a, 2/283 = 0.71% M7c1d, 8/283 = 2.83% M7 total), and Haplogroup F (6/283 = 2.12% F1b1), which seem to reflect genetic connections with peoples living around the Sea of Okhotsk (Koryaks, Nivkhs, Ainus, etc.) on the one hand and peoples living in Central Asia (Turks, Mongols) on the other.
The largest group of Tungusic peoples are the Manchu, who in the 21st century number around 10 million. They are originally from Manchuria, which is now Northeast China and Russian Far East. Following their conquest of China in the 17th century, they have been almost totally assimilated into the main ethnic Han population of China. This process, known as Sinicization of the Manchus, accelerated especially during the 20th century. The Xibe people are a Manchu subgroup.
The Evenks live in the Evenk Autonomous Okrug of Russia. The Udege (Удэгейцы' in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or udee and udehe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions, also in Russia.
Tungusic peoples are:
|English||Chinese / Russian||self designation||Region||Population||Notes|
|Manchu||满族（满洲）/Маньчжуры||ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ（Möllendorff：manju, abkai：manju）||Liaoning Pro., Jilin Pro., Heilongjiang Pro., Inner Mongolia A.R., Hebei Pro., Beijing etc., People's Republic of China||China: 10,410,585 (2010)|| Taiwan: 12000|
|Oroqen||鄂伦春族/Орочоны||Orocen A.B., Hulun buir city etc., Inner Mongolia A.R., People's Republic of China||China: 8,659 (2010)|
|Xibe||锡伯族/Сибо||ᠰᡞᠪᡝ（Transliterations：sibe）||Qapqal Xibe A.C., Ili Kazakh A.P. etc., Xinjiang Uyghur A.R., Liaoning Pro., People's Republic of China||China: 190,481 (2010)||also have settlement in Khorgas, Tarbagatai, Ürümqi , beyond 1000 in Jilin Pro., Heilongjiang Pro., Inner Mongolia A.R., Beijing, People's Republic of China.|
|Evenki (Solons included)||鄂温克族、埃文基人/Эвенки||Эвэнкил||Ergun City, Arun Banner, Old Barag Banner, Oroqen A.B., Morin Dawa Daur A.B. etc., Inner Mongolia A.R.; Nehe City, Heilongjiang Pro., People's Republic of China.
Sakhalin Oblast. Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Buryatia Rep., Zabaykalsky Krai, Evenk Autonomous Okrug (Evenkia), Sakha (Yakutia) Rep., Irkutsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Tomsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, Russian Federation.
|Russia: 38,396 (2012)|| Mongolia: 537 (2015)|
|Nanai, Hezhen, Golds, Samagir||赫哲族、那乃人、纳奈人/нанайцы||na nio, na bəi, na nai, ki lən, χə d͡ʑən||Jiejinkou, Bacha, Jiamusi City; Sipai, Shuangyashan City etc., Heilongjiang Pro., People's Republic of China.
|| Russia: 12,160 (2002)
|Evens||埃文人/эвены||эвэсэл||Chukotka A.O., Kamchatka Krai, Magadan Oblast, Russian Federation||Russia: 22,383 (2012)||Ukraine: 104 (2001)|
|Negidals||涅吉达尔人/негидальцы||элькан бэйэнин||Khabarovsk Krai, Russian Federation||Russia: 513 (2012)||Ukraine: 52 (2001)|
|Uilta, Orok||乌尔他人、鄂罗克人/Ороки||Uilta, Orok, Ul'ta, Ulcha, Nani||Nogliksky District, Poronaysky District, Sakhalin Oblast, Russian Federation.
||Russia: 295 (2012)||Japan: 20 (1989)|
|Ulch||乌尔奇人/Ульчи||нани||Ulchsky District, Khabarovsk Krai, Russian Federation||Russia: 2,765 (2012)||Ukraine: 76|
|Oroch||奥罗奇人/О́рочи||Nani||Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Oblast, Magadan Oblast, Russian Federation||Russia: 596 (2010)||Ukraine: 288 (2001)|
|Udege||乌德赫人/Удэгейцы||удээ, удэхе, Udihe, Udekhe, Udeghe||Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, Russian Federation||Russia: 1,496 (2010)||Ukraine: 42 (2001)|
The Duchers (Russian: дючеры or дучеры) was the Russian name of the people populating the shores of the middle course of the Amur River, approximately from the mouth of the Zeya down to the mouth of the Ussury, and possibly even somewhat further downstream. Their ethnic identity is not known with certainty, but it is usually assumed that they were a Tungusic people, related to the Jurchens and/or the Nanais.
