The Tungusic languages/tʊŋˈɡʊsɪk/ (also known as Manchu-Tungus and Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many Tungusic languages are endangered, and the long-term future of the family is uncertain. There are approximately 75,000 native speakers of the dozen living languages of the Tungusic language family. Some linguists consider Tungusic to be part of the controversial Altaic language family, along with Turkic, Mongolic, and sometimes Koreanic and Japonic.
The term "Tungusic" is from an exonym for the Evenk people used by the Yakuts ("tongus") and the Siberian Tatars in the 17th century meaning "pig". It was borrowed into Russian as "тунгус", and ultimately into English as "Tungus". It became a broad term for speakers of the whole family, "Tungusic". Use of "Tungus" is now discouraged; the Russian government now uses the endonym "Evenks" officially.
Linguists working on Tungusic have proposed a number of different classifications based on different criteria, including morphological, lexical, and phonological characteristics. Some scholars have criticized the tree-based model of Tungusic classification, arguing the long history of contact among the Tungusic languages makes them better treated as a dialect continuum.
The main classification is into a northern branch and a southern branch (Georg 2004), although the two branches have no clear division and the classification of intermediate groups is debatable;
Four mid-level subgroups are recognized by Hölzl (2018), namely Ewenic, Udegheic, Nanaic, and Jurchenic.
Population distribution of total speakers of Tungusic languages, by speaker
Despite some similarities between the Tungusic and Koreanic languages, Alexander Vovin (2013) considers Tungusic and Koreanic to be separate, unrelated language groups that share areal rather than genetic commonalities.
Gankui(basis of standard Oroqen but not identical)
Kili (traditionally considered Nanai) (Kur-Urmi or Hezhen - probably not Nanai or even Southern Tungusic but a northern Tungusic language)
Some linguists estimate the divergence of the Tungusic languages from a common ancestor spoken somewhere in Manchuria around 500 BC to 500 AD. (Janhunen 2012, Pevnov 2012) Other theories favor a homeland closer to Lake Baikal. (Menges 1968, Khelimskii 1985) While the general form of the protolanguage is clear from the similarities in the daughter languages, there is no consensus on detailed reconstructions. As of 2012, scholars are still trying to establish a shared vocabulary to do such a reconstruction.
There are some proposed sound correspondences for Tungusic languages. For example, Norman (1977) supports a Proto-Tungusic *t > Manchu s when followed by *j in the same stem, with any exceptions arising from loanwords. Some linguists believe there are connections between the vowel harmony of Proto-Tungusic and some of the neighboring non-Tungusic languages. For example, there are proposals for an areal or genetic correspondence between the vowel harmonies of Proto-Korean, Proto-Mongolian, and Proto-Tungusic based on an original RTR harmony. This is one of several competing proposals, and on the other hand, some reconstruct Proto-Tungusic without RTR harmony.
Some sources describe the Donghu people of 7th century BC to 2nd century BC Manchuria as Proto-Tungusic. Other sources sharply criticize this as a random similarity in pronunciation with "Tungus" that has no real basis in fact.
The historical records of the Korean kingdoms of Baekje and Silla note battles with the Mohe (Chinese: 靺鞨) in Manchuria during the 1st and 2nd centuries. Some scholars suggest these Mohe are closely connected to the later Jurchens, but this is controversial.
Alexander Vovin (2015) notes that Northern Tungusic languages have Eskimo-Aleut loanwords that are not found in Southern Tungusic, implying that Eskimo-Aleut was once much more widely spoken in eastern Siberia. Vovin (2015) estimates that the Eskimo-Aleut loanwords in Northern Tungusic had been borrowed no more than 2,000 years ago, which was when Tungusic was spreading up north from its homeland in the middle reaches of the Amur River.
The earliest written attestation of the language family is in the Jurchen language, which was spoken by the rulers of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). The Jurchens invented a Jurchen script to write their language based on the Khitan scripts. During this time, several stelae were put up in Manchuria and Korea. One of these, among the most important extant texts in Jurchen, is the inscription on the back of "the Jin Victory Memorial Stele" (Da Jin deshengtuo songbei), which was erected in 1185, during the Dading period (1161–1189). It is apparently an abbreviated translation of the Chinese text on the front of the stele. The last known example of the Jurchen script was written in 1526.
