Tropical cyclone naming

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

History

Tropical cyclone naming institutions
Basin Institution Area of responsibility
Northern Hemisphere
North Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
United States National Hurricane Center Equator northward, African Coast – 140°W [1]
Central Pacific United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center Equator northward, 140°W - 180° [1]
Western Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
PAGASA (Unofficial)
Equator – 60°N, 180 – 100°E
5°N – 21°N, 115°E – 135°E
[2]
[3]
North Indian Ocean India Meteorological Department Equator northward, 100°E – 45°E [4]
Southern Hemisphere
South-West
Indian Ocean
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Météo Madagascar
Equator – 40°S, 55°E – 90°E
Equator – 40°S, African Coast – 55°E
[5]
Australian region Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Equator – 10°S, 90°E – 141°E
Equator – 10°S, 141°E – 160°E
10°S – 36°S, 90°E – 160°E
[6]
Southern Pacific Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Equator – 25°S, 160°E – 120°W
25°S – 40°S, 160°E – 120°W
[6]
South Atlantic Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center (Unofficial) Equator – 35°S, Brazilian Coast – 20°W [7]

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were often named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred.[8] The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907.[8] This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific.[8] Formal naming schemes have subsequently been introduced for the North Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.[8]

At present, tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven warning centers and retain their names throughout their lifetimes to facilitate the effective communication of forecasts and storm-related hazards to the general public.[9] This is especially important when multiple storms are occurring simultaneously in the same ocean basin.[9] Names are generally assigned in order from predetermined lists, once they produce one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph).[1][4][5] However, standards vary from basin to basin, with some systems named in the Western Pacific when they develop into tropical depressions or enter PAGASA's area of responsibility.[3] Within the Southern Hemisphere, systems must be characterized by a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the center before they are named.[5][6]

Any member of the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane, typhoon and tropical cyclone committees can request that the name of a tropical cyclone be retired or withdrawn from the various tropical cyclone naming lists.[1][2][6] A name is retired or withdrawn if a consensus or majority of members agree that the system has acquired a special notoriety, such as causing a large number of deaths and amounts of damage, impact, or for other special reasons.[1] A replacement name is then submitted to the committee concerned and voted upon, but these names can be rejected and replaced with another name for various reasons:[1][2] these reasons include the spelling and pronunciation of the name, the similarity to the name of a recent tropical cyclone or on another list of names, and the length of the name for modern communication channels such as social media.[1][10] PAGASA also retires the names of significant tropical cyclones when they have caused at least 1 billion in damage or have caused at least 300 deaths.[11]

North Atlantic Ocean

Michael 2018-10-10 1715Z cropped
Hurricane Michael making landfall at peak intensity, October 2018

Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the first letters A—W used, skipping Q and U, and alternating between male and female names.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee meeting.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1]

List of Atlantic tropical cyclone names
2019
Names Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Imelda Jerry Karen
Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy
2020
Names Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle
Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred
2021
Names Ana Bill Claudette Danny Elsa Fred Grace Henri Ida Julian Kate
Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda
2022
Names Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl
Lisa Martin Nicole Owen Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie Walter
2023
Names Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harold Idalia Jose Katia
Lee Margot Nigel Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney
2024
Names Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Francine Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk
Leslie Milton Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sara Tony Valerie William
References:[1]

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Lane 2018-08-21 2350Z
Hurricane Lane near peak intensity in August 2018

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean, there are two warning centers that assign names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[1] Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), while tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu).[1] Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Hurricane Committee.[1]

The current naming scheme began with the 1978 season, one year before the Atlantic basin (and which anomalously used the list that will be used next in 2018, rather than the one for 2020). As with the Atlantic basin, it uses alternating women's and men's names, and also includes some Spanish and a few French names. Before then, only women's names were used. Because Eastern Pacific hurricanes mainly threaten western Mexico and Central America, the lists contain more Spanish names than the Atlantic lists.

North Pacific east of 140°W

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W, it will be named by the NHC. There are six lists of names which rotate every six years and begin with the letters A—Z used, skipping Q and U, with each name alternating between a male or a female name.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee.[1] If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named using the letters of the Greek alphabet.[1]

List of Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone names
2019
Names Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena
Mario Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda
2020
Names Amanda Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell
Marie Norbert Odalys Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2021
Names Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda
Marty Nora Olaf Pamela Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda
2022
Names Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Ivette Javier Kay Lester
Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2023
Names Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia
Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda
2024
Names Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane
Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke
References:[1]

Central North Pacific Ocean (140°W to 180°)

Walaka 2018-10-02 0054Z
Hurricane Walaka in October 2018, at peak intensity south of Johnston Atoll

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180°, it is named by the CPHC.[1] Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization's hurricane committee, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year.[1] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next Hurricane Committee meeting.[1]

