Truck

A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful and may be configured to be mounted with specialized equipment, such as in the case of refuse trucks, fire trucks, concrete mixers, and suction excavators. Strictly speaking, a commercial vehicle without a tractor or other articulation is a "straight truck" while one designed specifically to pull a trailer is not a truck but a "tractor".[1]

Modern trucks are largely powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Canada, and Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t (7,700 lb) are known as light commercial vehicles, and those over as large goods vehicles.

Freightliner M2 106 6x4 2014 (14240376744)
Freightliner M2 dump truck
Road train-cropped
A road train in Australia
Liebherr T282
Liebherr T 282B mining truck
SNVI truck TC260
SNVI made in Algeria

History

Steam wagons

Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s. The roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, and 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.

Internal combustion

DMG-Lastwagen von 1896
Daimler Motor-Lastwagen from 1898

In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. Later that year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler.[2] Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, also built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors.[3]

Trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb (1.5 to 2 t). In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, and 25000 in 1914.

After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, and electric lighting followed. The first modern semi-trailer trucks also appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.

Diesel engines

Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923.[4] The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced diesel engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough that Autocar launched the "DC" model (diesel conventional) in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s.[5][6]

Etymology

Truck is used in American English, and is common in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Pakistan and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, and is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore, and India.

The word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos (τροχός), meaning "wheel", from trekhein (τρέχειν, "to run").

The first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901.[7][8]

"Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but probably has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck (a goods wagon as in British usage, not a bogie as in the American), specifically a large flat wagon. It probably derives from the verb lurry (to pull, tug) of uncertain origin. Its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911.[9][10] Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon.

International variance

In the United States, Canada, and the Philippines "truck" is usually reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, and includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is mostly reserved for larger vehicles; in Australia and New Zealand, a pickup truck is usually called a ute (short for "utility"),[11] while in South Africa it is called a bakkie (Afrikaans: "small open container"). In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Ireland and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.

Types by size

Ultra light

Often produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used typically for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, and parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets, generally as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle (licensable in the U.S. as a motorcycle).

Very light

Ashok Leyland Dost (1)
Ashok Leyland Dost in Tamil Nadu in India

Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles, usually with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs (in this case by Daihatsu) and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that often have very narrow alleyways.

Regardless of name, these small trucks serve a wide range of uses. In Japan, they are regulated under the Kei car laws, which allow vehicle owners a break in taxes for buying a smaller and less-powerful vehicle (currently, the engine is limited to 660 cc displacement). These vehicles are used as on-road utility vehicles in Japan. These Japanese-made mini trucks that were manufactured for on-road use are competing with off-road ATVs in the United States, and import regulations require that these mini trucks have a 25 mph (40 km/h) speed governor as they are classified as low speed vehicles.[12] These vehicles have found uses in construction, large campuses (government, university, and industrial), agriculture, cattle ranches, amusement parks, and replacements for golf carts.[13]

Major mini truck manufacturers and their brands:

Light

Dongfeng Rich II China 2016-04-07
Dongfeng pickup

Light trucks are car-sized (in the US, no more than 13,900 lb (6.3 t)) and are used by individuals and businesses alike. In the EU they may not weigh more than 3.5 t (7,700 lb), and are allowed to be driven with a driving licence for cars. Pickup trucks, called utes in Australia and New Zealand, are common in North America and some regions of Latin America, Asia and Africa, but not so in Europe, where this size of commercial vehicle is most often made as vans.

Medium

Fuso Canter 3C13, 8th Generation
Fuso Canter 3C13, 8th Generation in Spain.

Medium trucks are larger than light but smaller than heavy trucks. In the US, they are defined as weighing between 13,000 and 33,000 lb (5.9 and 15.0 t). For the UK and the EU the weight is between 3.5 to 7.5 t (7,700 to 16,500 lb). Local delivery and public service (dump trucks, garbage trucks and fire-fighting trucks) are normally around this size.

Heavy

Cement mixer
A cement mixer is an example of a Class 8 heavy truck
Borough of Hackney Seddon Atkinson Strato 325 8x4 Rubbish compactor, Apr 2009 - Flickr - sludgegulper
Seddon Atkinson Stratos refuse compactor
SNVI Truck B260frigo
SNVI refrigerator truck

Heavy trucks are the largest on-road trucks, Class 8. These include vocational applications such as heavy dump trucks, concrete pump trucks, and refuse hauling, as well as ubiquitous long-haul 4x2 and 6×4 tractor units.[14]

Road damage and wear increase very rapidly with the axle weight. The number of steering axles and the suspension type also influence the amount of the road wear. In many countries with good roads a six-axle truck may have a maximum weight of 44 t (97,000 lb) or more.

Off-road

An ALMA Antenna on the Move
ALMA antenna transporters are 20 m long, 10 m wide, weigh 130 t (290,000 lb) and drive on 28 tires.[15]

Off-road trucks include standard, extra heavy-duty highway-legal trucks, typically outfitted with off-road features such as a front driving axle and special tires for applications such as logging and construction, and purpose-built off-road vehicles unconstrained by weight limits, such as the Liebherr T 282B mining truck.

Maximum sizes by country

Australia has complex regulations over weight and length, including axle spacing, type of axle/axle group, rear overhang, kingpin to rear of trailer, drawbar length, ground clearance, as well as height and width laws. These limits are some of the highest in the world, a B-double can weigh 62.5 t (138,000 lb) and be 25 m (82 ft) long, and road trains used in the outback can weigh 172 t (379,000 lb) and be 53.5 m (176 ft) long.[16][17]

The European Union also has complex regulations. The number and spacing of axles, steering, single or dual tires, and suspension type all affect maximum weights. Length of a truck, of a trailer, from axle to hitch point, kingpin to rear of trailer, and turning radius are all regulated. In additions, there are special rules for carrying containers, and countries can set their own rules for local traffic.[18]

The United States Federal Bridge Law deals with the relation between the gross weight of the truck, the number of axles, the weight on and the spacing between the axles that the truck can have on the Interstate highway system.[19] Each State determines the maximum permissible vehicle, combination, and axle weight on state and local roads.