The Tungusic languages appear in the historical record again after the unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci (Manchu: ᠨᡠᡵᡤᠠᠴᡳ) who ruled 1616-1626. He commissioned a new Manchu alphabet based on the Mongolian alphabet, and his successors went on to found the Qing dynasty. In 1636, Emperor Hong Taiji decreed that the ethnonym "Manchu" would replace "Jurchen". Modern scholarship usually treats Jurchen and Manchu as different stages of the same language.
Currently, Manchu proper is a dying language spoken by a dozen or so elderly people in Qiqihar province, China. However, the closely related Xibe language spoken in Xinjiang, which historically was treated as a divergent dialect of Jurchen-Manchu, maintains the literary tradition of the script, and has around 30,000 speakers. As the only language in the Tungustic family with a long written tradition, Jurchen-Manchu is a very important language for the reconstruction of Proto-Tungusic.
Other Tungusic languages
Other Tungusic languages have relatively short or no written traditions. Since around the 20th century, some of these other languages can be written in a Russian-based Cyrillic script, but the languages remain primarily spoken languages only.
The earliest Western accounts of Tungusic languages came from the Dutch traveler Nicolaas Witsen, who published in the Dutch language a book titled Noord en Oost Tartarye, (literally "North and East Tartary") which described a variety of peoples in the far east and included some brief word lists for many languages. Following his travel to Russia, he published his collected findings in three editions, 1692, 1705, and 1785. The book includes some words and sentences from the Evenki language, (then called "Tungus").
Tungusic languages exhibit a complex pattern of vowel harmony, based on two parameters: vowel roundedness and vowel tenseness. Tense and lax vowels do not occur in the same word; all vowels in a word, including suffixes, are either one or the other. Rounded vowels in the root of a word cause all the following vowels in the word to become rounded, but not those before the rounded vowel. Those rules are not absolute, and there are many individual exceptions.
Vowel length is phonemic, with many words distinguished based on the distinction between short vowel and long vowel.
Tungusic words have simple word codas, and usually have simple word onsets, with consonant clusters forbidden at the end of words and rare at the beginning.
Relationships with other languages
Tungusic is today considered a primary language family. Especially in the past, some linguists have linked Tungusic with Turkic and Mongolic languages in the Altaic language family. However, a genetic, as opposed to an areal, link remains unproven. Others have suggested that the Tungusic languages may be related (perhaps as a paraphyletic outgroup) to the Koreanic, Japonic, or Ainu languages as well.
In 2017, Tungusic was again linked to Turkic and Mongolic languages by Robbeets in her "Transeurasian family" (another name for Macro-Altaic). According to Robbeets Tungusic is closest to Mongolic languages.
The language of the Avars in Europe which created the Avar Khaganate is believed by some scholars to be of Tungusic origin.
^Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tungusic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
^Lindsay J. Whaley, Lenore A. Grenoble and Fengxiang Li (June 1999). "Revisiting Tungusic Classification from the Bottom up: A Comparison of Evenki and Oroqen". Language. 75 (2): 286–321. JSTOR417262.
^Hölzl, Andreas. 2018. The Tungusic language family through the ages: Interdisciplinary perspectives: Introduction. International Workshop at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea (SLE). 29 August – 1st September 2018, Tallinn University, Estonia.
^Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland, and Stephen H. West. China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995, pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-7914-2274-7. Partial text on Google Books.
^Helimski, E (2004). "Die Sprache(n) der Awaren: Die mandschu-tungusische Alternative". Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies, Vol. II: 59–72.
Kane, Daniel. The Sino-Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Interpreters. Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, Volume 153. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1989. ISBN 0-933070-23-3.
Miller, Roy Andrew. Japanese and the Other Altaic Languages. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1971.
