Tropical cyclone warnings and watches

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

Western hemisphere

Hurricane Warning
Hurricane conditions
expected within 36 hours.
Hurricane Watch
Hurricane conditions
possible within 48 hours.
Tropical Storm Warning
Tropical storm conditions expected within 36 hours.
Tropical Storm Watch
Tropical storm conditions possible within 48 hours.
Hurricane Lane warning (29254459177)
Emergency alert issued for the Big Island about the message of hurricane warning during Hurricane Lane.

New tropical cyclone position and forecast information is available at least every twelve hours in the Southern Hemisphere and at least every six hours in the Northern Hemisphere from Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers.[1][2][3][4][5] In conjunction with the National Hurricane Center, the national meteorological and hydrological services of Central America, the northern Atlantic Ocean, and the northeastern Pacific Ocean east of the 140th meridian west, excluding mainland Africa and Europe, all issue tropical storm/hurricane watches and warnings.[6] Tropical storm watches are issued when gale and storm force winds of between 34–63 knots (39–73 mph; 63–118 km/h) are possible, within 48 hours in a specified area in association with a tropical, subtropical or post-tropical cyclone.[7] These watches are upgraded to tropical storm warnings, when gale and storm force winds become expected to occur somewhere in the warning area within 36 hours.[7] Hurricane watches are issued when sustained winds of 64 knots (74 mph; 119 km/h) are possible, within 48 hours in a specified area in association with a tropical, subtropical or post-tropical cyclone.[7] These warnings are upgraded to hurricane warnings, when hurricane-force winds become expected to occur somewhere in the warning area within 36 hours.[7]

Because hurricane preparedness activities become difficult once winds reach tropical storm force, the hurricane watch and warnings are issued in advance of the anticipated onset of tropical-storm-force winds, rather than in advance of the anticipated onset of hurricane-force winds.[7] At times a tropical storm warning and a hurricane watch can both be in effect due to uncertainties in the forecast. These watches and warnings are also issued by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center for the Hawaiian Islands and the Weather Forecast Office in Guam for parts of Micronesia but not for American Samoa due to an international agreement.[8]

Within the United States an extreme wind warning is issued by the National Weather Service for any land areas that are expected to be impacted by a major (Category 3 or higher) hurricane and by sustained surface winds greater than or equal to 100 knots (115 mph; 185 km/h).[8] The warning is issued just prior to when the strongest winds of the eyewall are expected to impact an area.[9] The warning is to be issued for the smallest area possible, and be valid for times of two hours or less.[9] It was developed in response to confusion resulting from the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. NWS offices in Jackson and New Orleans/Baton Rouge issued 11 tornado warnings for areas that would not experience an actual tornado, but would experience extreme wind speeds commonly associated with tornadoes.[10] The extreme wind warning is now expected to be used in these situations.

In 2017, the National Hurricane Center introduced a new system of warnings and watches for storm surge, which would cover the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. A storm surge watch would be issued when a life-threatening storm surge, associated with a potential or ongoing tropical, subtropical or post-tropical cyclone, is possible within the next 48 hours. These watches would be upgraded to storm surge warnings when there is a danger of life-threatening storm surge occurring within 36 hours. However, both watches and warnings may be issued earlier than specified if environmental conditions are expected to hamper preparations.[11]

In Mexico, a color coded alert system is used to keep the public informed when a tropical cyclone or possible tropical cyclones poses a threat to the nation. The scale starts with blue at the bottom being minimal danger, then proceeds to a green alert, which means low level danger. A yellow alert signifies moderate danger, followed by an orange alert that means high danger level. The scale tops off with a red alert, the maximum level of danger.[12]

Canada

In Canada, terminology is fairly similar to that of the United States, but there are a few differences:[13]

  • Watches are issued 36 hours prior to a tropical cyclone making landfall.
  • Warnings are issued 24 hours prior to the tropical cyclone making landfall.
  • If sustained winds 70 km/h and/or gusts 90km/h or stronger are predicted, a conventional wind warning will be issued along with the tropical cyclone watches and warnings.
  • A storm surge warning may be issued if abnormally high water levels are predicted.

West Pacific systems

People's Republic of China

A two-stage warning system was long-established in China for tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity of above.[14] Nowadays, the use of this system is restricted to coastal waters only. Thus, warnings may be discontinued even if a cyclone is maintaining tropical storm intensity inland. Color-coded alerts (below) may be in effect independently of any two-stage warnings.

Later, China Meteorological Administration standardized the system for national use.[15] This set is part of a larger warning system that covers other forms of severe weather conditions, such as extreme temperature, torrential rainfall, drought, etc.

Level Name Sign Meaning
Blue typhoon alert
台风蓝色预警信号
Blue typhoon alert - China Within 24 hours, it may or may have been affected by tropical cyclones. The average wind power on the coast or land is above 6, or the gust above 8 and may continue.
Yellow typhoon alert
台风黄色预警信号
Yellow typhoon alert - China Within 24 hours, it may or may have been affected by tropical cyclones. The average wind power on the coast or land is above 8, or the gust above 10 and may continue.
Orange typhoon alert
台风橙色预警信号
Orange typhoon alert - China Within 12 hours, it may or may have been affected by tropical cyclones. The average wind power on the coast or land is above 10, or the gust above 12 and may continue.
Red typhoon alert
台风红色预警信号
Red typhoon alert - China Within 6 hours, it may or may have been affected by tropical cyclones. The average wind power on the coast or land is above 12, or the gust above 14 and may continue.

Guangdong

Guangdong continued to set up the White typhoon alert for typhoon, indicating that tropical cyclones may affect the area within 48 hours. In some inland areas that are less affected by tropical cyclones (such as Qinghai, etc), there is no typhoon warning signal, but when it is hit by tropical cyclones, a strong wind warning signal will be issued. The winds represented by each color are consistent with the typhoon warning signal.