List of Central Pacific tropical cyclone names
List Names
1 Akoni Ema Hone Iona Keli Lala Moke Nolo Olana Pena Ulana Wale
2 Aka Ekeka Hene Iolana Keoni Lino Mele Nona Oliwa Pama Upana Wene
3 Alika Ele Huko Iopa Kika Lana Maka Neki Omeka Pewa Unala Wali
4 Ana Ela Halola Iune Kilo Loke Malia Niala Oho Pali Ulika Walaka
References:[1]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° – 100°E)

Wutip 2019-02-25 0345Z
Typhoon Wutip at peak intensity in February 2019

Tropical cyclones that occur within the Northern Hemisphere between the anti-meridian and 100°E are officially named by the Japan Meteorological Agency when they become tropical storms.[2] However, PAGASA also names tropical cyclones that occur or develop into tropical depressions within their self-defined area of responsibility between 5°N–25°N and 115°E-135°E.[3] This often results in tropical cyclones in the region having two names.[3]

International names

Tropical cyclones within the Western Pacific are assigned international names by the JMA when they become a tropical storm with 10-minute sustained winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[2] The names are used sequentially without regard to year and are taken from five lists of names that were prepared by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, after each of the 14 members submitted 10 names in 1998.[2] The order of the names to be used was determined by placing the English name of the members in alphabetical order.[2] Members of the committee are allowed to request the retirement or replacement of a system's name if it causes extensive destruction or for other reasons such as number of deaths.[2] Unlike other basins, storms are also named after plants, animals, objects, and mythological beings.

List of Western Pacific tropical cyclone names
List Contributing nation
Cambodia China North Korea
(DPRK)
Hong Kong Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Micronesia Philippines South Korea
(ROK)
Thailand United States Vietnam
1 Damrey Haikui Kirogi Yun-yeung Koinu Bolaven Sanba Jelawat Ewiniar Maliksi Gaemi Prapiroon Maria Son-Tinh
Ampil Wukong Jongdari Shanshan Yagi Leepi Bebinca Rumbia[nb 1] Soulik Cimaron Jebi Mangkhut[nb 2] Barijat Trami
2 Kong-rey Yutu Toraji Man-yi Usagi Pabuk Wutip Sepat Mun Danas Nari Wipha Francisco Lekima
Krosa Bailu Podul Lingling Kajiki Faxai Peipah Tapah Mitag Hagibis Neoguri Bualoi Matmo Halong
3 Nakri Fengshen Kalmaegi Fung-wong Kammuri Phanfone Vongfong Nuri Sinlaku Hagupit Jangmi Mekkhala Higos Bavi
Maysak Haishen Noul Dolphin Kujira Chan-hom Linfa Nangka Saudel Molave Goni Atsani Etau Vamco
4 Krovanh Dujuan Surigae Choi-wan Koguma Champi In-fa Cempaka Nepartak Lupit Mirinae Nida Omais Conson
Chanthu Dianmu Mindulle Lionrock Kompasu Namtheun Malou Nyatoh Rai Malakas Megi Chaba Aere Songda
5 Trases Mulan Meari Ma-on Tokage Hinnamnor Muifa Merbok Nanmadol Talas Noru Kulap Roke Sonca
Nesat Haitang Nalgae Banyan Yamaneko Pakhar Sanvu Mawar Guchol Talim Doksuri Khanun Lan Saola
References:[2][14]

Philippines

Trami 2018-09-25 0050Z
Typhoon Paeng (Trami) at peak intensity in September 2018

Since 1963, PAGASA has independently operated its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that occur within its own self-defined Philippine Area of Responsibility.[3][15] The names are taken from four different lists of 25 names and are assigned when a system moves into or develops into a tropical depression within PAGASA's jurisdiction.[3][15] The four lists of names are rotated every four years, with the names of significant tropical cyclones retired should they have caused at least 1 billion in damage and or at least 300 deaths within the Philippines.[15][16] Should the list of names for a given year be exhausted, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first ten of which are published every year.[15]

List of Philippine region tropical cyclone names
2019
Main Amang Betty Chedeng Dodong Egay Falcon Goring Hanna Ineng Jenny Kabayan Liwayway Marilyn
Nimfa Onyok Perla Quiel Ramon Sarah Tisoy Ursula Viring Weng Yoyoy Zigzag
Auxiliary Abe Berto Charo Dado Estoy Felion Gening Herman Irma Jaime
2020
Main Ambo Butchoy Carina Dindo Enteng Ferdie Gener Helen Igme Julian Kristine Leon Marce
Nika Ofel Pepito Quinta Rolly Siony Tonyo Ulysses Vicky Warren Yoyong Zosimo
Auxiliary Alakdan Baldo Clara Dencio Estong Felipe Gomer Heling Ismael Julio
2021
Main Auring Bising Crising Dante Emong Fabian Gorio Huaning Isang Jolina Kiko Lannie Maring
Nando Odette Paolo Quedan Ramil Salome Tino Uwan Verbena Wilma Yasmin Zoraida
Auxiliary Alamid Bruno Conching Dolor Ernie Florante Gerardo Hernan Isko Jerome
2022
Main Agaton Basyang Caloy Domeng Ester Florita Gardo Henry Inday Josie Karding Luis Maymay
Neneng Obet Paeng Queenie Rosal Samuel Tomas Umberto Venus Waldo Yayang Zeny
Auxiliary Agila Bagwis Chito Diego Elena Felino Gunding Harriet Indang Jessa
References:[15]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)