Poppe, Nicholas. Vergleichende Grammatik der Altaischen Sprachen [A Comparative Grammar of the Altaic Languages]. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
Tsintsius, Vera I. Sravnitel'naya Fonetika Tunguso-Man'chzhurskikh Yazïkov [Comparative Phonetics of the Manchu-Tungus Languages]. Leningrad, 1949.
Stefan Georg. "Unreclassifying Tungusic", in: Carsten Naeher (ed.): Proceedings of the First International Conference on Manchu-Tungus Studies (Bonn, August 28 – September 1, 2000), Volume 2: Trends in Tungusic and Siberian Linguistics, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 45–57.
Apatóczky, Ákos Bertalan; Kempf, Béla (2017). "Recent developments on the decipherment of the Khitan small script. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. 70(2). 109–133.". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 70. pp. 109–133. doi:10.1556/062.2017.70.2.1..
Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2017b. From converb to classifier? On the etymology of Literary Manchu nofi. In Michał Né meth, Barbara Podolak & Mateusz Urban (eds.), Essays in the history of languages and linguistics. Dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 57-80. Cracow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
Alonso de la Fuente, José Andrés. 2018. Past tenses, diminutives and expressive palatalization: Typology and the limits of internal reconstruction in Tungusic. In Bela Kempf, Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky & Christopher P. Atwood (eds.), Philology of the Grasslands: Essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic Studies, 112-137. Leiden: Brill.
Aralova, Natalia. 2015. Vowel harmony in two Even dialects: Production and perception. Utrecht: LOT.
Baek, Sangyub. 2016. Tungusic from the perspective of areal linguistics: Focusing on the Bikin dialect of Udihe. Saporo:Graduate Scholof Leters, Hokkaidō University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
Baek, Sangyub. 2017. Grammatical peculiarities of Oroqen Evenki from the perspective of genetic and areal linguistics. Linguistic Typology of the North, vol. 4. 13-32.
Baek, Sangyub . 2018. Chiiki gengo-gaku-teki kanten kara mita tsungūsu shogo no hojo dōshi . Hoppō gengo kenkyū 8. 59-79.
Bogunov, Y. V., O. V. Maltseva, A. A. Bogunova & E. V. Balanovskaya 2015. The Nanai clan Samar: The structure of gene pool based on Ychromosome markers. Archaeology Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia 43(2). 146-152.
Bulatova, Nadezhda. 2014. Phonetic correspondences in the languages of the Ewenki of Russia and China. Altai Hakpo 24. 23-38.
Chaoke D. O. 2014a. Man tonggusiyuzu yuyan cihui bijiao . Peking: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2014a. Man tonggusiyuzu yuyan ciyuan yanjiu . Peking: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2014c. Xiboyu 366 ju huihuaju. Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2014d. Manyu 366 ju huihuaju. Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2016a. Ewenke yu jiaocheng . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2016b. Suolun ewenke yu jiben cihui . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. 2017. Ewenke zu san da fangyan cihui bijiao . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Kajia 2016a. Suolun ewenke yu huihua . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Kajia 2016b. Tonggusi ewenke yu huihua . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Kajia . 2017. Nehe ewenke yu jiben cihui . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Kalina . 2016. Ewenkezu yanyu . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Kalina . 2017. Arong ewenke yu . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Sirenbatu . 2016. Aoluguya ewenke yu huihua . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Chaoke D. O. & Wang Lizhen . 2016. Ewenkezu minge geci . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Duggan, Ana T. 2013. Investigating the prehistory of Tungusic peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri region with complete mtDNA genome sequences and Y-chromosomal markers. PlosOne 8(12). e83570.
Duo Limei & Chaoke D. O. 2016. Tonggusi ewenke yu yanjiu . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Grenoble, Lenore A. 2013. The syntax and pragmatics of Tungusic revisited. In Balthasar Bickel, Lenore A. Grenoble, David A. Peterson and Alan Timberlake (eds.), Language typology and historical contingency. In honor of Johanna Nichols, 357-382. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Grenoble, Lenore A. 2014. Spatial semantics, case and relator nouns in Evenki. In Pirkko Suihkonen & Lindsay J. Whaley (eds.), On diversity and complexity of languages spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia,111-131. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Gusev, Valentin. 2016. Figura etymologica in Uilta. Hoppō jinbun kenkyū 9. 59-74.