Country Maximum
with three axles
With one trailer Maximum combination
Australia[16][17] 23 t (50,700 lb) 12 m (39 ft) 172 t (379,000 lb)
53.5 m (176 ft)
China[20] 25 t (55,100 lb)
12 m (39 ft)
49 t (108,000 lb)
16.5 m (54 ft)
55 t (121,000 lb)
18.75 m (62 ft)
EU[18] 26 t (57,300 lb)
12 m (39 ft)
16.5 m (54 ft) 44 t (97,000 lb)
18.75 m (62 ft)
Ireland[21] 26 t (57,300 lb)
12 m (39 ft)
30 t (66,100 lb)
16.5 m (54 ft 2 in)
44 t (97,000 lb)
22 m (72 ft)
Sweden[22] 26 t (57,300 lb)
24 m (79 ft)
60 t (132,300 lb)
24 m (78 ft 9 in)
60 t (132,300 lb)
25.25 m (82.8 ft)
UK[23][24] 26 t (57,300 lb)
12 m (39 ft)
44 t (97,000 lb)
16 m (52 ft)
44 t (97,000 lb)
18.75 m (62 ft)
USA[25][26]
(Interstate)
54,000 lb (24.5 t)
45 ft (13.7 m)
80,000 lb (36.3 t)
none
80,000 lb (36.3 t)
none

Uniquely, the State of Michigan has a gross vehicle weight limit of 164,000 pounds (74,000 kg), which is twice the U.S. federal limit. Although it is contended that this is one reason why Michigan has the worst roads in the country[27] (along with lack of funding -- Michigan is dead last among the fifty states[A]), a measure to change the law was just defeated in the Michigan Senate.[30][31][32][33][34]

Design

Almost all trucks share a common construction: they are made of a chassis, a cab, an area for placing cargo or equipment, axles, suspension and roadwheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Pneumatic, hydraulic, water, and electrical systems may also be present. Many also tow one or more trailers or semi-trailers.

Cab

Scania R470 topline
Scania R 470 flat nose truck
Kenworth T2000, Kenworth Dealer Hall of Fame, 2015
Streamlined conventional cab
Kuwaiti BM-30 Smerch
Cab beside engine

The cab is an enclosed space where the driver is seated. A "sleeper" is a compartment attached to or integral with the cab where the driver can rest while not driving, sometimes seen in semi-trailer trucks.

There are several possible cab configurations:

  • "Cab over engine" (COE) or "flat nose"; where the driver is seated above the front axle and the engine. This design is almost ubiquitous in Europe, where overall truck lengths are strictly regulated, but also widely used in the rest of the world as well. They were common in North American heavy duty trucks, but lost prominence when permitted length was extended in the early 1980s. Nevertheless, this design is still popular in North America among medium and light duty trucks. To reach the engine, the whole cab tilts forward, earning this design the name of "tilt-cab". This type of cab is especially suited to the delivery conditions in Europe where many roads follow the layout of much more ancient paths and trackways which require the additional turning capability given by the short wheelbase of the cab over engine type.[35] The COE design was invented by Viktor Schreckengost.[36]
  • Conventional cabs are the most common in North America and Australia, and are known in the UK as "American cabs" and in the Netherlands as "torpedo cabs". The driver is seated behind the engine, as in most passenger cars or pickup trucks. Many new cabs are very streamlined, with a sloped hood and other features to lower drag.
  • Cab beside engine designs also exist, but are rather rare and are mainly used inside shipping yards, or other specialist uses that require the vehicle to carry long loads such as pipes, metal rods, flat iron and other construction materials. This type is often custom made from a regular cabover truck that gets the upper half of its cab removed on the passenger side and replaced by an extended section of the bed.

A further step from this is the side loading forklift that can be described as a specially fabricated vehicle with the same properties as a truck of this type, in addition to the ability to pick up its own load.

Engines and motors

Cummins Engine (LKW)
Cummins ISB 6.7L medium duty truck diesel engine

Most small trucks such as sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or pickups, and even light medium-duty trucks in North America, China, and Russia use gasoline engines (petrol engines), but many diesel engined models are now being produced. Most of the heavier trucks use four-stroke diesel engines with a turbocharger and intercooler. Huge off-highway trucks use locomotive-type engines such as a V12 Detroit Diesel two stroke engine. Diesel engines are becoming the engine of choice for trucks ranging from class 3 to 8 GVWs. A large proportion of refuse trucks in the United States employ CNG (compressed natural gas) engines for their low fuel cost and reduced carbon emissions.

A significant proportion of North American manufactured trucks use an engine built by the last remaining major independent engine manufacturer (Cummins) but most global OEMs such as Volvo Trucks and Daimler AG promote their own "captive" engines.[37]

In the European Union, all new truck engines must comply with Euro VI emission regulations.[38]

As of 2019 several alternative technologies are competing to displace the use of diesel engines in heavy trucks. CNG engines are widely used in the US refuse industry and in concrete mixers, among other short-range vocations, but range limitations have prevented their broader uptake in freight hauling applications. Heavy electric trucks and hydrogen-powered trucks are still in the prototype and field-testing stages, although media reports indicate that there is substantial interest in them from major freight haulers.[39][40]

Drivetrain

Rear axles tandem
A truck rear suspension and drive axles overview
Eaton Autoshift
Eaton Roadranger 18 speed "crash box" with automated gearshift

Small trucks use the same type of transmissions as almost all cars, having either an automatic transmission or a manual transmission with synchromesh (synchronizers). Bigger trucks often use manual transmissions without synchronizers, saving bulk and weight, although synchromesh transmissions are used in larger trucks as well. Transmissions without synchronizers, known as "crash boxes", require double-clutching for each shift, (which can lead to repetitive motion injuries), or a technique known colloquially as "floating", a method of changing gears which doesn't use the clutch, except for starts and stops, due to the physical effort of double clutching, especially with non-power-assisted clutches, faster shifts, and less clutch wear.

