Tube-dwelling anemone

Tube-dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans. They are solitary, living buried in soft sediments. Tube anemones live inside and can withdraw into tubes, which are composed of a fibrous material made from secreted mucus and threads of nematocyst-like organelles known as ptychocysts. Ceriantharians were formerly classified in the taxon Ceriantipatharia along with the black corals[1] but have since been moved to their own subclass, Ceriantharia.

Ceriantharians have a crown of tentacles that are composed of two whorls of distinctly different sized tentacles. The outer whorl consists of large tentacles that extend outwards. These tentacles taper to points and are mostly used in food capture and defence. The smaller inner tentacles are held more erect than the larger lateral tentacles and are used for food manipulation and ingestion.[2]

A few species such as Anactinia pelagica are pelagic and are not attached to the bottom; instead, they have a gas chamber within the pedal disc, allowing them to float upside down near the surface of the water.[3][4]

Tube-dwelling anemones
Cerianthidae sp
Cerianthus sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Ceriantharia
Subgroups

See text.

Taxonomy

Order Spirularia
  • Family Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren, 1912[5]
    • Genus Angianthula Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Atractanthula Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Botruanthus McMurrich, 1910
    • Genus Botrucnidiata Leloup, 1932
    • Genus Botrucnidifer Carlgren, 1912
    • Genus Calpanthula van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Cerianthula Beneden, 1898
    • Genus Gymnanthula Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Hensenanthula van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Ovanthula van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Sphaeranthula Leloup, 1955
  • Family Cerianthidae Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1852[6]
    • Genus Anthoactis Leloup, 1932
    • Genus Apiactis van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Bursanthus Leloup, 1968
    • Genus Ceriantheomorphe Carlgren, 1931
    • Genus Ceriantheopsis Carlgren, 1912
    • Genus Cerianthus Delle Chiaje, 1830
    • Genus Engodactylactis Leloup, 1942
    • Genus Isodactylactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Nautanthus Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Pachycerianthus Roule, 1904
    • Genus Paradactylactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Parovactis Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Peponactis van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Plesiodactylactis Leloup, 1942
    • Genus Sacculactis Leloup, 1964
    • Genus Solasteractis van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Synarachnactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Syndactylactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Trichactis Leloup, 1964
Order Penicillaria[7]
  • Family Arachnactidae McMurrich, 1910
    • Genus Anactinia Annandale, 1909
    • Genus Arachnactis Sars, 1846
    • Genus Arachnanthus Carlgren, 1912
    • Genus Dactylactis van Beneden, 1897
    • Genus Isapiactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Isarachnactis Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Isarachnanthus Carlgren, 1924
    • Genus Isovactis
    • Genus Ovactis
    • Genus Paranactinia

References

  1. ^ Appeltans, Ward (2010). "Ceriantipatharia". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  2. ^ Brusca, R.C. & Brusca, G.J. 2002. Invertebrates Second Edition Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-097-3
  3. ^ Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 150–157. ISBN 0-03-056747-5.
  4. ^ Annandale, N. (1909). "A pelagic sea-anemone without tentacles". Records of the Indian Museum. 3 (10): 157–162.
  5. ^ Molodtsova, T. (2015). Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren, 1912. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2016-02-10.
  6. ^ Molodtsova, T. (2015). Cerianthidae. In: Fautin, Daphne G. (2011) Hexacorallians of the World. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2016-02-10
  7. ^ Tina Molodtsova (2011). "Penicilaria". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved January 20, 2012.

Hickman; et al. (2008), Integrated Principles of Zoology (14th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-297004-3

External links

Anemone (disambiguation)

Anemone may refer to:

Biology

Anemone, a synonym for a genus of sea anemones, Anemonia

Anemone, a genus of plants

Sea anemones, a type of marine invertebrate

Tube-dwelling anemone

Hippolytidae, anemone shrimpMusic

"Anemone", a song by the Brian Jonestown Massacre on their album Their Satanic Majesties' Second Request

"Anemone", a song by L'Arc-en-Ciel on their album Clicked Singles Best 13

"Anemone", a song by ClariS

"Anemone", a song by Band-Maid on their album World Domination

Anemone (band) is a neo-psychedelic quintet from Montréal, QuebecOther uses

Anemone, a French radar used in the Super Etendard Modernise and the Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha jet

Anemone (Eureka Seven), one of the characters in the anime series Eureka Seven

Anémone (born 1950), a French actress

Anémone Marmottan (born 1988), French World Cup alpine ski racer

USS Anemone, the name of more than one United States Navy ship

USS Anemone (1864), a steamer used by the Union Navy during the American Civil War

USS Anemone IV (SP-1290), a United States Navy patrol vessel in service from 1917 to 1919

Arachnanthus sarsi

Arachnanthus sarsi is a species of tube-dwelling anemone in the family Arachnactidae. This species is found in the North Atlantic in subtidal sand or muddy sand at depths of 15–130 m.

Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve

Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Portuguese: Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo) is a Biological reserve off the coast of the Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

Burrowing anemone

The burrowing anemone (Ceriantheopsis austroafricanus) is a species of tube-dwelling anemone in the family Cerianthidae.

Ceriantheopsis americana

Ceriantheopsis americana is a species of tube-dwelling anemone in the family Cerianthidae. It is a burrowing species and lives in deep sand or muddy sand in a long slender tube that it creates.

Cerianthus membranaceus

Cerianthus membranaceus, the cylinder anemone or coloured tube anemone, is a species of large, tube-dwelling anemone in the family Cerianthidae. It is native to the Mediterranean Sea and adjoining parts of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.

List of cnidarians of Ireland

There are 302 species of cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria) recorded in Ireland.The cnidarians' distinguishing feature is cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey. Their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance, sandwiched between two layers of epithelium that are mostly one cell thick. They have two basic body forms: swimming medusae and sessile polyps, both of which are radially symmetrical with mouths surrounded by tentacles that bear cnidocytes. Both forms have a single orifice and body cavity that are used for digestion and respiration. Many cnidarian species produce colonies that are single organisms composed of medusa-like or polyp-like zooids, or both (hence they are trimorphic).Cnidarians found in Ireland and Irish waters include sea pens, sea anemones, hydroids, sea jellies ("jellyfish") and corals.

Pachycerianthus fimbriatus

Pachycerianthus fimbriatus is a cerianthid anemone that burrows in substrate and lives in a semi-rigid tube made of felted nematocysts. The anemone is often seen in bright orange to red.

Like most anemones, the tube-dwelling anemone contains stinging cells or nematocytes along its tentacles, however, the cells are not toxic to humans.

Phoronis australis

Phoronis australis is a species of marine horseshoe worm in the phylum Phoronida. It is found in shallow warm-temperate and tropical waters in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Indo-Pacific region and was first detected in the Mediterranean Sea in the late twentieth century. These worms live in association with tube-dwelling anemones, particularly those in the genus Cerianthus.

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