Typhoon warning signals used in Guangzhou from June 1st 1995 to November 1st 2000[16]:

Name Meaning
Windproof Info (Tropical Storm or Typhoon Info) indicates that a tropical storm or typhoon has entered the South China Sea (or has formed in the South China Sea) and is likely to move to the coastal areas of the province.
Windproof Warning (Tropical Storm and Typhoon Warning) Indicating that a tropical storm or typhoon warning enters the South China Sea, its route is moving in the direction of the Pearl River Estuary. If there is no change, it may land within 48 hours.
Windproof Special Alert (Tropical Storm or Typhoon Emergency Alert) Indicating that a tropical storm or typhoon hits the Pearl River Estuary within 24 hours, or landed in a coastal area within 150 kilometers of the Pearl River Estuary, which will have a serious impact on Guangzhou.
Disarming (Tropical Storm or Typhoon Disarming Alert) indicates that a tropical storm or typhoon has landed (or weakened to a low pressure).

Typhoon warning signals used from November 1st 2000 to May 2006[17]

Name Signal Meaning
White typhoon alert Taf1 Tropical cyclones may affect the area within 48 hours.
Green typhoon alert Taf2 Tropical cyclones will be within 24 hours or are affecting the area, with an average wind level of strong winds (6-7) (41-62 km/h).
Yellow typhoon alert Kj3 Tropical cyclones will be within 12 hours or are affecting the area, with an average winds level of strong gale (8-9) (63-87 km/h).
Red typhoon alert Ty4 Tropical cyclones will be within 12 hours or are affecting the area, with an average winds level of strong storm (10-11) (88-117 km/h).
Black typhoon alert Jk5 Tropical cyclones will be within 12 hours or are affecting the area, with an average winds level of typhoon (>12).

Typhoon warning signals used from June 1st 2006 to December 31 2014[18]:

Name Signal Meaning
White typhoon alert Typhoon 1 white Tropical cyclones may affect the area within 48 hours.
Blue typhoon alert Typhoon 2 blue It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 24 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 6, or gusts above 7; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 6-7, or gusts of 7-8, and may continue.
Yellow typhoon alert Typhoon 3 yellow It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 24 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 8, or gusts above 9; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 8-9, or gusts of 9-10, and may continue.
Orange typhoon alert Typhoon 4 orange It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 12 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 10, or gusts above 11; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 10-11, or gusts of 11-12, and may continue.
Red typhoon alert Typhoon 5 red It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 6 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 12; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 12, and may continue.

Typhoon warning signals used since January 1st 2015[19]:

Name Signal Meaning
White typhoon alert 2015版广东省突发气象灾害预警信号之台风预警信号 Tropical cyclones may affect the area within 48 hours.
Blue typhoon alert 2015版广东省突发气象灾害预警信号之台风预警信号 It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 24 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 6, or gusts above 7; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 6-7, or gusts of 7-8, and may continue.
Yellow typhoon alert 2015版广东省突发气象灾害预警信号之台风预警信号 It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 24 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 8, or gusts above 9; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 8-9, or gusts of 9-10, and may continue.
Orange typhoon alert 2015版广东省突发气象灾害预警信号之台风预警信号 It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 12 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 10, or gusts above 11; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 10-11, or gusts of 11-12, and may continue.
Red typhoon alert 2015版广东省突发气象灾害预警信号之台风预警信号 It may be affected by tropical cyclones within 6 hours, the average wind power can reach above level 12; or it has been affected by tropical cyclones with an average wind power of 12, and may continue.

Shenzhen currently uses a different signal from Guangdong Province[18][20]:

Zhuhai adopts the signal style of Guangdong Province, but the meaning of the signal is different[21]:

Ball signal

Shenzhen and Zhuhai used digitally arranged typhoon signals from June 4 1994 to November 1 2000[22], but they have now been replaced by typhoon warning signals.

The coastal ports of various cities in mainland China will still hang the squash signal when the typhoon hits[23]. The sign is roughly the same as the typhoon signal used in Shenzhen and Zhuhai[24].

Hong Kong and Macau

The Pearl River Delta uses a variety of warning systems to inform the public regarding the risks of tropical cyclones to the area.

The Hong Kong Observatory issues typhoon signals to indicate the existence and effects of a tropical cyclone on Hong Kong. The first numeric warning system was used in 1917.

The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau in Macau uses a similar system. [25]

In Hong Kong the typhoon signal system consists of 8 signals in 5 levels numbered non-consecutively for historical reasons. [26][27] Each signal has a day signal and a night signal for hoisting, which are still hoisted in Macau but no longer hoisted in Hong Kong. Day signals are also used as signal symbols in both places.

Signal Symbol Note Wind speed Gust
No.1 No. 01 Standby Signal (Standby) A tropical cyclone is centred within 800 km of the territory. NA NA
No.3 No. 03 Strong Wind Signal A definite warning that a tropical cyclone is expected to come near enough to Hong Kong to cause strong winds in Hong Kong. It normally gives 12 hours warning of strong winds generally over Hong Kong at sea level, but in exposed areas, winds may become strong sooner.

Impliction for citizens: Do not need to go to kindergartens, some places and events.

Strong wind with a sustained speed of 41–62 km/h ≥ 110 km/h
No.8. NW / SW / NE / SE No. 8 Northwest Gale or Storm Signal No. 8 Southwest Gale or Storm Signal No. 8 Northeast Gale or Storm Signal No. 8 Southeast Gale or Storm Signal Gale or storm force wind.

4 different symbols for different directions.

Implication for citizens: usually no need to go to school or work for most people if hosted before a certain hours before official work hours; depends on official announcement & employment contracts.

sustained speed of 63–117 km/h from the northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast quadrants respectively ≥ 180 km/h.
No. 9 No. 09 Increasing Gale or Storm Signal (Hong Kong) Gale or storm force wind is increasing or expected to increase significantly in strength. / (Macau) The centre of a tropical cyclone is approaching and Macau is expected to be severely affected. It usually implies that wind speeds are expected to reach the range 88 to 117 kilometres per hour.
No. 10 No. 10 Hurricane Signal Hurricane force wind.