Hölzl, Andreas. 2018a. Constructionalization areas: The case of negation in Manchu. In Evie Coussé, Peter Andersson & Joel Olofsson (eds.), Grammaticalization meets construction grammar (Constructional Approaches to Language 21), 241-276. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hölzl, Andreas. 2018b. Udi, Udihe, and the language(s) of the Kyakala. IJDL - International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics and Linguistic Reconstruction 15. 111-146.
Hölzl, Andreas. 2018c. Das Mandschurische: Ein diachroner Überblick. Asien-Orient Institut, Universität Zürich, 16.03.2018.
Jang Taeho & Tom Payne. 2018. The modern spoken Xibe verb system. IJDL - International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics and Linguistic Reconstruction 15. 147-169.
Jang, Taeho, Kyungsook Lim Jang & Thomas E. Payne. forthcoming A typological grammar of Xibe.
Janhunen, Juha. 2005. Tungusic. An endangered language family in Northeast Asia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 173. 37–54.
Janhunen, Juha. 2015. Recent advances in Tungusic lexicography. Studia Orientalia Electronica 3. 17-20.
Janhunen, Juha 2016. Reconstructio externa linguae ghiliacorum. Studia Orientalia 117. 3-27.
Kane, Daniel. 2013. Introduction, Part 2: An update on deciphering the Kitan language and scripts. Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 43. 11-25.
Kang, Hijo, Jiwon Yun & Seongyeon Ko. 2017. Vowels of Beryozovka Ewen: An acoustic phonetic study. Altai Hakpo 27. 1-23.
Kazama Shinjirō , . 2015a. Dagūru-go no goi ni okeru tsungūsu shogo to no kyōtsū yōso ni tsuite . Hoppō jinbun kenkyū 8. 1-23.
Kazama Shinjirō , . 2015b. Euen-go buisutoraya hōgen no gaisetsu to tekisuto . Hoppō gengo kenkyū 5. 83-128.
Khabtagaeva, Bayarma. 2017. The Ewenki dialects of Buryatia and their relationship to Khamnigan Mongol. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Khabtagaeva, Bayarma. 2018. The role of Ewenki VgV in Mongolic Reconstructions. In Bela Kempf, Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky & Christopher P. Atwood (eds.), Philology of the Grasslands: Essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic Studies, 174-193. Leiden: Brill.
Kim, Alexander. 2013. Osteological studies of archaeological materials from Jurchen sites in Russia. Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 43. 335- 347.
Ko, Seongyeon, Andrew Joseph & John Whitman. 2014. In Martine Robbeets and Walter Bisang (eds.), Paradigm change: In the Transeurasian languages and beyond, 141-176. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. et al. 2012. The earliest surviving textiles in East Asia from Chertovy Vorota Cave, Primorye Province, Russian Far East 86(332). 325-337.
Li Linjing . 2016. Hojengo no kaiwa tekisuto (6) (6). Hoppō gengo kenkyū 6. 131-152.
Norman, Jerry. 2013. A comprehensive Manchu-English dictionary. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center.
Pakendorf, Brigitte. 2014. Paradigm copying in Tungusic: The Lamunkhin dialect of Ėven and beyond. In Martine Robbeets & Walter Bisang (eds), Paradigm Change: In the Transeurasian languages and beyond, 287-310. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Sebillaud, Pauline & Liu Xiaoxi. 2016. Une ville jurchen au temps des Ming (XIV e -XVII e siècle): Huifacheng, un carrefour économique et culturel. Arts Asiatiques 71. 55-76.
Shimunek, Andrew. 2016. Yöröö Khamnigan: A possibly recently extinct Tungusic language of northern Mongolia. Altai Hakpo 26. 13-28.
