Tropical savanna climate

Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As". Tropical savanna climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and typically a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having less than 60 mm (2.36 inches) of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. [1]:200–1

This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical monsoon climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but has more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. In essence, a tropical savanna climate tends to either see less rainfall than a tropical monsoon climate or have more pronounced dry season(s).

In tropical savanna climates, the dry season can become severe, and often drought conditions prevail during the course of the year. Tropical savanna climates often feature tree-studded grasslands, rather than thick jungle. It is this widespread occurrence of tall, coarse grass (called savanna) which has led to Aw and As climates often being referred to as tropical savanna. However, there is some doubt whether tropical grasslands are climatically induced. Additionally, pure savannas, without trees, are the exception rather than the rule.

Koppen-Geiger Map Aw present
Worldwide zones of Tropical savanna climate (Aw/As).

Versions

There are generally four types of tropical savanna climates:

  • Distinct wet and dry seasons of relatively equal duration. Most of the region's annual rainfall is experienced during the wet season and very little precipitation falls during the dry season.
  • A lengthy dry season and a relatively short wet season. This version features seven or more dry season months and five or fewer wet season months. There are variations within this version:
    • On one extreme, the region receives just enough precipitation during the short wet season to preclude it from a semi-arid climate classification. This drier variation of the tropical savanna climate is typically found adjacent to regions with semi-arid climates.
    • On the other extreme, the climate features a lengthy dry season followed by a short but extremely rainy wet season. However, regions with this variation of the climate do not experience enough rainfall during the wet season to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate.
  • A lengthy wet season and a relatively short dry season. This version features seven or more wet season months and five or fewer dry season months. This version's precipitation pattern is similar to precipitation patterns observed in some tropical monsoon climates, but does not experience enough rainfall during the wet season to be classified as such.
  • A dry season with a noticeable amount of rainfall followed by a rainy wet season. In essence, this version mimics the precipitation patterns more commonly found in a tropical monsoon climate, but do not receive enough precipitation during either the dry season or the year to be classified as such.

Distribution

Tropical savanna climates are most commonly found in Africa, Asia and northern South America. The climate is also prevalent in sections of Central America, northern Australia, the Pacific Islands, in sections of Mexico and some islands in the Caribbean. Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Similarly, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the ColombiaPanamá border to the Orinoco river delta, on the Atlantic Ocean (ca. 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months). This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the Circumcaribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon river—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco river llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days often due to a rain shadow effect that cuts off summer precipitation in a tropical area. This is the case in parts of Hawaii, East Africa (Mombasa, Kenya, Somalia), Sri Lanka (Trincomalee) and coastal regions of Northeastern Brazil (from Fortaleza through Natal to Maceió), for instance. The difference between 'summer' and 'winter' in such locations is usually so slight that a distinction between an As and Aw climate is a quibble. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of reduction of or lack of convection, which in turn is due to the meridional shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the course of the year.

Some examples of tropical savanna climates

Accra, Ghana
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC Weather[2]
Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic
Climate chart (explanation)
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33
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31
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA[3]
Brasília, Brazil
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service [1]
Darwin, Australia
Climate chart (explanation)
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424
 
 
32
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371
 
 
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33
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70
 
 
33
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142
 
 
33
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252
 
 
33
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology [2]
Mandalay, Myanmar
Climate chart (explanation)
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A
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4
 
 
29
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32
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36
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40
 
 
38
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138
 
 
37
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116
 
 
34
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83
 
 
34
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136
 
 
32
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150
 
 
33
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125
 
 
32
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38
 
 
30
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6
 
 
28
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

See also

References

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. ^ "Average Conditions Accra, Ghana". BBC Weather. May 2011. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
  3. ^ "Station Name: MONTE CRISTI ... Country: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC". NOAA.
Burgabo

Burgabo (Somali: Buur Gaabo) is a port town in Lower Jubba province in southern Somalia near the border with Kenya. Other names and variants of the town include Berikau, Bircao, Birikao, Birikau, Bur Gabo, Bur Gao, Bur Gavo, Hohenzollernhafen, Port Dunford, Port Durnford and Wubushi.

Burgabo lies at the mouth of the Burgabo River and is connected via a dirt road to Kamboni, the southernmost town in Somalia, 55 kilometres (34 mi) away at the Kenyan border. The connections with the sparsely populated inland and towards the north consist of barely accessible paths. The district capital Badhaadhe lies 43 kilometres (27 mi) to the northwest. Offshore are reefs and the Bajuni Islands, which extend northeastward to Kismayo.

On the northern edge of the town, there are extensive charcoal storage sites; charcoal is produced in the hinterland and exported from Burgabo to the Arabian Peninsula via dhow. This export is banned by the United Nations Security Council because the Islamic terror group Al-Shabaab is financed by the proceeds.Burgabo has a tropical savanna climate with an average annual temperature of 27.2 °C. The hottest month is April with an average of 28.8 °C; the coolest month is July, averaging 25.6 °C. The annual precipitation amounts to approximately 474 millimetres (18.7 in). The dry season is from January to March, followed by a rainy season from April to July. After that, rainfall regularly falls with a small peak in October. The wettest month is May when there is then about 130 millimetres (5.1 in), more than a quarter of the annual total. The annual fluctuations can also be considerable.