Double-clutching allows the driver to control the engine and transmission revolutions to synchronize, so that a smooth shift can be made; for example, when upshifting, the accelerator pedal is released and the clutch pedal is depressed while the gear lever is moved into neutral, the clutch pedal is then released and quickly pushed down again while the gear lever is moved to the next higher gear. Finally, the clutch pedal is released and the accelerator pedal pushed down to obtain required engine speed. Although this is a relatively fast movement, perhaps a second or so while transmission is in neutral, it allows the engine speed to drop and synchronize engine and transmission revolutions relative to the road speed. Downshifting is performed in a similar fashion, except the engine speed is now required to increase (while transmission is in neutral) just the right amount in order to achieve the synchronization for a smooth, non-collision gear change. "Skip changing" is also widely used; in principle operation is the same as double-clutching, but it requires neutral be held slightly longer than a single-gear change.

Common North American setups include 9, 10, 13, 15, and 18 speeds. Automatic and semi-automatic transmissions for heavy trucks are becoming more and more common, due to advances both in transmission and engine power. In Europe, 8, 10, 12 and 16 gears are common on larger trucks with manual transmission, while automatic or semi-automatic transmissions would have anything from 5 to 12 gears. Almost all heavy truck transmissions are of the "range and split" (double H shift pattern) type, where range change and so‑called half gears or splits are air operated and always preselected before the main gear selection.

Frame

A truck chassis section
A truck rear frame (chassis) section view
ToyotaTundraChassis
Pickup truck frame (right rear view)

A truck frame consists of two parallel boxed (tubular) or C‑shaped rails, or beams, held together by crossmembers. These frames are referred to as ladder frames due to their resemblance to a ladder if tipped on end. The rails consist of a tall vertical section (two if boxed) and two shorter horizontal flanges. The height of the vertical section provides opposition to vertical flex when weight is applied to the top of the frame (beam resistance). Though typically flat the whole length on heavy duty trucks, the rails may sometimes be tapered or arched for clearance around the engine or over the axles. The holes in rails are used either for mounting vehicle components and running wires and hoses, or measuring and adjusting the orientation of the rails at the factory or repair shop.

The frame is usually made of steel, but can be made (whole or in part) of aluminum for a lighter weight. A tow bar may be found attached at one or both ends, but heavy tractors almost always make use of a fifth wheel hitch.

Body types

Refrigerator trucks have insulated panels as walls and a roof and floor, used for transporting fresh and frozen cargo such as ice cream, food, vegetables, and prescription drugs. They are mostly equipped with double-wing rear doors, but a side door is sometimes fitted.

Box trucks ("tilts" in the UK) have walls and a roof, making an enclosed load space. The rear has doors for unloading; a side door is sometimes fitted.[41]

Concrete mixers have a rotating drum on an inclined axis, rotating in one direction to mix, and in the other to discharge the concrete down chutes. Because of the weight and power requirements of the drum body and rough construction sites, mixers have to be very heavy duty.[42][43]

Dump trucks ("tippers" in the UK) transport loose material such as sand, gravel, or dirt for construction. A typical dump truck has an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and lifts at the front, allowing the material in the bed to be unloaded ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck.[44][45]

Flatbed trucks have an entirely flat, level platform body. This allows for quick and easy loading but has no protection for the load. Hanging or removable sides are sometimes fitted.[46]

Semi-tractors ("artics" in the UK) have a fifth wheel for towing a semi-trailer instead of a body.

Tank trucks ("tankers" in the UK) are designed to carry liquids or gases. They usually have a cylindrical tank lying horizontally on the chassis. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of liquids and gases that can be transported.[47]

Wreckers ("recovery lorries" in the UK) are used to recover and/or tow disabled vehicles. They are normally equipped with a boom with a cable; wheel/chassis lifts are becoming common on newer trucks.[48][49][50]

Sales and sales issues

Truck market worldwide

Largest non-American truck manufacturers in the world as of 2015.
Pos. Make Units
1 Daimler AG (Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner, Unimog, Western Star, Fuso, BharatBenz) 506,663[51]
2 Navistar International 359,000[52]
3 Dongfeng 336,869[53]
4 Tata 317,780[54]
5 Volvo Group (Volvo, Mack, Renault, UD Nissan) 207,475[55]
6 Volkswagen Group (MAN, Scania, Caminhões e Ônibus) 179,035[56]
7 Hino 162,870[57]
8 Paccar (DAF, Kenworth, Peterbilt, Leyland) 154,700[58]
9 Iveco 140,200[59]

Driving

In many countries, driving a truck requires a special driving license. The requirements and limitations vary with each different jurisdiction.

Australia

Inside Mack Granite
Inside a Mack truck

In Australia, a truck driver's license is required for any motor vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM) exceeding 4.5 t (9,900 lb). The motor vehicles classes are further expanded as:

Combination
  • HC: Heavy Combination, a typical prime mover plus semi-trailer combination.
  • MC: Multi Combination, e.g., B Doubles/road trains
Rigid
  • LR: Light rigid: a rigid vehicle with a GVM of more than 4.5 t (9,900 lb) but not more than 8 t (17,600 lb). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (20,000 lb) GVM.
  • MR: Medium rigid: a rigid vehicle with 2 axles and a GVM of more than 8 t (17,600 lb). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (20,000 lb) GVM. Also includes vehicles in class LR.
  • HR: Heavy Rigid: a rigid vehicle with three or more axles and a GVM of more than 8 t (18,000 lb). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (20,000 lb) GVM. Also includes articulated buses and vehicles in class MR.
Heavy vehicle transmission

There is also a heavy vehicle transmission condition for a license class HC, HR, or MC test passed in a vehicle fitted with an automatic or synchromesh transmission; a driver's license will be restricted to vehicles of that class fitted with a synchromesh or automatic transmission. To have the condition removed, a person needs to pass a practical driving test in a vehicle with non-synchromesh transmission (constant mesh or crash box).[60]

Europe

Mercedes-Benz LKW Lenkrad
Inside a Mercedes-Benz truck

Driving licensing has been harmonized throughout the European Union (and practically all European non-member states), so that common rules apply within Europe (see European driving licence). As an overview, to drive a vehicle weighing more than 7.5 t (16,500 lb) for commercial purposes requires a specialist license (the type varies depending on the use of the vehicle and number of seats). For licenses first acquired after 1997, that weight was reduced to 3.5 t (7,700 lb), not including trailers.

India

There are around 5 million truck drivers in India.[61]

South Africa

To drive any vehicle with a GVM exceeding 3.5 t (7,700 lb), a code C1 drivers license is required. Furthermore, if the vehicle exceeds 16 t (35,300 lb) a code C license becomes necessary.