Implication for citizens: no need to go to work or school. Most public transportation stop.

winds range upwards from 118 kilometres per hour. ≥ 220 km/h

Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) is the government agency responsible for gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Tokyo.

is also designated one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC) of the World Meteorological Organization. It has the responsibility for weather forecasting, tropical cyclone naming and distribution of warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwestern Pacific region.

Philippines

PAGASA's
Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals (TCWS)
[28][29]
Warning Signal Meaning
TCWS #1 winds of 30–60 km/h (20-37 mph)
are expected to occur within 36 hours
TCWS #2 winds of 61–120 km/h (38–73 mph)
are expected to occur within 24 hours
TCWS #3 winds of 121–170 km/h (74–105 mph)
are expected to occur within 18 hours
TCWS #4 winds of 171–220 km/h (106–137 mph)
are expected to occur within 12 hours
TCWS #5 winds greater than 220 km/h (137 mph)
are expected to occur within 12 hours

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) releases tropical cyclone warnings in the form of Public Storm Warning Signals (or just storm signals).[30] An area having a storm signal may be under:

  • PSWS #1 - Tropical cyclone winds of 30–60 km/h are expected within the next 36 hours. (Note: If a tropical cyclone forms very close to the area, then a shorter lead time is seen on the warning bulletin.)
  • PSWS #2 - Tropical cyclone winds of 61–120 km/h are expected within the next 24 hours.
  • PSWS #3 - Tropical cyclone winds of 121–170 km/h are expected within the next 18 hours.
  • PSWS #4 - Tropical cyclone winds of 171–220 km/h are expected within 12 hours.
  • PSWS #5 - Tropical cyclone winds greater than 220 km/h are expected within 12 hours.

These storm signals are usually hoisted when an area (in the Philippines only) is about to be hit by a tropical cyclone. Thus, as a tropical cyclone gains strength and/or gets closer to an area having a storm signal, it may be raised to another higher signal in that particular area. Whereas, as a tropical cyclone weakens and/or gets farther away from an area, it may be downgraded to a lower signal or may be lifted (that is, an area will have no storm signal).

South Pacific basin

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology will issue a cyclone watch for a specified part of Australia, when a tropical cyclone is expected to cause gale-force winds in excess of 62 km/h (40 mph) within 24–48 hours and subsequently make landfall.[31] A cyclone warning is subsequently issued for a specified part of Australia when a tropical cyclone, is expected to cause or is causing gale-force winds in excess of 62 km/h (40 mph) within 24 hours and is subsequently expected to make landfall.[31]

The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) issues a tropical cyclone alert for the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Tokelau, Tonga and Tuvalu, when a tropical cyclone has a significant probability of causing gale-force winds or stronger winds within 24–48 hours.[32] Gale, storm and hurricane-force wind warnings are subsequently issued for the above areas by FMS, when a tropical cyclone is either causing or expected to cause either gale storm or hurricane-force winds within 24 hours.[32]

Météo-France is responsible for the issuance of tropical cyclone watches and warnings for New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands.[32] The National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of the Solomon Islands, Samoa, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Vanuatu, Timor Leste and American Samoa are responsible for their own watches and warnings.[32]

Indian Ocean systems

The India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) is responsible for tracking tropical cyclones within the North Indian Ocean. Météo-France in Réunion (MFR/RSMC La Reunion) is responsible for the issuing advisories and tracking of tropical cyclones in the southwest part of the basin, however, the naming of systems is deferred to the Mauritius and Madagascar weather services.

India

Cyclone Watch
Cyclonic storm conditions possible within 72 hours.
Cyclone Alert
Cyclonic storm conditions possible within 48 hours.
Cyclone Warning
Cyclonic storm conditions expected within 24 hours.
Landfall Outlook
Cyclonic storm conditions expected within 12 hours.

The IMD issues warnings in four stages for the Indian coast.

  • Stage 1: Cyclone watch - Issued 72 hours in advance, it discusses the likelihood of development of a cyclonic disturbance in the north Indian Ocean and the coastal region likely to experience adverse weather.
  • Stage 2: Cyclone alert - Issued 48 hours in advance of the commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas.
  • Stage 3: Cyclone warning - Issued 24 hours in advance of the commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas. The location of landfall is discussed at this stage.
  • Stage 4: Landfall outlook - Issued 12 hours in advance of the commencement of adverse weather over the coastal areas. The track of the cyclone after the landfall and the possible impact inland is discussed at this stage.

Cyclonic storm conditions mean what winds in excess of 63 km/h (39 mph) are possible.[33]

Military advisories

Tropical Cyclone Condition of Readiness

The United States Department of Defense uses a multi-stage system called the Tropical Cyclone Condition of Readiness (TC-CORs) otherwise known as the Hurricane Condition of Readiness (HURCONs), to prepare bases and evacuate assets and personnel in advance of adverse weather associated with tropical cyclones.[34]

TC-COR Hours Notes
5 96 This is set by military bases in the US, throughout the Atlantic hurricane season.
4 72 Guam is in TC-COR 4 throughout the year, while Japanese bases set this from June 1 - November 30.
3 48 Destructive winds are possible within 48 hours.
2 24 Destructive winds are now expected within 24 hours.
1 12 Destructive winds are now expected within 12 hours, but gale force winds are not yet occurring.
1C 12 Gale-force winds are occurring.
1E 0 Winds of above 50 kn (58 mph; 93 km/h) are occurring.
1R Winds of above 50 kn (58 mph; 93 km/h) are no longer occurring, but gale-force winds are occurring.
Storm Watch The system is moving away but the base is still feeling some effects.
All-Clear Revert to seasonal TC-COR