The name of this ethnic group is sometimes also written in English as "Jucher".Evenks
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396 (2010 census). In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875 (2010 census). There are 537 Evenks in Mongolia (2015 census) that called Khamnigan in Mongolian language.Evens
The Evens (эвэн; pl. эвэсэл, evesel, in Even and эвены, evëny in Russian; formerly called Lamuts) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. They live in some of the regions of the Magadan Oblast and Kamchatka Krai and northern parts of Sakha east of the Lena River. According to the 2002 census, there were 19,071 Evens in Russia. According to the 2010 census, there were 22,383 Evens in Russia. They speak their own language called Even language, one of the Tungusic languages. The Evens are close to the Evenks by their origins and culture. Officially, they were considered to be of Orthodox faith since the 19th century, but the Evens managed to preserve different forms of non-Christian beliefs, such as shamanism. Traditional Even life is centred upon nomadic pastoralism of domesticated reindeer, supplemented with hunting, fishing and animal-trapping. There were 104 Evens in Ukraine, 19 of whom speaking Even. (Ukr. Cen. 2001)Geolsa Biu
Geolsa Biu was a 7th-century military leader of Baishan Mohe ancestry. Geolsa Biu took an active part in Balhae's effort for autonomy against the Tang Dynasty. Geolsa Biu's died in the Battle of Tianmenling, in which Balhae achieved victory and declared autonomy.Heishui Mohe
The Heishui Mohe (Chinese: 黑水靺鞨; pinyin: Hēishuǐ Mòhé; Manchu: Sahaliyan i Aiman or 薩哈廉部),, also known as the Heuksu Malgal,, rendered in English as Blackriver Mohe or Blackwater Mohe, were a tribe of Mohe people in Outer Manchuria along the Amur River (Chinese: 黑水; pinyin: Hēi Shuǐ; literally: 'Blackwater" or "Black River') in what is now Russia's Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and Heilongjiang in China.Manchu shamanism
Manchu folk religion is the ethnic religion practiced by most of the Manchu people, the major of the Tungusic peoples, in China. It can also be called Manchu Shamanism by virtue of the word "shaman" being originally from Tungusic šamán ("man of knowledge"), later applied by Western scholars to similar religious practices in other cultures. It is a pantheistic system, believing in a universal God called Apka Enduri ("God of Heaven") which is the omnipotent and omnipresent source of all life and creation. Deities (enduri) enliven every aspect of nature, and the worship of these gods is believed to bring favour, health and prosperity. Many of the deities are original Manchu kins' ancestors, and people with the same surname are generated by the same god.Shamans are persons of unusual ability, strength and sensitivity, capable of perception and prediction of the ways of the gods. They are endowed with the social function to conduct the sacrificial ceremonies and approach the deities asking them intervention or protection. Because of their abilities the shamans are people of great authority and prestige. Usually, every Manchu kin has its own shaman.Manchu folk religious rites were standardised by the Qianlong Emperor (1736-96) in the "Manchu Sacrificial Ritual to the Gods and Heaven" (Manjusai wecere metere kooli bithe), a manual published in Manchu in 1747 and in Chinese (Manzhou jishen jitian dianli) in 1780. With the conquest of imperial power in China (Qing dynasty) the Manchu people gradually adopted Chinese language and assimilated into the Chinese religion, although Manchu folk religion persists with a distinct character within broader Chinese religion.Mohe people
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River. The Mohe constituted a major part of the population in the kingdom of Balhae, which lasted from the late 7th century to early 10th century. After the fall of Balhae, few historical traces of the Mohe can be found, though they are considered to be the primary ethnic group from whom the Jurchen people descended. The Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated. The Mohe practiced a sedentary agrarian lifestyle and were predominantly farmers who grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, supplemented by pig raising and hunting for meat. The Mohe were also known to have worn pig and dog skin coats.Nanai people
The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin. The ancestors of the Nanai were the Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria.