To drive any vehicle in South Africa towing a trailer with a GVM more than 7.5 t (16,500 lb), further restrictions apply and the driver must possess a license suitable for the GVM of the total combination as well as an articulated endorsement. This is indicated with the letter "E" prefixing the license code.

In addition, any vehicle designed to carry goods or passengers may only be driven by a driver possessing a Public Driver's Permit, (or PrDP) of the applicable type. This is an additional license that is added to the DL card of the operator and subject to annual renewal unlike the five-year renewal period of a normal license.

The requirements for obtaining the different classes are below.

  • "G": Required for the transport of general goods, requires a criminal record check and a fee on issuing and renewal.
  • "P": Required for the transport of paying passengers, requires a more stringent criminal record check on, additionally the driver must be over the age of 21 at time of issue. A G class PrDP will be issued at the same time.
  • "D": Required for the transport of dangerous materials, requires all of the same checks as class P. In addition the driver must be over 25 at time of issue.

United States

Truck cab
Inside a Navistar 9000

In the United States, a commercial driver's license is required to drive any type of commercial vehicle weighing 26,001 lb (11.8 t) or more.[62] The federal government regulates how many hours a driver may be on the clock, how much rest and sleep time is required (e.g., 11 hours driving/14 hours on-duty followed by 10 hours off, with a maximum of 70 hours/8 days or 60 hours/7 days, 34 hours restart )[63] Violations are often subject to significant penalties. Instruments to track each driver's hours must sometimes be fitted. In 2006, the US trucking industry employed 1.8 million drivers of heavy trucks.[64] There is a shortage of willing trained long distance truck drivers.[65]

Part of the reason for the shortage is the economic fallout from deregulation of the trucking industry. Michael H. Belzer is an internationally recognized expert on the trucking industry, especially the institutional and economic impact of deregulation.[66] He is an associate professor, in the economics department at Wayne State University. He is the author of Sweatshops on Wheels: Winners and Losers in Trucking Deregulation (Oxford University Press, 2000).[67] His major opus was critically well received. Low pay, bad working conditions and unsafe conditions have been a direct result of deregulation. "[This book] argues that trucking embodies the dark side of the new economy."[68] "Conditions are so poor and the pay system so unfair that long-haul companies compete with the fast-food industry for workers. Most long-haul carriers experience 100% annual driver turnover.[69] As the Atlanta Journal-Constitution wrote: "The cabs of 18-wheelers have become the sweatshops of the new millennium, with some truckers toiling up to 95 hours per week for what amounts to barely more than the minimum wage. [This book] is eye-opening in its appraisal of what the trucking industry has become."[66]

Environmental impact

Truck.car.transporter.arp.750pix
DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer carrying Škoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales

Trucks contribute to air, noise, and water pollution similarly to automobiles. Trucks may emit lower air pollution emissions than cars per equivalent vehicle mass, although the absolute level per vehicle distance traveled is higher, and diesel exhaust is especially dangerous for health.[70] EPA measures pollution from trucks.[71] With respect to noise pollution, trucks emit considerably higher sound levels at all speeds compared to typical cars; this contrast is particularly strong with heavy-duty trucks.[72] There are several aspects of truck operations that contribute to the overall sound that is emitted. Continuous sounds are those from tires rolling on the roadway, and the constant hum of their diesel engines at highway speeds. Less frequent noises, but perhaps more noticeable, are things like the repeated sharp-pitched whistle of a turbocharger on acceleration, or the abrupt blare of an exhaust brake retarder when traversing a downgrade. There has been noise regulation put in place to help control where and when the use of engine braking retarders are allowed.

Concerns have been raised about the effect of trucking on the environment, particularly as part of the debate on global warming, so many countries are lowering limits on truck CO2 emissions.[73]

According to a 1995 U.S. government estimate, the energy cost of carrying one ton of freight a distance of one kilometer averages 337 kJ for water, 221 kJ for rail, 2,000 kJ for trucks, and nearly 13,000 kJ for air transport.[74] Many environmental organizations favor laws and incentives to encourage the switch from road to rail, especially in Europe.[75]

The European Parliament is moving to ensure that charges on heavy-goods vehicles should be based in part on the air and noise pollution they produce and the congestion they cause, according to legislation approved by the Transport Committee.[76] The Eurovignette scheme has been proposed, whereby new charges would be potentially levied against things such as noise and air pollution and also weight related damages from the lorries themselves.[77]

A 60-ton tractor & trailer at 80 km/h needs 168 kW : 41% (68 kW) to overcome the rolling resistance, 38% (64 kW) for the aerodynamic drag, 9% (15 kW) for the auxiliaries, 7% (12 kW) for the driveline & tire and 6% (10 kW) is lost in uphill/downhill hysteresis.[78]

Operator health and safety

Truck cab filters
Truck cab filter housing using a contiguous series of pre-, HEPA, and charcoal panel filters

A truck cab is a hazard control that protects the truck operator from hazardous airborne pollutants. As an enclosure, it is an example of an engineering control. Enclosed operator cabs have been used on agriculture, mining, and construction vehicles for several decades. Most modern day enclosed cabs have heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for primarily maintaining a comfortable temperature and providing breathable air for their occupants. Various levels of filtration can be incorporated into the HVAC system to remove airborne pollutants such as dusts, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and other aerosols.[79]

Two key elements of an effective environmental enclosure are a good filtration system and an enclosure with good integrity (sealed isolation from the outside environment). It is recommended that a filtration system filter out at least 95% or greater of airborne respirable aerosols from the intake airflow, with an additional recirculation filtering component for the inside air. Good enclosure integrity is also needed to achieve positive pressure to prevent wind-driven aerosol penetration into the enclosure, as well as to minimize air leakage around the filtration system. Test methods and mathematical modeling of environmental enclosures are also beneficial for quantifying and optimizing filtration system designs, as well as maintaining optimum protection factor performance for enclosure occupants.[79]

Operations issues

Taxes

Commercial trucks in the US pay higher road use taxes on a state level than other road vehicles, and are subject to extensive regulation.[80] A few reasons commercial trucks pay higher road use taxes: they are bigger and heavier than most other vehicles, and cause more wear and tear per hour on roadways; and trucks and their drivers are on the road for more hours per day. Rules on use taxes differ among jurisdictions.