TC-CORs are recommended by weather facilities either on base or by central sites like the National Hurricane Center or the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and are generally related to the timing and potential for destructive sustained windspeeds of above 50 kn (58 mph; 93 km/h).[34] Recommendations are then considered by base or area commanders along with other subjective factors for setting the TC-CORs like assets, holidays or the bases experience in emergency preparedness.[34] The bases prefer to set these TC-CORs sequentially, from TC-COR 5 with destructive winds expected within 96 hours, through TC-COR 4, 3, 2 and if needed to a series of four different TC-COR 1 conditions, however depending on the cyclone's movement or location some of these signals can be skipped.[34][35] After a system passes and stops affecting the base, the authorities can decide to revert to the seasonal TC-COR or stay in a heightened approach as another tropical cyclone is approaching.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Regional Specialized Meteorological Center". Tropical Cyclone Program (TCP). World Meteorological Organization. April 25, 2006. Retrieved November 5, 2006.
  2. ^ Fiji Meteorological Service (2017). "Services". Retrieved 2017-06-04.
  3. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2017). "Products and Service Notice". United States Navy. Retrieved 2017-06-04.
  4. ^ National Hurricane Center (March 2016). "National Hurricane Center Product Description Document: A User's Guide to Hurricane Products" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-06-03.
  5. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency (2017). "Notes on RSMC Tropical Cyclone Information". Retrieved 2017-06-04.
  6. ^ RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 30, 2013). Hurricane Operational Plan (PDF) (Technical Document). World Meteorological Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Glossary of NHC Terms". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. March 25, 2013. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  8. ^ a b Tropical Cyclone Products (PDF) (National Weather Service Instruction 10-601). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. June 11, 2013. pp. 4–9, 56. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  9. ^ a b National Weather Service. "Product Description Document: Extreme Wind Warning (EWW)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  10. ^ U.S. Department of Commerce. "Service Assessment. Hurricane Katrina: August 23–31, 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  11. ^ Storm surge watch & warning to become operational in 2017 (pdf) (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  12. ^ "Be Prepared for Hurricane Season in Cancun". Royal Sunset. October 22, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  13. ^ https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/types-weather-forecasts-use/public/criteria-alerts.html
  14. ^ Typhoon.gov.cn Archived August 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ CMA.gov.cn Archived August 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ 广州市防风工作方案
  17. ^ 广东省台风、暴雨、寒冷预警信号发布规定
  18. ^ a b "台风预警信号 - 深圳市气象局". szmb.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2010-08-24.
  19. ^ "存档副本". Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
  20. ^ "深圳市台风暴雨灾害公众防御指引(试行)". szmb.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2015-02-16.
  21. ^ "珠海气象局". zhmb.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-12-31.
  22. ^ 深圳经济特区防洪防风规定
  23. ^ 廣州市氣象台风球信号说明
  24. ^ 1997年颱風維克托風暴消息(6/10) - 考慮改掛十號風球 on YouTube
  25. ^ "Meaning of Tropical Cyclone Signals and the relevant recommended safety precautions". Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  26. ^ John YK Leung and WH Lui (9 August 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Warning Signal No.5 in the Past". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  27. ^ "History of the Hong Kong Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  28. ^ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) (May 2015). "Public Storm Warning Signal". PAGASA.
  29. ^ Esperanza O. Cayanan (July 20, 2015). "The Philippines modified its Tropical Cyclone Warning System" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
  30. ^ "Philippine Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Warning Advice". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  32. ^ a b c d RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (December 12, 2012). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2012 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 7–13. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
  33. ^ "Four Stage Warning". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  34. ^ a b c d e Sampson, Charles R; Schumacher, Andrea B; Knaff, John A; DeMaria, Mark; Fukada, Edward M; Sisko, Chris A; Roberts, David P; Winters, Katherine A; Wilson, Harold M. "Objective Guidance for Use in Setting Tropical Cyclone Conditions of Readiness". Weather and Forecasting. 27 (4): 1052–1060. Bibcode:2012WtFor..27.1052S. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-12-00008.1.
  35. ^ Fleet Weather Center (February 8, 2013). "Tropical Cyclone Quick Reference Guide 2013" (PDF). United States Navy. p. 2. Retrieved December 15, 2013.

External links

1933 Outer Banks hurricane

The 1933 Outer Banks hurricane lashed portions of the North Carolina and Virginia coasts less than a month after another hurricane hit the general area. The twelfth tropical storm and sixth hurricane of the 1933 Atlantic hurricane season, it formed by September 8 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. It moved generally to the north-northwest and strengthened quickly to peak winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on September 12. This made it a major hurricane and a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The hurricane remained at or near that intensity for several days while tracking to the northwest. It weakened approaching the southeastern United States, and on September 16 passed just east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina with winds of about 100 mph (160 km/h). Turning to the northeast, the hurricane became extratropical on September 18 before moving across Atlantic Canada, eventually dissipating four days later.

The threat of the hurricane prompted widespread tropical cyclone warnings and watches along the eastern United States and prompted some people to evacuate. Damage was heaviest in southeastern North Carolina near New Bern, where the combination of high tides and swollen rivers flooded much of the town. Across North Carolina, the hurricane caused power outages, washed out roads, and damaged crops. Several houses were damaged, leaving about 1,000 people homeless. Damage was estimated at $4.5 million, and there were 21 deaths in the state, mostly from drowning. Hurricane-force winds extended into southeastern Virginia, where there were two deaths. High tides isolated a lighthouse near Norfolk and covered several roads. Farther north, two people on a small boat were left missing in Maine, and another person was presumed killed when his boat sank in Nova Scotia.

Cabo Rojo (Mexico)

Cabo Rojo (Spanish for "Red Cape") (21°47'N 97°35'W) is a barrier of quartzite sand deposited adjacent to the coast of the Mexican state of Veracruz, about 55 km (34 mi) south of the city of Tampico, Tamaulipas. It encloses the brackish lagoon called Laguna de Tamiahua. It is located in the municipalities of Ozuluama de Mascareñas and Tamiahua.