Mekunu 2018-05-25 0947Z
Cyclone Mekunu near its peak intensity in May 2018

Within the North Indian Ocean between 45°E – 100°E, tropical cyclones are named by the India Meteorological Department (IMD/RSMC New Delhi) when they are judged to have intensified into a cyclonic storm with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[17] There are eight lists of names which are used in sequence and are not rotated every few years; however, the names of significant tropical cyclones are retired.[18]

List of Northern Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
List Contributing nation
Bangladesh India Maldives Myanmar Oman Pakistan Sri Lanka Thailand
1 Onil Agni Hibaru Pyarr Baaz Fanoos Mala Mukda
2 Ogni Akash Gonu Yemyin Sidr Nargis Rashmi Khai-Muk
3 Nisha Bijli Aila Phyan Ward Laila Bandu Phet
4 Giri Jal Keila Thane Murjan Nilam Viyaru Phailin
5 Helen Lehar Madi Nanauk Hudhud Nilofar Ashobaa Komen
6 Chapala Megh Roanu Kyant Nada Vardah Maarutha Mora
7 Ockhi Sagar Mekunu Daye Luban Titli Gaja Phethai
8 Fani Vayu Hikaa Kyarr Maha Bulbul Pawan Amphan
References:[17]

South-West Indian Ocean (Africa – 90°E)

Idai 2019-03-14 1135Z
Cyclone Idai nearing landfall in Mozambique in March 2019

Within the South-West Indian Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere between Africa and 90°E, a tropical or subtropical disturbance is named when it is judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 34 kn (39 mph; 63 km/h).[5][19] This is defined as being when gales are either observed or estimated to be present near a significant portion of the system's center.[5] Systems are named in conjunction with Météo-France Reunion by either Météo Madagascar or the Mauritius Meteorological Service.[5] If a disturbance reaches the naming stage between Africa and 55°E, then Météo Madagascar names it; if it reaches the naming stage between 55°E and 90°E, then the Mauritius Meteorological Service names it.[5] The names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed.[5] The names that are going to be used during a season are selected in advance by the World Meteorological Organization's RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee from names submitted by member countries.[5]

List of South–West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone names
2019–20
Names Ambali Belna Calvinia Diane Esami Francisco Gabekile Herold Irondro Jeruto Kundai Lisebo Michel
Nousra Olivier Pokera Quincy Rebaone Salama Tristan Ursula Violet Wilson Xila Yekela Zania
2020–21[nb 3]
Names Ava Berguitta Cebile Dumazile Eliakim Fakir Guambe Habana Iman Jobo Kanga Ludzi Melina
Nathan Onias Pelagie Quamar Rita Solani Tarik Urilia Vuyane Wagner Xusa Yarona Zacarias
2021–22[nb 4]
Names Alcide Bouchra Cilida Desmond Eketsang Funani Gelena Haleh Idai Joaninha Kenneth Lorna Maipelo
Njazi Oscar Pamela Quentin Rajab Savana Themba Uyapo Viviane Walter Xangy Yemurai Zanele
References:[19][20]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)

Within the Australian region in the Southern Hemisphere between 90°E – 160°E, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the center which are forecast to continue.[6] The Indonesian Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 90°E and 141°E, while Papua New Guinea's National Weather Service names systems that develop between the Equator and 10°S and 141°E and 160°E.[6] Outside of these areas, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology names systems that develop into tropical cyclones.[6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, each of these warning centres reserve the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named.[6] If a name is assigned to a tropical cyclone that causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that storm is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6][10]

Indonesia

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 90°E – 141°E, it will be named by the Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG/TCWC Jakarta).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A, while list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Indonesian tropical cyclone names
List A
Anggrek Bakung Cempaka Dahlia Flamboyan Kenanga Lili Mangga Seroja Teratai
List B
Anggur Belimbing Duku Jambu Lengkeng Melati Nangka Pisang Rambutan Sawo
References:[6][21]

Papua New Guinea

If a system intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator – 10°S and 141°E – 160°E, then it will be named by Papua New Guinea National Weather Service (NWS, TCWC Port Moresby).[6] Names are assigned in sequence from list A and are automatically retired after being used regardless of any damage caused.[6] List B contains names that will replace names on list A that are retired or removed for other reasons.[6]