Damage to pavement

The life of a pavement is measured by the number of passes of a vehicle axle. It may be evaluated using the Load Equivalency Factor,[81] which states that the damage by the pass of a vehicle axle is proportional to the 4th power of the weight, so a ten-ton axle consumes 10,000 times the life of the pavement as a one-ton axle. For that reason, loaded trucks cost the same as thousands of cars in pavement costs, and are subject to higher taxes and highway tolls.[31][32]

Commercial insurance

Primary liability insurance coverage protects the truck from damage or injuries to other people as a result of a truck accident. This truck insurance coverage is mandated by U.S. state and federal agencies, and proof of coverage is required to be sent to them. Interstate trucks in the U.S. are required to have a minimum of $75,000 in liability insurance. This includes motor carriers operating vehicles with a gross weight rating in excess of 10,000 lb (4.5 t) (which transport non-hazardous materials). All motor carriers operating vehicles transporting materials classified as hazardous, and which have a gross weight rating in excess of 10,000 lb (4.5 t) must have a minimum of $1,000,000 in liability insurance. All motor carriers operating vehicles such as hopper-type cargo vehicles or tankers with a capacity in excess of 3,500 US gal (13,000 l) must have a minimum of $5,000,000 in liability insurance. Pricing is dependent on region, driving records, and history of the trucking operation.

Motor truck cargo insurance protects the transporter for his responsibility in the event of damaged or lost freight. The policy is purchased with a maximum load limit per vehicle. Cargo insurance coverage limits can range from $10,000 to $100,000 or more. Pricing for this insurance is mainly dependent on the type of cargo being hauled.

Trucking accidents

Elst (Overbetuwe) 2012-03-23 Trucking accident (1)
Trucking accident at Elst (Netherlands) 2012-03-23

In 2002 and 2004, there were over 5,000 fatalities related to trucking accidents in the United States. The trucking industry has since made significant efforts in increasing safety regulations. In 2008 the industry had successfully lowered the fatality rate to just over 4,000 deaths. But trucking accidents are still an issue that causes thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Approximately 6,000 trucking accident fatalities occur annually in the United States. Fatalities are not the only issue caused by trucking accidents. Here are some of the environmental issues that arise with trucking accidents:

  • 14.4% of trucking accidents cause cargo to spill
  • 6.5% cause open flames

Following increased pressure from The Times "Cities Fit For Cycling" campaign and from other media in Spring 2012, warning signs are now displayed on the backs of many HGVs. These signs are directed against a common type of accident which occurs when the large vehicle turns left at a junction: a cyclist trying to pass on the nearside can be crushed against the HGV's wheels, especially if the driver cannot see the cyclist. The signs, such as the winning design of the InTANDEM road safety competition launched in March 2012, advocate extra care when passing a large vehicle on the nearside.

Truck shows

Volvo FH at a Yorkshire event
Custom truck at a Yorkshire truck show

In the UK, three truck shows are popular – Shropshire Truck Show[82] at Oswestry Showground during May, The UK Truck Show held in June at Santa Pod Raceway, and FIA European Drag Racing Championships from the home of European Drag-Racing. The UK Truck Show features drag-racing with 6-tonne trucks from the British Truck Racing Association, plus other diesel-powered entertainment.

In Mexico, the ANPACT Autotransporte – Truck Show is well known as one of the biggest of the region; 2013 edition features trucker celebrity Lisa Kelly.

Truck shows provide operators with an opportunity to win awards for their trucks.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ It is to be noted that Michigan has some of the highest gas prices, but that those taxes are not spent on highways, but are diverted into the state's general fund.[27][28][29]