Chemax Municipality

Chemax Municipality (In the Yucatec Maya Language: “monkey's tree") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (1,098.6 km2) of land and located roughly 185 km east of the city of Mérida.

Climate of Venezuela

The Climate of Venezuela is characterized for being tropical and isothermal as a result of its geographical location near the Equator, but because of the topography and the dominant wind direction, several climatic types occur which can be the same as found in temperate latitudes, and even polar regions. Latitude exerts little influence on the Venezuelan climate, but the altitude changes it dramatically, particularly the temperature, reaching values very different according to the presence of different thermal floors.

Déressia

Déressia is a settlement in the Tandjilé region of Chad, situated 285 km (177 mi) southeast of N'Djamena. In 2009, the population of Déressia was 50,113, which included 24,173 males and 25,940 females.

Déressia is classified by Köppen-Geiger climate classification system as tropical savanna climate (Aw).

El Remate, Peten

El Remate is a rural village located on the eastern tip of Lake Petén Itzá in Petén, Guatemala, Central America. It has a population of approximately 2,000 and a tropical savanna climate.El Remate means "the end" in Spanish, and likely refers to the pointed eastern end of the lake, which is 32 km. (20 miles) long and 5 km (3 miles) wide.

The village is located on Ruta 3, the sole road from the town of Flores to the major Mayan archaeological site of Tikal and is a popular stop for tourists. A much less visited local Mayan ruin site is Ixlu. Businesses in El Remate include small eco-friendly hotels, small workshops that sell handmade wood carvings, and boat trips on the lake. The Biotopo Protegido Cerro Cahuí is a protected nature preserve that offers birdwatching opportunities, monkey sightings, lookouts over the lake, and nature walks.Two kilometers south of El Remate village is El Cruce, the intersection where the Ruta 3 road meets CA13, the other major road in northern Guatemala. CA13 connects El Remate to Melchor de Mencos on the border of Belize.

Eleele, Hawaii

ʻEleʻele (literally, "black" or "black water" in Hawaiian) is a census-designated place (CDP) on the island of Kauaʻi in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States, with the ZIP code of 96705. Glass Beach, that is made of sea glass, is a local attraction. The population was 2,390 at the 2010 census, up from 2,040 at the 2000 census.

Gicumbi District

Gicumbi is a district (akarere) in Northern Province, Rwanda. Its capital is Byumba, which is also the provincial capital.

Kadassa River

Kadassa River (Indonesian: Luku Kadahang) is a river of Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Kadumbul River

Kadumbul River is a river of Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Los Santos Province

Los Santos (Spanish pronunciation: [los ˈsantos]) is a province of Panama, reaching from the La Villa river in the North to the Pacific Ocean in the south and east. It is part of Azuero Peninsula, bounded by province of Herrera to the north and northeast and Mariato district in Veraguas to the West. The City of Las Tablas is the capital and most populous city; seven other districts of Los Santos, Guararé, Las Tablas, Macaracas, Pedasi, Pocrí and Tonosí are under the jurisdiction of Los Santos Province Governorate. Los Santos' area is 3 809.4 km ², and its population is about 89,592 inhabitants.

In this region are the oldest human settlements in the Isthmus of Panama. It was part of the cultural region of Gran Cocle where one of the first ceramic styles of the Americas developed. The first Europeans to explore Los Santos were the Spanish in 1515 under the command of Gonzalo de Badajoz. Upon the arrival of Europeans the area was ruled by the cacique Antataura or Cutara, and was known as the Land of Mr. Paris or Parita from Ngäbere Bari-ta meaning Confederation of Peoples, having under his control six other Indian chiefdoms: Guararí, Quemá, Chiracoitia, Huere, Guanata and Usagaña. The only province that was not under his dominion was Escoria. Gaspar de Espinosa succeeded in conquering and annexing Pariba to the Spanish Empire in 1516, decimating nearly all of the native population.

Geographically, Los Santos is located in the 'Arco Seco', name given to the strip of land between the Gulf of Panama and the Central Mountain range which includes areas of the provinces of Coclé, Herrera and Veraguas in the south of the Isthmus of Panama. Its climate is mainly a tropical savanna climate with moderate temperatures, strongly influenced by the winds of the Pacific Ocean crashing against the mountains, and the Humboldt Current. The average annual rainfall is 1,200 mm, allowing the growth of either dry or humid rainforest. Its highest point is located at the peak of Cerro Hoya with 1559 metres. Other major peaks are Cambutal hill (1400 metres) and Mount The Ñopos (1068 metres).

The modern province of Los Santos, was created in January 1945 replacing the defunct province of Azuero according to Cabinet Decree No. 13, leaving its territorial regime regulated by the second chapter of the Law 58 of July 29, 1998, losing the Territory of Quebro in this process.

Although Los Santos closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Panama, and the vast majority of the population speaks Spanish, the province has retained a distinct cultural identity. Los Santos' culture is the result of the passage of different peoples and civilizations that, over time, have shaped a particular cultural identity. These people, some very different from each other, have been slowly leaving an imprint seated among the inhabitants. It is one of the last regions in Panama where Spanish voseo is the standard form for use.