List of Papua New Guinea tropical cyclone names
List A
Alu Buri Dodo Emau Fere Hibu Ila Kama Lobu Maila
List B
Nou Obaha Paia Ranu Sabi Tau Ume Vali Wau Auram
References:[6]

Australia

Marcus 2018-03-22 0632Z
Cyclone Marcus at peak intensity in March 2018

When a system develops into a tropical cyclone below 10°S between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) which operates three Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane.[6] The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[6][10]

List of Australian tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Anika Billy Charlotte Dominic Ellie Freddy Gabrielle Herman Ilsa Jasper Kirrily
Lincoln Megan Neville Olga Paul Robyn Sean Tasha Vince Zelia ------
List B
Names Anthony Bianca Courtney Dianne Errol Fina Grant Hayley Iggy Jenna Koji
Luana Mitchell Narelle Oran Peta Riordan Sandra Tim Victoria Zane ------
List C
Names Alessia Bruce Catherine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Ivana Jack Kate
Laszlo Mingzhu Nathan Olwyn Quincey Raquel Stan Tatiana Uriah Yvette ------
List D
Names Alfred Blanche Caleb Dara Ernie Frances Greg Hilda Irving Joyce Kelvin
Linda Marco Nora Owen Penny Riley Savannah Trevor Veronica Wallace ------
List E
Names Ann Blake Claudia Damien Esther Ferdinand Gretel Harold Imogen Joshua Kimi
Lucas Marian Niran Odette Paddy Ruby Seth Tiffany Vernon ------ -----
References:[6][10]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)

Gita 2018-02-14 0150Z
Cyclone Gita at peak intensity in February 2018

Within the Southern Pacific basin in the Southern Hemisphere between 160°E – 120°W, a tropical cyclone is named when observations or Dvorak intensity analysis indicate that a system has gale force or stronger winds near the centre which are forecast to continue.[6] The Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) names systems that are located between the Equator and 25°S, while the New Zealand MetService names systems (in conjunction with the FMS) that develop to the south of 25°S.[6] In order to enable local authorities and their communities in taking action to reduce the impact of a tropical cyclone, the FMS reserves the right to name a system early if it has a high chance of being named.[6] If a tropical cyclone causes loss of life or significant damage and disruption to the way of life of a community, then the name assigned to that cyclone is retired from the list of names for the region.[6] A replacement name is then submitted to the next World Meteorological Organization's RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[6] The name of a tropical cyclone is determined by using Lists A — D in order, without regard to the year before restarting with List A.[6] List E contains names that will replace names on A-D when needed.[6]

List of South Pacific tropical cyclone names
List A
Names Ana Bina Cody Dovi Eva Fili Gina Hale Irene Judy Kevin Lola Mal
Nat Osai Pita Rae Seru Tam Urmil Vaianu Wati Xavier Yani Zita
List B
Names Arthur Becky Chip Denia Elisa Fotu Glen Hettie Innis Julie Ken Lin Maciu
Nisha Orea Pearl Rene Sarah Troy Uinita Vanessa Wano ------ Yvonne Zaka
List C
Names Alvin Bune Cyril Daphne Eden Florin Garry Haley Isa June Kofi Louise Mike
Niko Opeti Perry Reuben Solo Tuni Ulu Victor Wanita ------ Yates Zidane
List D
Names Amos Bart Crystal Dean Ella Fehi Garth Hola Iris Josie Keni Liua Mona
Neil Oma Pola Rita Sarai Tino Uesi Vicky Wasi ------ Yolanda Zazu
List E (Standby)
Names Aru Ben Chris Danial Emosi Feki Germaine Hart Ili Jose Kirio Lute Mata
Neta Olivia Pana Rex Samadiyo Tasi Uila Velma Wane ------ Yasa Zanna
References:[6]

South Atlantic

When a tropical or subtropical storm exists in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center's Marine Meteorological Service names the system using a predetermined list of names. The names are assigned in alphabetical order and used in rotating order without regard to year.[7]