The Nanai/Hezhe language belongs to the Manchu-Tungusic languages. According to the 2010 census there were 12,003 Nanai in Russia.Negidals
Negidals (Russian: негидальцы; Negidal: элькан бэйэнин, elkan bayenin, "local people") are a people in the Khabarovsk Krai in Russia, who live along the Amgun River and Amur River.
The ethnonym "Negidal" is a Russification of the Ewenki term ngegida, which means "coastal people".Olga Kudrina
Olga Dmitrievna Kudrina (c. 1890-1944) was a shamaness among the Reindeer Evenki of northern Inner Mongolia along the Amur River's Great Bend (today under the jurisdiction of Genhe, Hulunbuir). She was accepted as an arbiter between the various Reindeer Evenki groups, helping to defuse conflicts between families when a member of one murdered a member of the other; after her death, the egalitarian hunters were left with no widely accepted shaman or other authority figure, and conflicts among them escalated into a chain of serious cases of blood revenge.Oroch people
Orochs (Russian О́рочи), Orochons, or Orochis (self-designation: Nani) are a people of Russia that speak the Oroch (Orochon) language of the Southern group of Tungusic languages. According to the 2002 census there were 686 Orochs in Russia. According to the 2010 census there were 596 Orochs in Russia.
Orochs traditionally settled in the southern part of the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia and on the Amur and Kopp rivers. In the 19th century, some of them migrated to Sakhalin. In the early 1930s, the Orochi National District was created, but was cancelled shortly thereafter "due to lack of native population".
Because the people never had a written language, they were educated in the Russian language. Their language, Oroch, is on the verge of extinction. They follow Shamanism, the Russian Orthodox Church, and Buddhism.Orok people
Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self-designation: Ulta, Ulcha), sometimes called Uilta, are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly the eastern part of the island) in Russia. The Orok language belongs to the Southern group of the Tungusic language family. According to the 2002 Russian census, there were 346 Oroks living in Northern Sakhalin by the Okhotsk Sea and Southern Sakhalin in the district by the city of Poronaysk. According to the 2010 census there were 295 Oroks in Russia.Oroqen people
The Oroqen people (simplified Chinese: 鄂伦春族; traditional Chinese: 鄂倫春族; pinyin: Èlúnchūn zú; Mongolian: Orčun; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. As of the 2000 Census, 44.54% of the Oroqen lived in Inner Mongolia and 51.52% along the Heilongjiang River (Amur) in the province of Heilongjiang. The Oroqen Autonomous Banner is also located in Inner Mongolia.
The Oroqens are mainly hunters, and customarily use animal fur and skins for clothing. Many of them have given up hunting and adhered to laws that aimed to protect wildlife in the People's Republic of China. The government is said to have provided modern dwellings for those who have left behind the traditional way of life. The Oroqen are represented in the People's Congress by their own delegate and are a recognized ethnic minority.Sibe people
The Sibe or Xibo (ᠰᡞᠪᡝ IPA: [ɕivə]; simplified Chinese: 锡伯; traditional Chinese: 錫伯; pinyin: Xībó) are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.Solon people
The Solon people (simplified Chinese: 索伦; traditional Chinese: 索倫; pinyin: Suǒlún) are a subgroup of the Ewenki (Evenk) people of northeastern Asia. They live in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang Province, and constitute the majority of China's Ewenki.Sushen
Sushen is the modern Chinese name for an ancient ethnic group of people who lived in the northeastern part of China (in the area of modern Jilin and Heilongjiang) and what is in modern times the Russian Maritime Province and some other Siberian provinces. They were active during the Zhou Dynasty period. Archeological relics in the area are attributed to the Xituanshan Culture, indicating that they were Tungusic peoples.According to the Guoyu and the Classic of Mountains and Seas published in the Warring States period (476–221 BCE), Sushen was the name of the tribe who lived in Shandong and border of Liaoxi Province.The name's characters appeared as early as the 6th century BC in Chinese documents. They are almost unknown with the exception of the fact that they lived to the north of China and used flint-headed wooden arrows, farmed, hunted, and fished, and lived in caves and trees. Ancient Chinese believed that the Sushen paid arrows as tribute to an ideal Chinese ruler. In other words, an arrival of Sushen delegates was, for the Chinese, an auspicious sign of the Chinese ruler's virtue.