Shimunek, Andrew. 2017. Languages of ancient southern Mongolia and North China. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Shimunek, Andrew. 2018. Early Serbi-Mongolic–Tungusic Lexical Contact: Jurchen Numerals from the Shirwi (Shih-wei) in North China. In Bela Kempf, Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky & Christopher P. Atwood (eds.), Philology of the Grasslands: Essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic Studies, 331-346. Leiden: Brill.
Siska, Veronika et al. 2017. Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago. Science Advances 3: e1601877.
Stary, Giovanni. 2015. Manchu-Chinese bilingual compositions and their verse-technique. Central Asiatic Journal 58(1-2). 1-5.
Stary, Giovanni. 2017. Neue Beiträge zum Sibe-Wortschatz. In Michał Németh, Barbara Podolak & Mateusz Urban (eds.), Essays in the history of languages and linguistics. Dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 703-707. Cracow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
Sun Hao. 2014. A re-examination of the Jurchen Sanshi-bu (“thirty surnames”). Eurasian Studies 2. 84-121.
Tabarev, Andrei V. 2014. The later prehistory of the Russian Far East. In Colin Renfrew & Paul Bahn (eds.), The Cambridge world prehistory, 3 vols., 852-869. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tolskaya, Inna. 2014. Oroch vowel harmony. Lingua 138. 128-151.
Tolskaya, Maria. 2015. Udihe. In Nicola Grandi & Lívia Körtvélyessy (eds.), Edinburgh handbook of evaluative morphology, 333– 340. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Trachsel, Yves. 2018. Archery in primers. Debtelin 2 109-115.
Tsumagari, Toshiro. 2014. Remarks on the Uilta folktale text collected by B. Pilsudski. Hoppō jinbun kenkyū 7. 83- 94.
Tulisow, Jerzy. 2015. The wedding song of Shamaness Nisin: An unknown fragment of a well-known tale. Central Asiatic Journal 58(1-2). 155-168.
Vovin, Alexander. 2012. Did Wanyan Xiyin invent the Jurchen script? In Andrej Malchukov & Lindsay J. Whaley (eds.), Recent advances in Tungusic linguistics, 49-58. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Vovin, Alexander. 2013. From Koguryŏ to T’amna. Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean. Korean Linguistics 15(2). 222–240.
Vovin, Alexander. 2015a. Eskimo loanwords in northern Tungusic. Iran and the Caucasus 19. 87-95.
Vovin, Alexander. 2015b. Some notes on the Tuyuhun () language: In the footsteps of Paul Pelliot. Journal of Sino-Western Communications 7(2). 157‒166.
Vovin, Alexander. 2018. Four Tungusic etymologies. In Bela Kempf, Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky & Christopher P. Atwood (eds.), Philology of the Grasslands: Essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic Studies, 366-368. Leiden: Brill.
Walravens, Hartmut. 2015. Christian literature in Manchu. Central Asiatic Journal 58(1-2). 197-224.
Walravens, Hartmut. 2017. A note on digitised Manchu texts. Central Asiatic Journal 60(1-2. 341-344.
Wang Qingfeng . 2005. Manyu yanjiu . Peking: Minzu chubanshe.
Weng Jianmin & Chaoke D. O. 2016. Aoluguya ewenke yu yanjiu . Peking: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.
Yamada Yoshiko , . 2015. Uirutago kita hōgen tekisuto: Hito kui obake no hanashi . Hoppō gengo kenkyū 5. 261-280.
Zikmundová, Veronika. 2013. Spoken Sibe. Morphology of the inflected parts of speech. Prague: Karolinum. 37
Vovin, Alexander (2009) . "Tungusic Languages". In Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (1st ed.). Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier. pp. 1103–1105. ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7. OCLC264358379.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
Monumenta Altaica—Altaic Linguistics. Grammars, Texts, Dictionaries, Bibliographies of Mongolian and other Altaic languages
The Even language , also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan (Russian: Эве́нский язы́к, earlier also Ламутский язы́к), is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communities of reindeer herders from Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk in the east to the River Lena in the west, and from the Arctic coast in the north to the River Aldan in the south. Even is an endangered language, with only some 5,700 speakers (Russian census, 2010). These speakers are specifically from the Magadan region, the Chukot region and the Koryak region. Dialects are Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr, Lamunkhin.In these regions where the Evens primarily reside, the Even language is generally implemented in pre-school and elementary school, alongside the national language, Russian. Where Even functioned primarily as an oral language communicated between reindeer herding brigades, textbooks began circulating throughout these educational institutions from around 1925 to 1995. The syntax of the Even language follows the nominative case and SOV (subject-object-verb) word order, with the attribute preceding the dependent member.