List of South Atlantic tropical cyclone names
Names Arani Bapo Cari Deni Eçaí Guará Iba Jaguar Kurumí Mani Oquira Potira Raoni Ubá Yakecan
References:[7]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The name Rumbia was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020.[12]
  2. ^ The name Mangkhut was retired from the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. It will be replaced in early 2020.[13]
  3. ^ The names Ava through Fakir were automatically removed from the naming lists during the 2017–18 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. No replacement names have been chosen.
  4. ^ The names Alcide through Lorna were automatically removed from the naming lists during the 2018-19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. No replacement names have been chosen.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 16, 2018). "9". Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2018 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-30). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i WMO/ESCP Typhoon Committee (March 13, 2015). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component 2015 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-23). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 1–7, 33–34. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Why and how storms get their names". GMA News. September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  4. ^ a b RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (2010). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2009 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 4, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee (September 16, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean: 2016 (PDF) (Report No. TCP-12). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 13–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (October 11, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2018 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. I-4–II-9 (9–21). Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c "NORMAS DA AUTORIDADE MARÍTIMA PARA AS ATIVIDADES DE METEOROLOGIA MARÍTIMA NORMAM-19 1a REVISÃO" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. 2018. p. C-1-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Dorst, Neal M (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Slides 8–72.
  9. ^ a b Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal M (June 1, 2014). "Subject: Tropical Cyclone Names: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Question. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d "Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. November 10, 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  11. ^ "PAGASA replaces names of 2014 destructive typhoons" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  12. ^ "CMA". www.cma.gov.cn. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  13. ^ "CMA". www.cma.gov.cn. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  14. ^ RSMC Tokyo-Typhoon Center (March 24, 2018). "List of names for tropical cyclones adopted by the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee for the western North Pacific and the South China Sea (valid as of 2018): Names of tropical cyclones". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  16. ^ "PAGASA replaces Tropical Cyclone "Lando" to "Liwayway"" (Press release). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
  17. ^ a b Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2015 (PDF) (2015 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 11–12. Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  18. ^ "Naming of Cyclones over the North Indian Ocean" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
  19. ^ a b La Reunion Tropical Cyclone Centre (August 31, 2015). "How are the names chosen?". Météo-France. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  20. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Naming". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  21. ^ "Cyclone Names". Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2015.

External links

1959–60 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1959–60 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season featured the beginning of tropical cyclone naming in the basin.

1989–90 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1989–90 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only five tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1989, to April 30, 1990, with the first disturbance of the season forming on November 8 and the last disturbance dissipating on March 19. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.During the season at least 15 people were killed from tropical disturbances whilst overall damage was estimated at $196 million. The most damaging tropical disturbance was Cyclone Ofa, one of the strongest storms to affect Samoa in the 20th century, which caused at least $180 million in damage to multiple countries and left eight dead. Cyclone Nancy caused $14 million in damages to Queensland and NSW, Australia and killed four people. During the formative stages of Cyclone Peni, the system caused $1 million in damages to the Cook Islands. Cyclone Rae drowned three people in Fiji but caused only $1 million (1990 USD) of damages to crops and vegetation. As a result of the impacts caused by Ofa and Peni, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.During the season, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Nadi, Fiji, and in Wellington, New Zealand. Whilst tropical cyclones that moved to the west of 160°E were monitored as a part of the Australian region. Both the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Western Oceanography Center (NWOC) issued unofficial warnings within the southern Pacific. The JTWC issued warnings between 160°E and the International Date Line whilst the NWOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the International Date Line and the coasts of the Americas. Both the JTWC and the NWOC designated tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix with numbers assigned in order to tropical cyclones developing within the whole of the Southern Hemisphere. TCWC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate wind speeds over a ten-minute period, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a one-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active cyclone seasons, with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin which is to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1990, to April 30, 1991, with the first disturbance of the season forming on November 23 and the last disturbance dissipating on May 19. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean. During the season there was no deaths recorded from any of the tropical cyclones while they were within the basin. However six people were killed by Cyclone Joy, when it made landfall on Australia. As a result of the impacts caused by Joy and Sina, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

During the season, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Nadi, Fiji, and in Wellington, New Zealand. Whilst tropical cyclones that moved to the west of 160°E were monitored as a part of the Australian region. Both the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Western Oceanography Center (NWOC) issued unofficial warnings within the southern Pacific. The JTWC issued warnings between 160°E and the International Date Line whilst the NWOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the International Date Line and the coasts of the Americas. Both the JTWC and the NWOC designated tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix with numbers assigned in order to tropical cyclones developing within the whole of the Southern Hemisphere. TCWC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and TCWC Brisbane all use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale and estimate wind speeds over a ten-minute period, while the JTWC estimates sustained winds over a one-minute period, which are subsequently compared to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).

1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only two tropical cyclones officially occurring within the South Pacific Ocean basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 1994, until April 30, 1995, with the first disturbance of the season developing on November 12 and the last disturbance dissipating on March 17. The most intense tropical cyclone during the season was Tropical Cyclone William, which affected the Cook Islands. After the season the name William was retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Nadi, Fiji, Wellington, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia. Throughout the season the United States Navy also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings, through its Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (NPMOC). Tropical cyclones that were located between the Equator and 25S were monitored by TCWC Nadi while any that were located to the south of 25S were monitored by TCWC Wellington. During the season the JTWC issued warnings on any tropical cyclone that was located between 160°E and 180° while the NPMOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between 180° and the American coast. TCWC Nadi, Wellington and Brisbane all used the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measured windspeeds over a 10-minute period, while the JTWC and the NPMOC measured sustained windspeeds over a 1-minute period.