As one of the few protruding features on this part of the coast, it may be regarded as the

boundary between the western coasts of the Bay of Campeche and the Gulf of Mexico proper, and is frequently used by the authorities as a breakpoint for tropical cyclone warnings and watches.

Effects of Hurricane Floyd in Florida

Hurricane Floyd in 1999 threatened Florida as a major hurricane roughly three times as large as Hurricane Andrew. Floyd originated from a tropical wave well east of the Lesser Antilles on September 7. While approaching the Bahamas, the storm strengthened significantly between September 12 and September 13. On the latter day, Floyd peaked as a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale. However, upon moving closer to the Bahamas, the storm fluctuated in intensity between a Category 3 and a Category 4 hurricane. A subtropical ridge eroded by a mid- to upper-tropospheric trough over the eastern United States caused Floyd to curve northwestward over the Abaco Islands and later to northeast, avoiding a potentially catastrophic landfall in Florida. The storm made its closest approach to Florida early on September 15, passing about 110 mi (180 km) east of Cape Canaveral.

Officials and residents in the state underwent extensive preparations due to the overwhelming threat from Floyd. Tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued, including a hurricane warning from Florida City northward – nearly the entire east coast of Florida. Almost 1.37 million Floridians were placed under a mandatory evacuation order, while approximately 2.2 million people evacuated. At least 17 counties opened shelters, which collectively housed more than 53,498 people. Thousands of travelers were left stranded after airline

companies canceled flights to and from Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, and West Palm Beach. Walt Disney World closed for a full day for the first time since its opening in 1971.

Ultimately, Floyd remained well offshore and thus wrought relatively minor impacts in Florida. The hurricane produced sustained winds up to 56 mph (90 km/h) and gusts up to 69 mph (111 km/h). Beach erosion affected much of the state's Atlantic coast, though the worst impacts from Floyd occurred in Brevard and Volusia counties. In both counties, erosion left some structural damage. In the latter, winds and falling trees damaged a total of 337 homes. Volusia County alone experienced about $42 million in damage. Throughout Florida, damaged totaled about $50 million (1999 USD).

Hurricane Barbara (2013)

Hurricane Barbara was the easternmost landfalling Pacific hurricane on record. As the first hurricane of the 2013 Pacific hurricane season, Barbara developed from a low-pressure area while located southeast of Mexico on May 28. It headed slowly north-northeastward and strengthened into a tropical storm early on the following day. After recurving to the northeast, Barbara intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on May 29 and made landfall in Chiapas at peak intensity with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a barometric pressure estimated at 983 mbar (hPa; 29.03 inHg). When the hurricane made landfall, it was the second earliest landfalling hurricane in the basin since reliable records began in 1966. Barbara then moved across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and dissipated within the mountainous terrain of Sierra Madre de Chiapas on May 30.

The precursor of Hurricane Barbara brought light to moderate rainfall to El Salvador. Many homes were damaged, roads were flooded, and several trees were downed. One fatality was reported in the country. Landslides caused by rainfall in Guatemala forced 30 people to flee their homes. In Mexico, tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in anticipitation of the storm. Many shelters opened in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Guatemala while schools and ports were temporarily closed during the storm. Torrential rains and power outages were reported in the area. In the state of Chiapas alone, 2,000 houses were damaged. About 57,000 people were left homeless. Significant impact to agriculture was also reported, with 10,000 ha (25,000 acres) of crops destroyed. Overall, Barbara caused 5 fatalities and at least $1 million (2013 USD) in damage.

Hurricane Carlos (2015)

Hurricane Carlos was an unusually small tropical cyclone which affected the western coast of Mexico in June 2015. Forming as the third named storm and hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Carlos developed from a trough first noted by the National Hurricane Center on June 7. The disturbance gradually organized and was designated as a tropical depression three days later while south of the Mexican Pacific coast. Drifting slowly northwestward, the depression was upgraded further to a tropical storm. Although persistent wind shear and dry air hampered intensification early on, Carlos strengthened into a hurricane on June 13 after moving into a more favorable environment. However, the return of dry air and upwelling of cooler waters caused the system to deteriorate into a tropical storm. Paralleling the Mexican coast, Carlos later regained hurricane intensity on June 15 and attained peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) a day later. The reprieve was brief, however, as the onset of wind shear, land interaction, and dry air afterward led to rapid weakening. On June 17, Carlos degenerated into a remnant area of low pressure, having made landfall in Jalisco earlier that day. By the morning of June 18, Carlos was declared to have completely dissipated.

Carlos's close track to Mexico prompted coastal authorities to enact precautionary measures along states deemed at risk, including the issuance of tropical cyclone warnings and watches over a large swath of the coast, extending from Acapulco to Cabo Corrientes. In Guerrero, more than 500 shelters were opened, and schools in most of the state were closed. Rough seas along the shore generated by the hurricane caused widespread damage, which included the sinking of 12 ships in Playa Manzanillo harbor. The waves combined with heavy rain to inflict at least MXN$5 million (US$326,000) of damage on Michoacán's coastal installations. Strong winds produced by the passing storm also downed trees, power poles, and billboards along much of the western Mexican coast. In Jalisco, classes were also suspended in anticipation of heavy rains, however, damage in the state was relatively minor. Overall, Carlos caused roughly MXN$16 million (US$1.04 million) worth of damage across Mexico.

Hurricane Erick

Hurricane Erick brought minor impact to the western coastline of Mexico in July 2013. The fifth tropical cyclone and named storm, as well as the fourth hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Erick originated from a tropical wave that moved off the western coast of Africa on June 18. The wave tracked swiftly westward with little development, emerging into the eastern Pacific on July 1. As a result of favorable environmental conditions, the wave developed into a tropical depression on July 4, and further into Tropical Storm Erick at 0000 UTC on July 5. Steered generally west-northwest, Erick intensified into a Category 1 hurricane and reached its peak intensity with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) on July 6. Its proximity to land and track over increasingly cooler waters caused the storm to deteriorate into a tropical storm the following day, though it remained at such intensity until degenerating into a remnant low early on July 9. The remnant circulation dissipated a few hours later, southwest of Baja California Sur.