Citations

  1. ^ https://www.trucking.org/ATA%20Docs/What%20We%20Do/Image%20and%20Outreach%20Programs/STR/Trucking%20Glossary.pdf
  2. ^ "Truck History". About.com. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  3. ^ "Autocar, Always up, Our History". Autocar, LLC. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Debut of diesel engines in tractors and trucks". Daimler AG. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  5. ^ Davies, Peter J. (2000). The World Encyclopedia of Trucks. Lorenz Books. pp. 20–21, 114, 118, 160, 204. ISBN 0-7548-0518-2.
  6. ^ Motor's Truck and Diesel Repair Manual (26 ed.). Motor. 1973. pp. 530, 1035. ISBN 0-910992-16-9.
  7. ^ "Truck" Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  8. ^ "Truck" Online Etymology Dictionary 16 September 2010
  9. ^ "Lorry" Online Etymology Dictionary 16 September 2010
  10. ^ "Lorry" Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  11. ^ "The First Ute". ABC – Radio Australia. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  12. ^ "49CFR571". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  13. ^ http://www.best-used-tractors.com/mini_truck.html
  14. ^ "Chapter 3. HEAVY TRUCKS – Center for Transportation" (PDF) cta.ornl.gov 20 August 2015
  15. ^ "An ALMA Antenna on the Move". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Heavy Vehicle (Mass, Dimension and loading) National Regulation Schedule 1 (NSW)". New South Wales Government. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  17. ^ a b "Heavy Vehicle (Mass, Dimension and loading) National Regulation Schedule 6 (NSW)". New South Wales Government. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  18. ^ a b "Council Directive 96/53/EC laying down for certain road vehicles circulating within the Community the maximum authorized dimensions in national and international traffic and the maximum authorized weights in international traffic". EUR-Lex. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Freight Management and Operations: Bridge Formula Weights". US Department of Transportation. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  20. ^ Harborn, Mats; Feng, Feng; Xu, Tommy (2013). "Chinese Road Transport Mass and Dimensions Regulations – An Analysis of the Challenges Ahead". road-transport-technology.org. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  21. ^ "Guidelines on Maximum Weights and Dimensions" (PDF). Ireland Road Safety Authority. February 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  22. ^ "Trafikförordningen". Riksdagen. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  23. ^ "Moving goods by road". HM (UK) Revenue & Customs. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  24. ^ "A Guide to Haulage & Courier Vehicle Types & Weights" (PDF). Returnloads.net. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  25. ^ "Federal Size Regulations for Commercial Motor Vehicles". US Department of Transportation. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  26. ^ "Compilation of Exixting State Truck Size and Weight Limit Laws". US Department of Transportation. May 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  27. ^ a b Egan, Paul (13 March 2018). "Does your body ache from hitting potholes? 5 reasons Michigan has lousy roads". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  28. ^ Anderson, Bill (17 August 2018). "Michigan's Road Spending: How do we stack up?". Southeast Michigan Council of Governments. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  29. ^ Haddad, Ken (22 February 2018). "Pothole questions: Why are Ohio's roads better than Michigan's roads? MDOT points to lack of funding compared to Ohio". Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  30. ^ Oosting, Jonathhan (2 December 2014). "Michigan road funding: Proposal to cut truck weight limits fails in state Senate". MLive. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  31. ^ a b Chatti, K. (February 2009). "Effect of Michigan Multi-Axle Trucks on Pavement Distress" (PDF). Michigan DOT and Michigan State University, Final Report, Executive Summary, Project RC-1504.
  32. ^ a b "Pavement Comparative Analysis Technical Report Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. 15 June 2015.
  33. ^ Egan, Paul (19 April 2019). "Experts weigh in on how much Michigan's heavy trucks damage the state's roads". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  34. ^ Egan, Paul (1 March 2019). "Fixing Michigan's crumbling roads: What about the heavy trucks?". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  35. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 58–61.
  36. ^ Bernstein, Adam (29 January 2008). "Viktor Schreckengost; Designed Bicycles, Dinnerware and More". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  37. ^ Operators Handbook-DM, DMM, U Series. Mack Trucks. 1988. pp. 62–64.
  38. ^ "EU: Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines". DieselNet. November 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  39. ^ "Want a Nikola hydrogen-electric truck? You will have to wait". FreightWaves. 17 April 2019.
  40. ^ https://electrek.co/2019/01/11/tesla-semi-order-electric-trucks-europe/
  41. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 30–31.
  42. ^ "Concrete Mixers (company site)". McNeilus. 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  43. ^ "Truck Mixers Summary (Sales Brocure)" (PDF). Stetter. 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  44. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 34–35.
  45. ^ "Dump Truck Operator Manual" (PDF). Galion-Godwin Truck Body Co. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  46. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 28–29.
  47. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 32–33.
  48. ^ Davies (2000), pp. 46–47.
  49. ^ "HDR 70/85 Wrecker Operations and Maintenance Manual" (PDF). Jerr-Dan. 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  50. ^ "Owner's Manual 820 Wrecker/FIIIT" (PDF). Miller Industries. 1997. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  51. ^ "Annual Report 2015". Daimler. 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  52. ^ "Form 10K Navistar International Corp". US Securities and Exchange Commission. 2016. p. 48. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  53. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Dongfeng. 2016. p. 10. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  54. ^ "70th Annual Report 2015-2015" (PDF). Tata. 2016. p. 53. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  55. ^ "Annual and Sustainability Report 2015" (PDF). Volvo. 2016. p. 91. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  56. ^ "Annual Report 2015" (PDF). Volkswagen. 2016. p. 98. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  57. ^ "Financial Reports for the Fiscal Year Ending" (PDF). Hino Motors. 2016. p. 25. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  58. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). PACCAR. 2016. p. 28. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  59. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). CNH. 2016. p. 60. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  60. ^ "South Australia License class information". Gov't of South Australia. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  61. ^ "Indian Truckers Strike to Protest Against Fuel Price Hike". Deutsche Welle. 2 July 2008.
  62. ^ "Commercial Drivers License". National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  63. ^ "Hours of Service Rules". US Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  64. ^ "Truck Drivers and Drivers/Sales Workers". Occupational Outlook Handbook. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 18 December 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
  65. ^ Morris, Frank (11 February 2019). "Facing A Critical Shortage Of Drivers, The Trucking Industry Is Changing" (Audio). Morning edition. National Public Radio. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  66. ^ a b "Sweatshops on Wheels". Oxford University Press. July 2000. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  67. ^ Belzer, Michael H. (24 August 2000). Sweatshops on Wheels: Winners and Losers in Trucking Deregulation (Hardcover). Oxford University Press, USA. p. 272. ISBN 0-19-512886-9. ISBN 978-0-19-512886-4.
  68. ^ "Sweatshops on Wheels," U.S. News and World Report.
  69. ^ "Sweatshops on Wheels." The Washington Post
  70. ^ "Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines". dieselnet.com. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  71. ^ Average In-Use Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (PDF), page 4–5. EPA, 2008
  72. ^ C. Michael Hogan (1973). "Analysis of highway noise". Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 387–392. doi:10.1007/BF00159677.
  73. ^ "EU countries agree to 30 percent cut in truck CO2 emissions". Reuters. 20 December 2018.
  74. ^ "U.S. Domestic Freight Transportation". United States Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  75. ^ "How Government policy can realize rail freight's role in reducing carbon emissions". FreightOnRail.org.uk. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  76. ^ MEPs push for green tolls Last retrieved 11-02-09
  77. ^ European Parliament discuss Eurovignette scheme Last retrieved 10-02-09
  78. ^ Nils-Olof Nylund (2013). "Vehicle energy efficiencies" (PDF). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
  79. ^ a b Organiscak, J.; Cecala, A.; Hall, R. (June 2018). "Design, Testing, and Modeling of Environmental Enclosures for Controlling Worker Exposure to Airborne Contaminants". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  80. ^ "Trucking Industry Operating Taxes State of Georgia". Retrieved 18 August 2006.
  81. ^ "Road wear from heavy vehicles – an overview" (PDF). NVF committee Vehicles and Transports. August 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  82. ^ "Shropshire Truck Show". shropshiretruckshow. Retrieved 20 August 2015.

External links

2019 NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series

The 2019 NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series is the 25th season of the third highest stock car racing series sanctioned by NASCAR in North America. It marks the transition of the series' corporate sponsor from Camping World to its subsidiary Gander Outdoors.