From the 3rd century to the 6th century, the name Sushen was used as an alias for the Yilou, who were in eastern Manchuria. However, the connection between the Yilou and the ancient Sushen is unclear. Some historians think that Chinese, having heard that the Yilou paid arrows as tribute, linked them with the Sushen based on knowledge of ancient documents. They paid tribute several times and pleased rulers of Northern China. The Yilou disappeared from documents in the 6th century. The Mohe rose into power there instead.The Chinese characters of the name can also be found in Japanese documents, in which the characters are annotated and read as Mishihase or Ashihase. According to the Nihon Shoki, the Mishihase first arrived to Sado Province during the reign of Emperor Kimmei. In 660, Japanese General Abe no Hirafu defeated the Mishihase in Hokkaidō by request from the native inhabitants.Some historians consider that the Mishihase were identical with the Sushen of Chinese records, and others think that Japanese named the indigenous people in the northeast based on the knowledge of Chinese documents, just as the Chinese did during the Three Kingdoms period. They are generally believed to have been the ancestors of the Wuji, Yilou and Mohe, and subsequently of the Jurchen, Manchu, Nanai and many other Tungusic peoples.Tungusic creation myth
The Tungusic creation myths are traditional stories of the creation of the world belonging to the Tungusic peoples of Siberia.Udege people
Udege (Удэгейцы in Russian; ethnonym: удээ and удэхе, or Udihe, Udekhe, and Udeghe correspondingly) are a people who live in the Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai regions in Russia, the native population of this region. They live along the tributaries of the Ussuri, Amur, Kungari, and Anyuy Rivers. The Udege speak the Udege language, which belongs to the Tungusic language family. Their religious beliefs include animism, animal worship, and shamanism. The Udege are mainly engaged in hunting, fishing, and ginseng harvesting. According to the 2002 census, there were 1,657 Udege in Russia, a slight increase from 1,500 in 1970. According to the 2010 census there were 1,496 Udege in Russia. They are one of the closest ethnic groups to the Manchu and Nanai, and are possibly of Jianzhou Jurchen origin.
Udege biggest settlements are in :
- Khabarovsk krai : Gvasiugi (Imeni Lazo District) and Arsenievo (Nanaysky District)
- Primorsky krai : Agzu (Terneysky District), Krasny Yar and Olon (Pozharsky District)
Since the advent of Perestroika, the Udege, led by Pavel Sulyandziga, have been actively involved in the struggle for control over their traditional territories along the Bikin River. A central objective has been the establishment of a Territory of Traditional Natural Resource Use of federal status, which was proposed in cooperation with the national umbrella organisation RAIPON and the Russian Institute of Anthropology and Ethnography but failed to be approved by the authorities.Out of 40 Udeges living in Ukraine, only 8 declared Udege as their native language. Most of the Udeges in Ukraine indicated Russian (19) or Ukrainian (6) as their native language. 7 of them named another language.Ulch people
The Ulch (Russian: ульчи, obsolete ольчи; self designation: нани, nani) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East who speak a Tungusic language, Ulch. Over 90% of Ulchis live in Ulchsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. According to the 2002 Census, there were 2,913 Ulchs living in Russia — down from 3,173 recorded in the 1989 Census, but up from 2,494 recorded in the 1979 Census, and 2,410 recorded in the 1970 Census. According to the 2010 Census there were 2,765 Ulchs in Russia.
In terms of cultural anthropology, the Ulch do not constitute a homogeneous group. They are sometimes considered grouped with other so-called "Paleosiberian" peoples, also known as the "Amur-Sakhalin group" (like the Ainu, Chukchi, Nivkh and other Tungusic peoples like the Oroch).
The population genetics of the Ulchi are linked to 7,700 year old remains from Chertovy Vorota Cave ("Devil's Gate") and are also genetically similar to an East Asian genetic component within Native Americans. The Ulchi do not appear to have originally possessed the "Ancient North Eurasian" (ANE) genetic component found in Native American, Central Asian, South Asians and West Eurasian (European and Middle Eastern populations; the Ulchi are also genetically distinct from the more numerous East Siberian groups in modern times, such as Mongolian and Turkic peoples.
Italics indicate extinct group