In preparation for the cyclone, numerous tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued for various portions of the coastline of Mexico. Ports were closed and residents in low-lying areas were asked to evacuate to higher grounds. In addition, shipping by means of boat was suspended. Though the center of Erick remained offshore, the outer bands of the system brought gusty winds and isolated heavy rainfall to Western Mexico. In Guerrero, minor flooding was reported in the cities of Acapulco and Puerto Marques. A river overflowed its banks in Nayarit, flooding several cities in the state. Numerous cars, streets, and homes were damaged by flooding. A woman died as she attempted to flee her house, while a man was killed after being swept away by the river. Hundreds of people were rescued by the Mexican military and Nayarit officials. Across Baja California Sur, the storm produced widespread precipitation, leading to flooding.

Hurricane Fay

Hurricane Fay was the first hurricane to make landfall on Bermuda since Emily in 1987. The sixth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, Fay evolved from a broad weather disturbance several hundred miles northeast of the Lesser Antilles on October 10. Initially a subtropical cyclone with an expansive wind field and asymmetrical cloud field, the storm gradually attained tropical characteristics as it turned north, transitioning into a tropical storm early on October 11. Despite being plagued by disruptive wind shear for most of its duration, Tropical Storm Fay steadily intensified. Veering toward the east, Fay briefly achieved Category 1 hurricane status while making landfall on Bermuda early on October 12. Wind shear eventually took its toll on Fay, causing the hurricane to weaken to a tropical storm later that day and degenerate into an open trough early on October 13.

A few tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in anticipation of Fay's impact on Bermuda, and public schools were closed as a precaution. Despite its modest strength, Fay produced extensive damage on Bermuda. Winds gusting over 100 mph (155 km/h) clogged roadways with downed trees and utility poles, and left a majority of the island's electric customers without power. The terminal building at L.F. Wade International Airport was flooded after the storm compromised its roof and sprinkler system. Along the coast, the storm unmoored and destroyed numerous boats. Immediately after the hurricane, 200 Bermuda Regiment soldiers were called to clear debris and assist in initial damage repairs. Cleanup efforts overlapped with preparations for the approach of the stronger Hurricane Gonzalo, which struck the island less than six days later and compounded the damage. Fay and Gonzalo marked the first recorded instance of two Bermuda hurricane landfalls in one season.

Hurricane Gil (1983)

Hurricane Gil was the first of several tropical cyclones to affect Hawaii during the 1983 Pacific hurricane season. Gil originated from a tropical depression that developed near Clipperton Island on July 23. Steadily intensifying, it attained tropical storm status six hours later and was upgraded to a hurricane on July 26. After attaining peak intensity on July 27, Gil encountered cooler sea surface temperatures and began to weaken. Moving west-northwest, the weakening system also accelerated and on July 31, was downgraded to a tropical depression. However, Gil began to re-intensify on August 1, becoming a tropical storm again later that day. Initially expected to veer north of Hawaii, it continued west-northwest and began to approach the Hawaiian group on August 3. While passing through the island group, Gil reached its secondary peak intensity. Subsequently, Gil began to weaken once again as it threatened the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. After passing through the islands, Gil was downgraded to a tropical depression on August 5. Several hours later, the storm dissipated. The remnants of the storm moved into the West Pacific late on August 6 and were last noted the next morning while passing south of Midway Island.

Due to fears of a repeat of Hurricane Iwa, which devastated the island group the previous year, officials issued many tropical cyclone warnings and watches while seven shelters were opened, though few people actually used these shelters. On Oahu, a power outage was reported, affecting 2,400 customers. Jellyfish also stung 50 people. Locally heavy rainfall and rough seas led to minor damage while strong winds lead to extensive damage on the north side of the island. On Maui and Kauai, minor flooding, as well, though damage was minimal. Offshore, one person is presumed to have died in a shipwreck. In a separate shipping incident, three crewmen were slightly injured. The remnants of Gil later affected the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, where near-gale force winds were measured. Throughout the state, damage was minimal.

Hurricane Hilary (1993)

Hurricane Hilary was a Category 3 hurricane that caused significant flooding in the Midwestern United States in August 1993. A westward moving tropical depression gradually developed on August 17 south of the Mexican coast, attaining hurricane status two days later. The storm further intensified into a Category 3 hurricane, attaining peak winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). By August 23, the hurricane nearly stalled while interacting with Tropical Storm Irwin. Executing a small counter-clockwise loop, Hilary degraded to tropical storm intensity and took a northerly track for the remainder of its existence. The storm made two landfalls in Mexico, one in Baja California Sur on August 25 and one in Sonora the following day. Tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued for much of the southern Mexican coastline; however, they were later discontinued when the threat ended, but were issued again when the system posed a threat to the Baja California Peninsula. Hilary dropped in excess of 5 in (130 mm) rain along its path in some areas, and flash flooding in California and Iowa.

Hurricane Iniki

Hurricane Iniki ( ee-NEE-kee; Hawaiian: ʻiniki meaning "strong and piercing wind") was the most powerful hurricane to strike the U.S. state of Hawaii in recorded history. Forming on September 5, 1992, during the strong 1990–95 El Niño, Iniki was one of eleven Central Pacific tropical cyclones during that season. It attained tropical storm status on September 8 and further intensified into a hurricane the next day. After turning north, Iniki struck the island of Kauaʻi on September 11 at peak intensity; it had winds of 145 miles per hour (233 km/h) and reached Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. It had recorded wind gusts of 225 as evidenced by an anemometer that was found blown into the forest during clean up. It was the first hurricane to hit the state since Hurricane Iwa in the 1982 season, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959. Iniki dissipated on September 13 about halfway between Hawaii and Alaska.