Bogie

A bogie ( BOH-ghee) (in some senses called a truck in North American English) is a chassis or framework that carries a wheelset, attached to a vehicle—a modular subassembly of wheels and axles. Bogies take various forms in various modes of transport. A bogie may remain normally attached (as on many railway carriages [cars] and semi-trailers) or be quickly detachable (as the dolly in a road train or in railway bogie exchange); it may contain a suspension within it (as most rail and trucking bogies do), or be solid and in turn be suspended (as most bogies of tracked vehicles are); it may be mounted on a swivel, as traditionally on a railway carriage or locomotive, additionally jointed and sprung (as in the landing gear of an airliner), or held in place by other means (centreless bogies).

While bogie is the preferred spelling and first-listed variant in various dictionaries, bogey and bogy are also used.

Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and then detonated.

Car bombs can be roughly divided into two main categories; those used primarily to kill the occupants of the vehicle (often as an assassination); and those used as a means to kill, injure or damage people and buildings outside the vehicle. The latter type may be either parked (the vehicle disguising the bomb and allowing the bomber to get away), or the vehicle might be used to deliver the bomb (often as part of a suicide bombing).

It is commonly used as a weapon of terrorism or guerrilla warfare to kill people near the blast site or to damage buildings or other property. Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a relatively large amount of explosives without attracting suspicion; in larger vehicles and trucks, weights of around 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg) or more have been used, for example, in the Oklahoma City bombing. Car bombs are activated in a variety of ways, including opening the vehicle's doors, starting the engine, depressing the accelerator or brake pedals or simply lighting a fuse or setting a timing device. The gasoline in the vehicle's fuel tank may make the explosion of the bomb more powerful by dispersing and igniting the fuel.

Chevrolet Silverado

The Chevrolet Silverado, and its mechanically identical cousin the GMC Sierra, are a series of full-size and heavy-duty pickup trucks manufactured by General Motors and introduced in 1998 as the successor to the long-running Chevrolet C/K line. The Silverado name was taken from a trim level previously used on its predecessor, the Chevrolet C/K pickup truck from 1975 through 1998. General Motors continues to offer a GMC-badged variant of the Chevrolet full-size pickup under the GMC Sierra name, first used in 1987 for its variant of the GMT400 platform trucks.

The heavy-duty trucks are informally referred to as "Silverado HD" (and Sierra HD), while the light-duty version is referred simply to as "Silverado" (and Sierra). Perennially one of the best-selling vehicles in the United States, almost 12 million Silverados have been sold since its introduction.

Fire engine

A fire engine (also known in some territories as a fire truck or fire appliance) is a vehicle designed primarily for firefighting operations. The terms "fire engine" and "fire truck" are often used interchangeably; however in some fire departments/fire services they refer to separate and specific types of vehicle.

The primary purposes of a fire engine include transporting firefighters to an incident scene, providing water with which to fight a fire, and carrying other equipment needed by firefighters. Specialized apparatus are used to provide hazardous materials mitigation and technical rescue. A typical modern fire engine will carry tools for a wide range of firefighting tasks, with common equipment including a pump, a water tank, hoses, ground ladders, hand tools, self-contained breathing apparatuses, BLS (basic life support) equipment, and first aid kits.

Many fire vehicles are based on standard vehicle models (although some parts may be upgraded to cope with the demands of the vehicles' usage). They are normally fitted with audible and visual warnings, as well as communication equipment such as two-way radios and mobile computer technology.

Ford F-Series

In production since 1948, the F-Series includes full-size pickup trucks, chassis cab trucks, and commercial vehicles. As of 2019 production, the Ford F-Series includes the F-150 pickup, Class 3-5 Super Duty trucks (F-250 through F-550), and the Class 6-8 Super Duty trucks (F-650, F-750). The most popular version of the F-Series is the F-150, now in its thirteenth generation.

The F-Series has been the best-selling pickup truck in the United States since 1977 and the best-selling vehicle since 1986; it is also the best selling vehicle in Canada. As of the 2018 model year, the F-Series generates $41 billion in annual revenue for Ford, making the brand more valuable than Coca-Cola and Nike.In 1999, to bridge the gap between its pickup line and its medium-duty trucks, Ford introduced the F-250 and F-350 as Super Duty trucks. Considered an expansion of the F-Series, the Super Duty line is built on a distinct chassis architecture with heavier-duty components. In 2000, the Super Duty range was expanded to include Ford medium-duty trucks.

At various times, Ford has marketed the F-Series across all three of its divisions in North America. Mercury sold the F-Series as the M-Series from 1948 to 1968 in its Canadian sales network (alongside the Econoline and medium-duty trucks); during the 2000s, Lincoln sold the Blackwood and later the Mark LT.

Forklift

A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances. The forklift was developed in the early 20th century by various companies, including Clark, which made transmissions, and Yale & Towne Manufacturing, which made hoists. Since World War II, the use and development of the forklift truck have greatly expanded worldwide. Forklifts have become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing. In 2013, the top 20 manufacturers worldwide posted sales of $30.4 billion, with 944,405 machines sold.

GMC (automobile)

General Motors Company (GMC), formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM) that primarily focuses on trucks and utility vehicles. GMC sells pickup and commercial trucks, buses, vans, military vehicles, and sport utility vehicles marketed worldwide by General Motors. In North America, GMC dealerships are almost always also Buick dealerships, allowing the same dealer to market both upmarket cars and upmarket trucks.

List of Autobots

This is a list of known Autobots in the Transformers fictional universe and toy line. The alternate modes of Autobots are usually cars, trucks, and various other ground-based civilian vehicles, to contrast with the military vehicles favored by the Decepticons (see List of Decepticons).

NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series

The NASCAR Gander Outdoors Truck Series (NGOTS) is a pickup truck racing series owned and operated by the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, and is the only series in all of NASCAR to race modified production pickup trucks. The series is one of three national divisions of NASCAR, ranking as the third tier behind the second-tier NASCAR Xfinity Series and the top level Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. Camping World was the title sponsor from 2009 to 2018; it replaced Craftsman, who served in that role from 1996 through 2008.The series was previously called the NASCAR SuperTruck Series in 1995, the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series from 1996 through 2008, and the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series from 2009 through 2018.

Pickup truck

A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, and by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. Today in North America, the pickup is mostly used as a passenger car and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States.Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, Ford, and FCA's Ram, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production. The vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more.The term pickup is of unknown origin. It was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" (hyphenated) had become the standard term. In Australia and New Zealand, "ute", short for utility vehicle, is used for both pickups and coupé utilities. In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for bowl/container, due to the cargo area's similarities with a bowl.

