Tropical rainforest climate

A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and has at least 60 mm (2.4 inches) of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot, very humid and wet.

Koppen-Geiger Map Af present
Worldwide zones of Tropical rainforest climate (Af).

Description

Tropical rain forests have a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season—all months have an average precipitation value of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). In rain forest climates the dry season is very short, and rainfall is normally heavy throughout the year. One day in a tropical rain forest climate can be very similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. [1]

Distribution

Rainbow Jungle
Upland rain forest in Borneo. Sabah, Malaysia

A tropical rain forest climate is usually found at latitudes within 15 degrees North and South of the equator, which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The climate is most commonly found in South America, Central Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania. These rain forests are uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year. Locations in Oceania, areas along the coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Belize, parts of Central Africa, and much of Indonesia have this type of climate.

When tropical rain forest climates are more dominated by the ITCZ than the trade winds (and with no or rare cyclones), so usually located near the equator, they are also called equatorial climates. Otherwise, when they are more dominated by the trade winds than the ITCZ, they are called tropical trade-wind climates. In the last case there are a number of instances where this climate is found some distance away from the equator. For instance, Santos, Brazil and West Palm Beach, Florida are not only far removed from the equator, but are actually located just outside the tropics. Both cities feature a tropical trade-wind rainforest climate, with noticeably cooler and warmer periods of the year.

Examples

Western Samoa
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
450
 
 
30
23
 
 
380
 
 
29
24
 
 
350
 
 
30
23
 
 
250
 
 
30
23
 
 
260
 
 
29
23
 
 
120
 
 
29
23
 
 
80
 
 
29
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80
 
 
28
23
 
 
130
 
 
28
23
 
 
170
 
 
29
23
 
 
260
 
 
30
23
 
 
370
 
 
29
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1]
Paramaribo, Suriname
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
200
 
 
30
22
 
 
140
 
 
30
22
 
 
150
 
 
30
22
 
 
210
 
 
31
22
 
 
290
 
 
30
23
 
 
290
 
 
31
22
 
 
230
 
 
31
22
 
 
170
 
 
32
23
 
 
90
 
 
32
23
 
 
90
 
 
33
23
 
 
120
 
 
32
23
 
 
180
 
 
30
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [2]
Mbandaka, DR Congo
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
80
 
 
31
19
 
 
100
 
 
32
20
 
 
150
 
 
32
20
 
 
140
 
 
31
20
 
 
130
 
 
31
20
 
 
110
 
 
30
19
 
 
100
 
 
30
17
 
 
100
 
 
29
17
 
 
200
 
 
30
19
 
 
210
 
 
30
19
 
 
190
 
 
30
19
 
 
120
 
 
30
19
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [3]
Biak, Indonesia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
250
 
 
29
25
 
 
240
 
 
28
25
 
 
250
 
 
29
25
 
 
200
 
 
29
25
 
 
250
 
 
29
25
 
 
230
 
 
29
25
 
 
250
 
 
28
25
 
 
240
 
 
29
25
 
 
220
 
 
29
25
 
 
180
 
 
29
25
 
 
190
 
 
30
25
 
 
230
 
 
29
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [4]
Kuching, Malaysia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
466
 
 
30
23
 
 
445
 
 
29
23
 
 
465
 
 
30
23
 
 
251
 
 
32
23
 
 
347
 
 
33
24
 
 
310
 
 
32
23
 
 
184
 
 
31
23
 
 
326
 
 
32
23
 
 
208
 
 
32
23
 
 
307
 
 
32
23
 
 
482
 
 
32
24
 
 
516
 
 
30
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Monthly Statistical Bulletin Sarawak
Quibdó, Colombia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
579
 
 
30
23
 
 
505
 
 
30
23
 
 
526
 
 
30
23
 
 
655
 
 
31
23
 
 
776
 
 
31
23
 
 
762
 
 
31
23
 
 
803
 
 
31
23
 
 
852
 
 
31
23
 
 
702
 
 
31
23
 
 
654
 
 
30
23
 
 
728
 
 
30
23
 
 
589
 
 
30
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [5]

See also

References

  1. ^ McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 205–8. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
Basankusu Territory

Basankusu Territory is an administrative division of Équateur Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The headquarters is the town of Basankusu.Being slightly more than 1° north of the Equator, Basankusu has a tropical rainforest climate. There is no real dry season, with monthly rainfall in the town ranging between averages of 69 mm and 213 mm, with most months at the higher end of that range. Average high temperatures over a year are between 30 °C and 33 °C, although throughout the day a high of 37 °C is not uncommon. Evening lows average around 20 °C.Basankusu territory is divided into 3 sectors

Waka-Bokeka, with 15 groupings of 110 villages

Basankusu, with 11 groupings of 96 villages

Gombalo, with 13 groupings of 117 villages

Climate of Colombia

The Climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical and isothermal as a result of its geographical location near the Equator presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall. Each region maintains an average temperature throughout the year only presenting variables determined by precipitation during a rainy season caused by the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

Gadis River

Gadis River (Indonesian: Batang Gadis, means: Virgin River) is a river in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

Jamboaye River

Jamboaye River is a river in the province of Aceh, in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1600 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Kluet River

Kluet River is a river in the province of Aceh, in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1500 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Kualu River

Kualu River is a river in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1600 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.As Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, his main climate groups are based on what types of vegetation grow in a given climate classification region. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a given region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within that region.The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).

Mandau River

Mandau River is a river in Riau province of central Sumatra island, Indonesia, about 1000 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

It is a tributary of the Siak River.