Iniki caused around $3.1 billion (1992 USD) in damage and six deaths, making it the second-costliest Pacific hurricane on record. At the time, Iniki was among the costliest United States hurricanes. The storm struck just weeks after Hurricane Andrew, the costliest tropical cyclone ever at the time, struck Florida.

The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) failed to issue tropical cyclone warnings and watches 24 hours in advance. Despite the lack of early warning, only six deaths ensued. Damage was greatest on Kauaʻi, where the hurricane destroyed more than 1,400 houses and severely damaged more than 5,000. Though not directly in the path of the eye, Oʻahu experienced moderate damage from wind and storm surge.

Hurricane Marty (2015)

Hurricane Marty was a tropical cyclone that produced heavy rains and flooding in several states in Southwestern and Western Mexico. The twentieth named storm and twelfth hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Marty developed from a tropical wave on September 26, 2015 to the southwest of Acapulco, Guerrero, in Mexico. Initially a tropical depression, the system strengthened into a tropical storm early on the following day. Due to favorable atmospheric conditions, Marty continued to intensify, but wind shear sharply increased as the storm approached a large mid- to upper-level trough. Despite this, the cyclone deepened further, becoming a hurricane on September 28 and peaking with sustained winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) shortly thereafter. Wind shear quickly took its toll on the hurricane, weakening it to a tropical storm early on September 29. About 24 hours later, Marty degenerated into a post-tropical low pressure area offshore Guerrero. The low further degenerated into a trough later on September 30, and eventually dissipated on October 4.

In anticipation of the storm, tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán. Flooding occurred, particularly in Guerrero, where areas near Acapulco observed 5 to 6 in (130 to 150 mm) of rainfall. There were several landslides and over 300 homes in the municipality of Coyuca de Benitez were flooded. The remnants also caused severe flooding in Sonora. About 800 homes and 400 vehicles were damaged in the city of Guaymas alone. Total damage in the state reached MXN$500 million (US$30 million).

Hurricane Raymond (2013)

Hurricane Raymond was the only major hurricane in the eastern Pacific in 2013 and briefly threatened the southwestern coast of Mexico before recurving back out to sea. The seventeenth named storm and eighth hurricane of the annual cyclone season, Raymond developed from a tropical wave on October 20 south of Acapulco, Mexico. Within favorable conditions for tropical cyclone development, Raymond quickly intensified, attaining tropical storm intensity and later hurricane intensity within a day of cyclogenesis. On October 21, the hurricane reached its peak intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). A blocking ridge forced the hurricane to the southwest, while at the same time Raymond began to quickly weaken due to wind shear. The following day, the tropical cyclone weakened to tropical storm status. After tracking westward, Raymond reentered more favorable conditions, allowing it to intensify back to hurricane strength on October 27 while curving northward. The hurricane reached a secondary peak intensity with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) several hours later. Deteriorating atmospheric conditions resulted in Raymond weakening for a final time, and on October 30, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) declared the tropical cyclone to have dissipated.

Despite remaining offshore, Raymond's close proximity to the Mexican coast was enough to prompt tropical cyclone warnings and watches. Due to the threat of rainfall, residents from 81 municipalities in Mexico were ordered to evacuate out of flood-prone regions. Precipitation from Raymond peaked at 7.63 in (194 mm) near Acapulco within a two-day period. Minor flooding resulted from the outer rainbands of the hurricane. Though no deaths were reported (However there was a shipwreck caused by the hurricane which resulted in the death of Richard Sharp: a man paid to sail a yacht from Tahiti to San Diego- he was accompanied by his fiancée- Tami Olmhead- who survived the wreck), 585 people were rendered homeless. Following the storm, the Mexican government declared a state of emergency for 10 municipalities in Guerrero.

Hurricane Rina

Hurricane Rina was a powerful but slow-moving tropical cyclone that caused minor impacts in the northwestern Caribbean Sea in late October 2011. The seventeenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and fourth major hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Rina developed from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean on October 23. The depression quickly intensified, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Rina early on the following day. Further strengthening ensued as it tracked west-northwestward, with Rina becoming a hurricane on October 24. The hurricane eventually peaked as a Category 3 hurricane while it moved generally westward on October 25. However, on October 26, Rina weakened substantially and was downgraded to a Category 1 hurricane. Further weakening occurred, with Rina falling to tropical storm intensity on October 27. Rina then made landfall in northern Quintana Roo early the next day. The cyclone degenerated into a remnant low later on October 28 after emerging into the Yucatán Channel. The low dissipated near the western tip of Cuba on October 29.

Several tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in anticipation of the storm in Belize, Honduras, and Mexico. Carnival Cruise Lines changed eight of their ships' itineraries to avoid the developing cyclone. In Mexico, hundreds were ordered to evacuate from Punta Allen. Authorities set up 50 emergency shelters in Cancún. However, because the storm weakened significantly prior to landfall, only minor impact occurred in Mexico, mainly limited to flooding in some low-lying areas and downed trees and power lines. Convergence caused by a cold front and moisture from Rina resulted in heavy rainfall over portions of southeastern Florida. A number of streets were inundated and dozens of homes received water damage in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach counties. In Broward County alone, about 160 homes were flooded. Farther north, two tornadoes were spawned in the vicinity of Hobe Sound, one of which damaged 42 mobile homes, 2 vehicles, and a number of trees. Throughout Florida, damage reached approximately $2.3 million (2011 USD).

List of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes

The list of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes includes all of the tropical cyclones that impacted the Baja California Peninsula, which includes the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. In the period 1951 to 2000, Baja California had one hurricane and three tropical storms make landfall. During the same period, Baja California Sur witnessed nineteen hurricanes and thirty tropical storms. During the same time period, the region got hit by two major hurricanes (Hurricane Oliva in 1967 and Hurricane Kiko in 1989). The most expensive storm in the area is Hurricane Odile in 2014 and the deadliest is Hurricane Liza in 1976.