Evenki , formerly known as Tungus or Solon, is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language. The name is sometimes wrongly given as "Evenks". It is spoken by Evenks in Russia and China.
In certain areas the influences of the Yakut and the Buryat languages are particularly strong. The influence of Russian in general is overwhelming (in 1979, 75.2% of the Evenkis spoke Russian, rising to 92.7% in 2002). Evenki children were forced to learn Russian at Soviet residential schools, and returned with a “poor ability to speak their mother tongue...". The Evenki language varies considerably among its dialects which are divided into three large groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects. These are further divided into minor dialects. A written language was created for Evenkis in the Soviet Union in 1931, first using a Latin alphabet, and from 1937 a Cyrillic one. In China, Evenki is written experimentally in the Mongolian script. The language is generally considered endangered.
The Evens (эвэн; pl. эвэсэл, evesel, in Even and эвены, evëny in Russian; formerly called Lamuts) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. They live in some of the regions of the Magadan Oblast and Kamchatka Krai and northern parts of Sakha east of the Lena River. According to the 2002 census, there were 19,071 Evens in Russia. According to the 2010 census, there were 22,383 Evens in Russia. They speak their own language called Even language, one of the Tungusic languages. The Evens are close to the Evenks by their origins and culture. Officially, they were considered to be of Orthodox faith since the 19th century, but the Evens managed to preserve different forms of non-Christian beliefs, such as shamanism. Traditional Even life is centred upon nomadic pastoralism of domesticated reindeer, supplemented with hunting, fishing and animal-trapping. There were 104 Evens in Ukraine, 19 of whom speaking Even. (Ukr. Cen. 2001)
Jurchen language (Chinese: 女真語; pinyin: Nǚzhēn Yǔ) is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th–13th centuries. It is ancestral to Manchu. In 1635 Hong Taiji renamed the Jurchen people and Jurchen language, "Manchu".
Kili (Kirin, Kila), known as Hezhe or more specifically Qileen (奇勒恩 Qílè'ēn) in Chinese and also as the Kur-Urmi dialect of Nanai, is a Tungusic language of Russia and China. Nanai is a Southern Tungusic language, and Kili has traditionally been considered one of the diverse dialects of Nanai, but it "likely belongs to the northern group".
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River.The Mohe constituted a major part of the population in the kingdom of Balhae, which lasted from the late 7th century to early 10th century. After the fall of Balhae, few historical traces of the Mohe can be found, though they are considered to be the primary ethnic group from whom the Jurchen people descended. The Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated. The Mohe practiced a sedentary agrarian lifestyle and were predominantly farmers who grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, supplemented by pig raising and hunting for meat. The Mohe were also known to have worn pig and dog skin coats.
The Nanai language (also called Gold, Goldi, or Hezhen) is spoken by the Nanai people in Siberia, and to a much smaller extent in China's Heilongjiang province, where it is known as Hezhe. The language has about 1,400 speakers out of 17,000 ethnic Nanai, but most (especially the younger generations) are also fluent in Russian or Chinese, and mostly use one of those languages for communication.
Negidal (also spelled Neghidal) is a language of the Tungusic family spoken in the Russian Far East, mostly in Khabarovskij Kraj, along the lower reaches of the Amur River. Negidal belongs to the Northern branch of Tungusic, together with Evenki and Even. It is particularly close to Evenki, to the extent that it is occasionally referred to as a dialect of Evenki.