1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1995–96 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific Ocean to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1995, until April 30, 1996. The first storm developed on January 12, while the last one dissipated on April 2. During the season the most intense tropical cyclone was Severe Tropical Cyclone Beti, which reached a minimum pressure of 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) as it affected New Caledonia. After the season ended Beti's name was the only name to be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists and was replaced with Bune, after it inflicted over 5.6 million (USD) worth of damage to Australia, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and New Zealand.During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Brisbane, Australia and Wellington, New Zealand. Throughout the season the United States Navy also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings, through its Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (NPMOC). Tropical cyclones that were located between 160°E and 120°W as well as the Equator and 25°S were monitored by RSMC Nadi while any that were located to the south of 25°S between 160°E and 120°W were monitored by TCWC Wellington. During the season the JTWC issued warnings on any tropical cyclone that was located between 160°E and 180° while the NPMOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the 180° and the American coast. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both used the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measured windspeeds over a 10-minute period during the season, while the JTWC and the NPMOC measured sustained windspeeds over a 1-minute period.

2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.During the season at least 16 people were killed from tropical disturbances whilst overall damage was estimated at $218 million (2004 USD; $289 million 2019 USD). The most damaging tropical disturbance was Cyclone Heta which caused at least $211 million (2004 USD; $280 million 2019 USD) in damage to six different countries and left three dead. The deadliest tropical disturbance of the season was Tropical Depression 10F, which was responsible for eleven deaths and caused $2.74 million (2004 USD) in damage. Cyclone Ivy also caused 2 deaths and caused $4.17 million (2004 USD; $5.54 million 2019 USD) worth of damage to Vanuatu. As a result of the impacts caused by Heta and Ivy, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.Within the South Pacific, tropical cyclones are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Wellington, New Zealand. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the South Pacific. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues unofficial warnings within the South Pacific, designating tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute and uses the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

Cyclone Agni

Severe Cyclonic Storm Agni was a tropical cyclone of the 2004 North Indian Ocean cyclone season notable for its record proximity to the equator. It was the second North Indian Ocean cyclone to receive a name, after Onil earlier in the year. Agni formed on November 28 well to the southwest of India in the Arabian Sea, and steadily intensified as it tracked northwestward. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak 1 minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph), while the India Meteorological Department (IMD) estimated peak 3 minute sustained winds of 100 km/h (65 mph); the IMD is the official warning center for the north Indian Ocean. After peaking, it weakened due to wind shear, dry air, and cooler waters, and the JTWC issued its final advisory on December 3 as it approached the coast of Somalia. The remnants of Agni moved along the Somalian coastline until dissipating on December 5.

Cyclone John

Severe Tropical Cyclone John was an intense tropical cyclone that rapidly deepened offshore before devastating areas of Western Australia. The system was the second cyclone and first severe tropical cyclone of the active 1999–00 Australian region cyclone season. Cyclone John developed from a monsoon trough positioned northwest of Australia on 9 December 1999. As it moved to the west and later south as the result of a subtropical ridge under favourable conditions, the cyclone was able to rapidly intensify. John reached peak intensity on 14 December as a Category 5 cyclone on the Australian cyclone scale, the highest rating possible. Cyclone John later began interacting with a mid–latitude trough, which slightly weakened the cyclone prior to making landfall near Whim Creek early on 15 December. Increasingly unfavourable conditions further inland resulted in the cyclone's rapid weakening, before it dissipated during the next day.

Cyclone John extensively affected areas of Western Australia, but damage was not as bad as expected. Widespread power outages across the Pilbara region were caused by John. Strong winds caused minor damage to infrastructure across the coast, as well as tree damage. 140 windmills were destroyed by the cyclone on the coast. Further inland, rainfall associated with the cyclone and its remnants brought flooding, which flooded 25 houses and caused rivers to overflow. The system was responsible for no deaths and a limited amount of damage. After the season, the name John was retired from the Australian tropical cyclone naming list.

Cyclone Tia

Severe Tropical Cyclone Tia was the first of six tropical cyclones to affect Vanuatu, during the 1991–92 South Pacific cyclone season. The system was first noted within the South Pacific convergence zone as a small tropical depression on November 13, to the northeast of the Solomon Islands. Over the next few days the system gradually developed further within an area of light winds in the upper troposphere, before it was named Tia early on November 16. Later that day due to a developing northerly steering current, the system slowed down and undertook a small anticlockwise loop before starting to move towards the southwest and rapidly intensify. After rapidly intensifying throughout November 16 and 17, Tia passed within 55 km (35 mi) of the Solomon Island: Anuta at around 1800 UTC on November 17, before passing near Tikopia Island six hours later. As Tia moved near Tikopia, the system reached its peak intensity as a category 3 severe tropical cyclone, with 10‑minute sustained windspeeds of 140 km/h (85 mph).