Ram Pickup

The Ram pickup (formerly the Dodge Ram pickup) is a full-size pickup truck manufactured by FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group LLC) and marketed as of 2011 onwards under the Ram Trucks brand. The current fifth-generation Ram debuted at the 2018 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan in January of that year.

Previously, Ram was part of the Dodge line of light trucks. The name Ram was first used in 1932–1954 Dodge Trucks, then returned on the redesigned 1981 Ram and Power Ram, following the retiring and rebadging of the Dodge D Series pickup trucks as well as B-series vans.

Ram trucks have been named Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year six times; the second-generation Ram won the award in 1994, the third-generation Ram Heavy Duty won the award in 2003, the fourth-generation Ram Heavy Duty won in 2010 and the fourth-generation Ram 1500 won in 2013 and 2014, and the current fifth-generation Ram 1500 won in 2019.

Semi-trailer truck

A semi-trailer truck (more commonly semi truck or simply "semi") is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth-wheel coupling (hitch), with much of its weight borne by the tractor. The result is that both the tractor and semi-trailer will have a design distinctly different from that of a rigid truck and trailer.

It is variously known as a transport in Canada; semi or single in Australia and New Zealand; semi, tractor-trailer, big rig, or eighteen-wheeler in the United States; and articulated lorry, abbreviated artic, in the United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand.

Skateboard

A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used primarily for the sport of skateboarding. It usually consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood.

A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can also be used by simply standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy;" if the rider's leading foot is their left foot, they are said to ride "regular." If the rider is normally regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is typically more comfortable pushing with their back foot; choosing to push with the front foot is commonly referred to as riding "mongo", and has negative connotations of style and effectiveness in the skateboarding community.

Recently, electric skateboards have also appeared. These no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet; rather an electric motor propels the board, fed by an electric battery.

There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled. Historically, the skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends largely upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with a longer wheelbase and larger, softer wheels.

The two main types of skateboards are the longboard and the shortboard. The shape of the board is also important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are usually faster and are mostly used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are mostly used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks.

Sport utility vehicle

Sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a category of motor vehicles that combine elements of road-going passenger cars with features from off-road vehicles, such as raised ground clearance and four-wheel drive.

There is no commonly agreed definition of an SUV, and usage varies between countries. Some definitions claim that an SUV must be built on a light truck chassis; however, broader definitions consider any vehicle with off-road design features to be an SUV. Crossover SUV is defined as an SUV built with a unibody construction (as per passenger cars), however in many cases crossovers are simply referred to as SUVs. In some countries—such as the United States—SUVs have been classified as "light trucks", resulting in more lenient regulations compared to passenger cars.

The predecessors to SUVs date back to military and low-volume models from the late 1930s, and the four-wheel drive station wagons and carryalls that began to be introduced in 1949. The 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is considered to be the first SUV in the modern style. Most SUVs produced today use unibody construction (as per passenger cars); however, in the past many SUVs used body-on-frame construction.

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the popularity of SUVs greatly increased, often at the expense of the popularity of large sedans and station wagons. More recently, smaller SUVs, mid-size and crossovers have become increasingly popular. SUVs are currently the world's largest automotive segment and accounted for 36.8% of the world's passenger car market in 2017.

Tata Motors

Tata Motors Limited, formerly Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is a part of Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate. Its products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses, sports cars, construction equipment and military vehicles.Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpur, Pantnagar, Lucknow, Sanand, Dharwad, and Pune in India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa, Great Britain and Thailand. It has research and development centres in Pune, Jamshedpur, Lucknow, and Dharwad, India and in South Korea, Great Britain and Spain. Tata Motors' principal subsidiaries purchased the English premium car maker Jaguar Land Rover (the maker of Jaguar and Land Rover cars) and the South Korean commercial vehicle manufacturer Tata Daewoo. Tata Motors has a bus-manufacturing joint venture with Marcopolo S.A. (Tata Marcopolo), a construction-equipment manufacturing joint venture with Hitachi (Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery), and a joint venture with Fiat Chrysler which manufactures automotive components and Fiat Chrysler and Tata branded vehicles.

Founded in 1945 as a manufacturer of locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969. Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1988 with the launch of the TataMobile followed by the Tata Sierra in 1991, becoming the first Indian manufacturer to achieve the capability of developing a competitive indigenous automobile. In 1998, Tata launched the first fully indigenous Indian passenger car, the Indica, and in 2008 launched the Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car. Tata Motors acquired the South Korean truck manufacturer Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company in 2004 and purchased Jaguar Land Rover from Ford in 2008.

Tata Motors is listed on the (BSE) Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, the National Stock Exchange of India, and the New York Stock Exchange. The company is ranked 226th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016.On 17 January 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman of the company Tata Group. Tata Motors increases its UV market share to over 8% in FY2019.

Toyota Hilux

The Toyota Hilux (Japanese: トヨタ・ハイラックス, Toyota Hairakkusu) (also stylized as HiLux and historically as Hi-Lux) is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. The majority of these vehicles were sold as pickup truck or cab chassis variants, although they could be configured in a variety of body styles. Most countries used the Hilux name for the entire life of the series, but in North America, the Hilux name was retired in 1976 in favor of Truck, Pickup Truck, or Compact Truck. In North America, the popular option package, the SR5 (Sport Rally 5-Speed), was colloquially used as a model name for the truck, even though the option package was also used on other Toyota models, like the 1972 to 1979 Corolla. In 1984, the Toyota Trekker, the camper version of the Hilux, was renamed the 4Runner in Australia and North America, and the Hilux Surf in Japan. In 1995, Toyota introduced a new pickup model, the Tacoma, in North America, thus discontinuing the Hilux/Pickup. The 4Runner is now a full SUV, and the more recent models of the Hilux are separate in appearance from the Tacoma.

Truck driver

A truck driver (commonly referred to as a trucker, teamster or driver in the United States and Canada; a truckie in Australia and New Zealand; a lorry driver, or driver in Ireland, the United Kingdom, India, Nepal and Pakistan) is a person who earns a living as the driver of a truck (usually a semi truck, box truck or dump truck).

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.