List of South America hurricanes

A South American hurricane is a tropical cyclone that affects the continent of South America or its countries. The continent is rarely affected by tropical cyclones, though most storms to hit the area are formed in the North Atlantic Ocean. Typically, strong upper level winds and its proximity to the equator prevents North Atlantic impacts. No tropical cyclone has ever affected the Pacific side of South America. Although conditions are typically too hostile for many storms to hit the area from the South Atlantic Ocean, there have been a few tropical cyclones to affect land. Based on climatology, northern Venezuela and Colombia have a 1 to 5% chance of a hurricane strike in any given year, while all locations south of 10° N have less than a 1% chance of a direct hit. A total of 43 tropical cyclones have affected the continent since 1588.

Tropical Storm Boris (2014)

Tropical Storm Boris was a weak and short-lived tropical cyclone that brought rainfall to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and surrounding areas in June 2014. The second named storm of the season, Boris developed from the interaction of a low-level trough and a Kelvin wave south of Mexico late on June 2. Initially a tropical depression, the system moved generally northward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Boris by midday on June 3. About six hours later, Boris peaked with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) – indicative of a weak tropical storm. By early on June 4, interaction with land caused the storm to weaken, deteriorating to a tropical depression. Later that day, Boris degenerated into an area of remnant low pressure, before fully dissipating over the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 5.

As Boris approached land, tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued, school classes were canceled, and evacuations occurred in Southwestern Mexico and portions of Guatemala. The precursor to Boris and the storm itself brought heavy rainfall to area. In Mexico, overflowing streams left minor damage in Chiapas; four people were injured when a house partially collapsed. One death was reported in the country when a tree fell at a high school in Xalapa. Flooding in Guatemala forced 198 people to flee their homes. A mudslide caused five deaths and injured seven others. Overall, 20 mudslides were reported, damaging 13 roads. Additionally, 223 homes were damaged, including 11 severely. More than 5,000 people were left isolated in Quetzaltenango after a portion of the main road to the city was inundated by water.

Tropical Storm Flossie (2013)

Tropical Storm Flossie yielded stormy weather to Hawaii in late July 2013. The sixth tropical cyclone and named storm of the annual hurricane season, Flossie originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the western coast of Africa on July 9. Tracking westward across the Atlantic with little development, it passed over Central America and into the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 18, where favorable environmental conditions promoted steady organization. By 0600 UTC on July 25, the wave acquired enough organization to be deemed a tropical depression; it intensified into a tropical storm six hours later. Continuing westward, Flossie attained peak winds of 70 mph (110 km/h) on July 27 before entering the central Pacific Ocean. There, unfavorable upper-level winds established a weakening trend; on July 30, Flossie weakened to a tropical depression, and by 1200 UTC that same day, the storm degenerated into a remnant low, northeast of Kauai.

In advance of Flossie, tropical cyclone warnings and watches were placed into effect for various Hawaiian Islands. In addition, numerous flash flood watches were issued in fear of over a foot of precipitation. Ports and numerous facilities were closed to the public, and authorities opened shelters for refuge. Upon approach, Flossie threatened to become the first tropical storm to make a direct hit on Hawaii in two decades; however, the system weakened prior to doing so. Flossie brought high surf to the state, leading to minor beach erosion. Gusty winds exceeded tropical storm threshold, downing numerous power poles and trees; as a result, several thousand locals were without power for a few days. The storm produced several inches of rainfall across the island, with a peak of 9.27 in (235 mm) on Mount Waialeale. Though one man was injured due to lightnings, no fatalities were reported in association with Flossie. Damage totaled to $24,000 (2013 USD) as a consequence of lightning.

Tropical Storm Julio (2002)

Tropical Storm Julio in 2002 was a weak and short-lived tropical storm that made landfall along the southern Mexican coast. An area of convection organized into a tropical depression on September 25. Initially forecast to stay offshore, the depression headed northward and strengthened into a tropical storm that same day. Julio turned to the northwest and peaked as a minimal tropical storm just before landfall near Lázaro Cárdenas, on September 26. The storm soon weakened into a tropical depression and later on September 26, it rapidly dissipated over Mexico.

Prior to making landfall, tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued for a portion of the Pacific coast of Mexico. After making landfall, three fatalities and 18 injuries were reported from Julio when a bus flipped over. Around 100 houses in Acapulco and Zihuatanejo were damaged or washed away by flash flooding. In the latter city, many trees were brought down and numerous streets were flooded. The highest rainfall reported was 16.10 in (409 mm) at Zihuatanejo and La Unión, resulting in devastation. In all, about 2,000 homes were flooded while 100 families were evacuated. About a month after Julio, Hurricane Kenna affected some of the same locations as Julio.

Tropical Storm Lidia (2017)

Tropical Storm Lidia was a large tropical cyclone that produced flooding in Baja California Peninsula and parts of western Mexico. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and twelfth named storm of the 2017 Pacific hurricane season, Lidia developed from a large area of disturbed weather west of the Pacific Coast of Mexico on August 31. The storm intensified while moving generally northward or northwestward, peaking with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) later that day. On September 1, Lidia made landfall in Mexico near Puerto Chale, Baja California Sur, at peak intensity. The storm weakened while traversing the peninsula, ultimately emerging over the Pacific Ocean on September 3, where the storm degenerated into a remnant low. The system brought thunderstorms and wind gusts to Southern California, before dissipating on September 4.

In anticipation of the storm, several tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in the Baja California Peninsula and other areas along the Gulf of California. Flooding in Mexico City resulted in water entering hundreds of homes, while sinkholes formed on some roads. Overall, there were twenty fatalities, including two from electrocution and two from drowning.

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