During November 18, due to cooler waters and increased wind shear, Tia started to weaken as it moved southwards under the influence of a strengthening upper-level northerly wind flow. Over the next 24 hours, the system continued to move southwards and passed within 150 km (95 mi) of Vanuatu's Banks Islands, while gradually weakening further. Tia subsequently degenerated into a tropical depression during November 20, before it was last noted the next day as it crossed a part of its former track, where it had been producing hurricane-force wind speeds a few days earlier. While it was active Tia directly affected the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, while it indirectly affected Kiribati. The Solomon Island of Tikopia was the worst affected island, after more than 1,000 people were left homeless on the island and 90% of all dwellings were destroyed. Damage was minimal in Vanuatu, and was mainly confined to crops and fruit trees on the Banks and Torres Islands. After this usage of the name Tia, the name was retired and withdrawn from use on the tropical cyclone naming lists.

History of tropical cyclone naming

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane (also known as the "San Felipe II" hurricane) and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

However, there has been controversy over the names used at various times, with names being dropped for religious and political reasons. Female names were exclusively used in the basins at various times between 1945 and 2000, and were the subject of several protests. At present tropical cyclones are officially named by one of eleven meteorological services and retain their names throughout their lifetimes. Due to the potential for longevity and multiple concurrent storms, the names reduce the confusion about what storm is being described in forecasts, watches and warnings. Names are assigned in order from predetermined lists once storms have one, three, or ten-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (40 mph), depending on which basin it originates in. Standards vary from basin to basin, with some tropical depressions named in the Western Pacific, while a significant amount of gale-force winds are required in the Southern Hemisphere. The names of significant tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Australian region are retired from the naming lists and replaced with another name, at meetings of the World Meteorological Organization's various tropical cyclone committees.

Hurricane Eloise

Hurricane Eloise was the most destructive tropical cyclone of the 1975 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, Eloise formed as a tropical depression on September 13 to the east of the Virgin Islands. The depression tracked westward and intensified into a tropical storm while passing to the north of Puerto Rico. Eloise briefly attained hurricane intensity soon thereafter, but weakened back to a tropical storm upon making landfall over Hispaniola. A weak and disorganized cyclone, Eloise emerged into open waters of the northern Caribbean Sea; upon striking the northern Yucatan Peninsula, it turned north and began to re-intensify. In the Gulf of Mexico, the cyclone quickly matured and became a Category 3 hurricane on September 23. Eloise made landfall along the Florida Panhandle west of Panama City before moving inland across Alabama and dissipating on September 24.

The storm produced torrential rainfall throughout the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, causing extensive flooding that led to severe damage and more than 40 deaths. Thousands of people in these areas became homeless as flood waters submerged numerous communities. As Eloise progressed westward, it affected Cuba to a lesser extent. In advance of the storm, about 100,000 residents evacuated from the Gulf Coast region. Upon making landfall in Florida, Eloise generated wind gusts of 155 miles per hour (249 km/h), which demolished hundreds of buildings in the area. The storm's severe winds, waves, and storm surge left numerous beaches, piers, and other coastal structures heavily impaired.

Wind-related damage extended into inland Alabama and Georgia. Further north, torrential rains along the entire East Coast of the United States created an unprecedented and far-reaching flooding event, especially into the Mid-Atlantic States. In that region, an additional 17 people died as a result of freshwater flooding from the post-tropical storm; infrastructural and geological effects were comparable to those from Hurricane Agnes several years prior. Across the United States, damage amounted to approximately $560 million. The storm killed 80 people along its entire track; due to the severe damage, the name "Eloise" was retired from the Atlantic tropical cyclone naming lists.

List of retired Pacific hurricane names

Within the Pacific Ocean, the name of any significant tropical cyclone can be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists by the World Meteorological Organization if it is felt that a storm is so deadly or damaging that the future use of its name would be inappropriate. Storm names can also be retired for other reasons, such as being very similar to another retired name or because it might suggest an undesirable meaning in another language. Within the Eastern and Central Pacific basins, a total of eighteen names have been removed from the official lists. The deadliest system to have its name retired was Hurricane Pauline, which caused over 230 fatalities when it struck Mexico during October 1997, while the costliest hurricane was Hurricane Manuel which caused an economic impact of over $4.2 billion in damage in September 2013. Patricia was the most recent Pacific tropical cyclone to have its name retired, due to its exceptional intensity.

List of retired Pacific typhoon names

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 43 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2019 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Storm (novel)

Storm is a novel written by George Rippey Stewart and published in 1941. The book became a best-seller and helped lead to the naming of tropical cyclones worldwide, even though the titular storm is extratropical. The book is divided into twelve chapters: one chapter for each day of the storm's existence.