Mesuji River

Mesuji River is a river in Lampung province, Sumatra island, Indonesia, about 250 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Paris Zoological Park

The Paris Zoological Park (parc zoologique de Paris), formerly known as the Bois de Vincennes Zoological Park (French pronunciation: ​[bwɑ d‿vɛ̃sɛn]), and commonly called the Vincennes Zoo, is a facility of the National Museum of Natural History, located in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, which covers an area of 14.5 hectares (36 acres) in the bois de Vincennes. Designed to complement the Ménagerie du Jardin des plantes, this zoo is dedicated to the observation of animal behavior in a more suitable environment. Since its opening in 1934, it is remarkable for its large artificial 65 m (213 ft) high rock, iconic scenery of the park, visible from afar and popularly called the "Big Rock". This zoo include a greenhouse of 4,000 m2 (43,000 sq ft) sheltering a tropical rainforest climate.

The zoo was closed between 30 November 2008 and 12 April 2014 after becoming dilapidated and too small for its residents, according to criteria of the twenty-first century. The renovation, which began on 7 December 2011, took place over nearly two and a half years. The pens have been fully reviewed and grouped into five major natural environments (called biozones). The work allowed them to reach modern standards for animal welfare, public safety and museology, with increased attention to the respect of the environment.

Porto Grande

For São Vicente's main port, see Porto Grande, Cape Verde

Porto Grande (Portuguese: Grand Harbor) is a municipality located in the southeast of the state of Amapá in Brazil. Its population is 19,669 and its area is 4,425 km².It has a tropical rainforest climate with a short dry season. The Annual Pineapple Festival is a popular tourist attraction.

The municipality contains 7.72% of the 2,369,400 hectares (5,855,000 acres) Amapá State Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit established in 2006.

Sekampung River

Sekampung River is a river in Lampung province, southern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 130 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Serang

Serang municipality (Indonesian: Kota Serang, Sundanese: ᮞᮨᮛᮌ᮪) is the capital of Banten province and was formerly also the administrative center of Serang Regency in Indonesia (the Regency's capital is now at Baros). The city is located towards the north of Banten province, on the island of Java. Before Banten province was formed in 2000 Serang was part of West Java province.

Serang has a tropical rainforest climate, with no dry season month. It faces the Java Sea, which is home to Thousand Islands.

Serang was reported as having a population of 576,961 in the 2010 census, making it the third most populous city in the province of Banten. The latest official population estimate is 666,600 (2017) . Serang is located approximately 15 km from the border of Jabodetabek and sometimes considered as amalgamated with the Greater Jakarta.

Silau River

Silau River is a river in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1300 km northwest of the capital Jakarta. It is a tributary of Asahan River.

Tamiang River

Tamiang River is a river in the province of Aceh, northern Sumatra, Indonesia, about 1500 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Teunom River

Teunom River is a river in northern Sumatra, in the province of Aceh, Indonesia, about 1700 km northeast of the capital Jakarta.

Tripa River

Tripa River is a river in the province of Aceh, northern Sumatra island, Indonesia, about 1600 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.

Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are typically frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates, the temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Tropical monsoon climate

An area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and a dry season. Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af (or tropical rainforest climate) and Aw (or tropical savanna climate).

A tropical monsoon climate, however, has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm, but more than

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of average monthly precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
18
 
 
86
73
 
 
15
 
 
84
75
 
 
14
 
 
86
73
 
 
9.8
 
 
86
73
 
 
10
 
 
84
73
 
 
4.7
 
 
84
73
 
 
3.1
 
 
84
73
 
 
3.1
 
 
82
73
 
 
5.1
 
 
82
73
 
 
6.7
 
 
84
73
 
 
10
 
 
86
73
 
 
15
 
 
84
73
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
7.9
 
 
86
72
 
 
5.5
 
 
86
72
 
 
5.9
 
 
86
72
 
 
8.3
 
 
88
72
 
 
11
 
 
86
73
 
 
11
 
 
88
72
 
 
9.1
 
 
88
72
 
 
6.7
 
 
90
73
 
 
3.5
 
 
90
73
 
 
3.5
 
 
91
73
 
 
4.7
 
 
90
73
 
 
7.1
 
 
86
72
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.1
 
 
88
66
 
 
3.9
 
 
90
68
 
 
5.9
 
 
90
68
 
 
5.5
 
 
88
68
 
 
5.1
 
 
88
68
 
 
4.3
 
 
86
66
 
 
3.9
 
 
86
63
 
 
3.9
 
 
84
63
 
 
7.9
 
 
86
66
 
 
8.3
 
 
86
66
 
 
7.5
 
 
86
66
 
 
4.7
 
 
86
66
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
9.8
 
 
84
77
 
 
9.4
 
 
82
77
 
 
9.8
 
 
84
77
 
 
7.9
 
 
84
77
 
 
9.8
 
 
84
77
 
 
9.1
 
 
84
77
 
 
9.8
 
 
82
77
 
 
9.4
 
 
84
77
 
 
8.7
 
 
84
77
 
 
7.1
 
 
84
77
 
 
7.5
 
 
86
77
 
 
9.1
 
 
84
77
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
18
 
 
87
73
 
 
18
 
 
84
74
 
 
18
 
 
87
73
 
 
9.9
 
 
90
74
 
 
14
 
 
91
74
 
 
12
 
 
89
73
 
 
7.2
 
 
88
74
 
 
13
 
 
89
73
 
 
8.2
 
 
90
74
 
 
12
 
 
89
74
 
 
19
 
 
89
74
 
 
20
 
 
87
74
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
23
 
 
86
73
 
 
20
 
 
86
74
 
 
21
 
 
87
74
 
 
26
 
 
87
74
 
 
31
 
 
88
74
 
 
30
 
 
88
73
 
 
32
 
 
88
73
 
 
34
 
 
88
73
 
 
28
 
 
87
73
 
 
26
 
 
87
73
 
 
29
 
 
86
73
 
 
23
 
 
85
73
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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