Melolo River

Melolo River is a river of Sumba, Indonesia.

Moyo River

Moyo River is a river of Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, about 1200 km east of capital Jakarta.

Museo de Sabanero

The Museo de Sabanero is a museum in Liberia, Costa Rica, founded in 1990 by an executive decree issued by President Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier. The museum focuses on cowboy culture in Northwest Costa Rica, as Liberia was historically known for raising livestock. Liberia and the surrounding region have a tropical savanna climate, noticeably drier than the rest of the country, which supports cattle ranching. The museum is located in the Casa de Culture, a colonial-era house. The museum has a notable collection of lassos and saddleware (including many decorated saddles), spurs, and lanterns, given that the majority of Guanacastecos make a living as cowboys with their Brahman cattle.

Northern Thailand

Northern Thailand is geographically characterised by several mountain ranges, which continue from the Shan Hills in bordering Myanmar to Laos, and the river valleys which cut through them. Though like most of Thailand, it has a tropical savanna climate, its relatively high elevation and latitude contribute to more pronounced seasonal temperature variation, with cooler winters than the other regions. Historically it is related to the Lanna Kingdom and its culture.

Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Tropical monsoon climate

An area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64.4 °F) in every month of the year. Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af (or tropical rainforest climate) and Aw (or tropical savanna climate).

A tropical monsoon climate, however, has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm, but more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of average monthly precipitation. This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of average monthly precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.

Ukobu

Ukobu is a village in Onicha Agu is a village in Nkanu East local government area of Enugu State in the south eastern region of Nigeria. The population, originally fishermen and farmers, is approximately 5,000 people.Ukobu is located about 200 metres (660 ft) above the sea level in a tropical rainforest with a derived savanna and a tropical savanna climate. The soil is well drained during its rainy seasons. The mean temperature in the hottest month of February is about 31 °C (88 °F), while the lowest temperatures occur in the month of November, reaching 16 °C (61 °F). The lowest rainfall of about 0.2 cubic centimetres (0.012 cu in) is normal in February, while the highest is about 36 cubic centimetres (2.2 cu in) in July.

Wera River

Wera River (Wae Wera) is a river of Flores, East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, about 1500 km east of the capital Jakarta.

Ziguinchor

Ziguinchor (also called Zinguinchor) is the capital of the Ziguinchor Region, and the chief town of the Casamance area of Senegal, lying at the mouth of the Casamance River. It has a population of over 230,000 (2007 estimate). It is the second largest city of Senegal, but largely separated from the north of the country by The Gambia.

The city has a tropical savanna climate, with an average annual accumulated rainfall of 1547mm (about 61 inches).

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.6
 
 
87
73
 
 
1.3
 
 
88
75
 
 
2.2
 
 
88
76
 
 
3.2
 
 
88
76
 
 
5.6
 
 
87
75
 
 
7
 
 
84
74
 
 
1.8
 
 
81
74
 
 
0.6
 
 
80
71
 
 
1.4
 
 
81
73
 
 
2.5
 
 
85
74
 
 
1.4
 
 
87
75
 
 
0.9
 
 
88
75
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.9
 
 
84
67
 
 
1.9
 
 
85
67
 
 
1.9
 
 
86
68
 
 
2.3
 
 
87
70
 
 
2.4
 
 
89
72
 
 
1.6
 
 
92
73
 
 
0.8
 
 
92
74
 
 
1.1
 
 
93
74
 
 
1.4
 
 
93
73
 
 
2.7
 
 
91
72
 
 
4.3
 
 
87
70
 
 
3.3
 
 
85
68
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
9.5
 
 
80
63
 
 
8.5
 
 
80
63
 
 
7.4
 
 
81
64
 
 
4.9
 
 
80
62
 
 
1.5
 
 
78
59
 
 
0.3
 
 
77
56
 
 
0.5
 
 
77
55
 
 
0.5
 
 
81
58
 
 
2
 
 
83
61
 
 
6.8
 
 
82
63
 
 
9.4
 
 
80
64
 
 
9.8
 
 
79
64
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
17
 
 
89
77
 
 
15
 
 
89
76
 
 
12
 
 
89
76
 
 
4
 
 
91
75
 
 
0.9
 
 
90
72
 
 
0.1
 
 
87
68
 
 
0
 
 
87
67
 
 
0.2
 
 
89
69
 
 
0.6
 
 
91
73
 
 
2.8
 
 
92
77
 
 
5.6
 
 
92
78
 
 
9.9
 
 
91
78
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
83
56
 
 
0.1
 
 
90
59
 
 
0
 
 
96
67
 
 
1.6
 
 
101
76
 
 
5.4
 
 
98
78
 
 
4.6
 
 
94
78
 
 
3.3
 
 
94
78
 
 
5.4
 
 
90
77
 
 
5.9
 
 
92
77
 
 
4.9
 
 
90
74
 
 
1.5
 
 
86
67
 
 
0.2
 
 
83
59
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E
Temperate seasons
Tropical seasons
Specific

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