Storm naming

Storm naming may refer to:

Tropical cyclone naming

Extratropical cyclone#Terminology

Winter storm naming in the United Kingdom and Ireland

Winter storm naming in the United States

Timeline of the 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1990–91 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season; only two tropical cyclones occurred within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 1990, to April 30, 1991, but the first disturbance of the season formed on November 23 and the last dissipated on May 19. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean. During the season, no one was killed from tropical disturbances within the South Pacific. However, six people were killed by Cyclone Joy when it made landfall on Australia. The only tropical cyclone to cause any damage while within this basin was Sina, which caused at least $18.5 million (1991 USD) worth of damage to Fiji and Tonga. As a result of the impacts of both Joy and Sina, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.Within the South Pacific, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) at the Fiji Meteorological Service in Nadi and by the Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited in Wellington. Tropical cyclones that moved to the west of 160°E were monitored as a part of the Australian region by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Both the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the Naval Western Oceanography Center (NWOC) issued unofficial warnings within the southern Pacific. The JTWC issued warnings between 160°E and the International Date Line, while the NWOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between the International Date Line and the coasts of the Americas. Both the JTWC and the NWOC-designated tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix with numbers assigned in numerical order to tropical cyclones developing within the whole of the Southern Hemisphere. TCWC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over ten minutes, while the JTWC and the NWOC measured sustained winds over one minute and use the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

This timeline includes information from post-storm reviews by TCWC Nadi, TCWC Wellington, the JTWC, and the NWOC. It documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthenings, weakenings, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season. Reports among warning centers often differ; therefore, information from all three agencies has been included.

Timeline of the 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season

The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.During the season at least 16 people were killed from tropical disturbances whilst overall damage was estimated at $218 million (2004 USD; $289 million 2019 USD). The most damaging tropical disturbance was Cyclone Heta which caused at least $211 million (2004 USD; $280 million 2019 USD) in damage to six different countries and left three dead. The deadliest tropical disturbance of the season was Tropical Depression 10F, which was responsible for eleven deaths and caused $2.74 million (2004 USD; $3.63 million 2019 USD) in damage. Cyclone Ivy also caused 2 deaths and caused $4.17 million (2004 USD; $5.54 million 2019 USD) worth of damage to Vanuatu. As a result of the impacts caused by Heta and Ivy, the names were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.Within the South Pacific, tropical cyclones are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) in Nadi, Fiji, and the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC) in Wellington, New Zealand. RSMC Nadi attaches a number and an F suffix to tropical disturbances that form in or move into the South Pacific. The United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues unofficial warnings within the South Pacific, designating tropical cyclones with a number and a P suffix. RSMC Nadi and TCWC Wellington both use the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measure windspeeds over a period of ten minutes, while the JTWC measures sustained winds over a period of one minute and uses the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

This timeline includes information from post-storm reviews by RSMC Nadi, TCWC Wellington and the JTWC. It documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season. Reports among warning centers often differ; as such, information from all three agencies has been included.

Tropical Storm Bess

The name Bess has been used for one tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Ocean, and ten tropical cyclones in the western Pacific.

Bess was used for one tropical cyclone in the Atlantic:

Tropical Storm Bess (1978), hit Nautla, MexicoBess was used for ten tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific:

Typhoon Bess (1952) (T5221)

Typhoon Bess (1957) (T5710), hit southern Japan

Typhoon Bess (1960) (T6014, 30W)

Typhoon Bess (1963) (T6309, 20W), Category 4 super typhoon; hit southern Japan

Typhoon Bess (1965) (T6528, 34W), Category 5 super typhoon

Typhoon Bess (1968) (T6814, 19W)

Typhoon Bess (1971) (T7128, 30W, Yayang), Category 5 super typhoon; struck Taiwan and China

Typhoon Bess (1974) (T7423, 27W, Susang), hit Hainan Island and the northern Philippines

Typhoon Bess (1979) (T7902, 02W, Auring)

Typhoon Bess (1982) (T8210, 11W), Category 5 super typhoon; hit southern Japan and caused 59 deathsThe name Bess was retired after the 1974 season, and replaced by Bonnie. However, when the tropical cyclone naming lists changed in 1979, Bess was re-included. The name Bess was re-retired after the 1982 season, and replaced by Brenda. This made Bess the first known tropical cyclone name to be retired twice in the same basin.

Typhoon Quinta

Typhoon Quinta may refer to:

2004's Typhoon Meari (T0421, 25W, Quinta) – struck Japan

Tropical Storm Maysak (2008) (T0819, 24W, Quinta-Siony) – Quinta was renamed as "Siony"

2012's Tropical Storm Wukong (T1225, 27W, Quinta) – brought flash floods to the Philippines

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