The Oroch language is spoken by the Oroch people in Siberia. It is a member of the southern group of the Tungusic languages and is closely related to the Nanai language and Udege language. It is spoken in the Khabarovsk Krai (Komsomolsky, Sovetskaya Gavan, and Ulchsky districts). The language is split into three dialects: Tumninsky, Khadinsky, and Hungarisky. At the beginning of the 21st century, a written form of the language was created.
Orochs (Russian О́рочи), Orochons, or Orochis (self-designation: Nani) are a people of Russia that speak the Oroch (Orochon) language of the Southern group of Tungusic languages. According to the 2002 census there were 686 Orochs in Russia. According to the 2010 census there were 596 Orochs in Russia.
Orochs traditionally settled in the southern part of the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia and on the Amur and Kopp rivers. In the 19th century, some of them migrated to Sakhalin. In the early 1930s, the Orochi National District was created, but was cancelled shortly thereafter "due to lack of native population".
Because the people never had a written language, they were educated in the Russian language. Their language, Oroch, is on the verge of extinction. They follow Shamanism, the Russian Orthodox Church, and Buddhism.
Orok is the Russian name for the language known by its speakers as Uilta, Ulta, or Ujlta. Similarly, the people are called Oroks or Ulta. It is a Tungusic language. The language is spoken in the Poronaysky and Nogliksky Administrative Divisions of Sakhalin Oblast, in the Russian Federation.
According to the 2002 Russian census there were 346 Oroks living in Russia, of whom 64 were competent in Orok. By the 2010 census, that number had dropped to 47. Oroks also live on the island of Hokkaido in Japan, but the number of speakers is uncertain, and certainly small.There are two dialects of Orok: northern (east Sakhalin) and southern (poronaysky). The variety of the language spoken on the island of Hokkaido belongs to the southern dialect.
Orok is used conversationally in everyday situations by the members of the older generation. It is also the language of oral folk literature. Oroks also speak Russian.
An alphabetic script, based on Cyrillic, was introduced in 2007. A primer has been published, and the language is taught in one school on the island of Sakhalin.
Oroqen (also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun, Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect. It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heilongjiang in Northeast China.
Currently, the Oroqen language is still unwritten. However, the majority of the Oroqen are capable of reading and writing Chinese and some can also speak the Daur language.
The Oroqen people (simplified Chinese: 鄂伦春族; traditional Chinese: 鄂倫春族; pinyin: Èlúnchūn zú; Mongolian: Orčun; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. As of the 2000 Census, 44.54% of the Oroqen lived in Inner Mongolia and 51.52% along the Heilongjiang River (Amur) in the province of Heilongjiang. The Oroqen Autonomous Banner is also located in Inner Mongolia.
The Oroqens are mainly hunters, and customarily use animal fur and skins for clothing. Many of them have given up hunting and adhered to laws that aimed to protect wildlife in the People's Republic of China. The government is said to have provided modern dwellings for those who have left behind the traditional way of life. The Oroqen are represented in the People's Congress by their own delegate and are a recognized ethnic minority.
The Taz language (Russian: Тазкий язы́к or Tazkiy yazik) is a Sino-Tibetan language (according to some designations - a dialect) spoken by the Taz people, an ethnic group of mixed Sino-Manchu-Nanai-Udege origin living mainly in the Russian Far East.
The language is based primarily on the Northeastern dialect of Mandarin Chinese with some influences from local Tungusic languages such as Nanai and Udege.The 2010 Russian Census counted 274 Taz people living in Russia; however, the overwhelming majority of fluent speakers of Taz are elderly and Russian tends to be the primary language of the group in contemporary times.
The Udege language (also Udihe language, Udekhe language, Udeghe language) is the language of the Udege people. It is a member of the Tungusic family. A few older letters that were used in this language: Ж ж, З з, Љ љ, Ц ц, Ш ш, Щ щ, Ъ ъ, Ы ы, ‘Ы ‘ы, Ы̄ ы̄, Ы̂ ы̂, Ю ю, ‘Ю ‘ю, Ю̄ ю̄, Ю̂ ю̂, Я я, ‘Я ‘я, Я̄ я̄, Я̂ я̂
This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.