Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Koppen-Geiger Map A present
Locations of tropical climates, with subtypes:

Sub types

Within the tropical climate zone there are three distinct varieties based on precipitation:

Tropical rainforest climate

Tropical rainforest climates (Af) normally occur close to the equator, typically within 10 or 15 degrees north and south latitude of the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone, and area of sinking air, calm winds, and frequent rainfall. Seasonal rainfall is heavy, often more than 200 cm (80 inches) annually. In tropical rainforest climates there is either no dry season or at most two dry months. All 12 months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in).

The Amazon Basin of South America, the Congo Basin of equatorial Africa and oceanic margins of parts of tropical West Africa have tropical rainforests climates. The insular and peninsular area of Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, New Guinea. Indonesia, etc.) comprises the most extensive region with tropical rainforest climate. Eastern Central America and parts of the Caribbean islands, the Atlantic margins of Brazil, eastern Madagascar island, and southern Ceylon comprise smaller areas with tropical rainforest climate.

Cities featuring a Tropical rainforest climate

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia).

(Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter).

Tropical monsoon climate

This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. In this type of tropical climate, there is a short but distinct dry season. Thus, this zone falls under the influence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone at the time of high sun (summer) and under the influence of the drier Trade Winds at the time of low sun (winter). This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation.[1]:200–1:208

Cities featuring a Tropical monsoon climate

Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate

Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than 1/25 of the total annual precipitation. In the Aw tropical climate the dry season is often several months and can be severe, with most plant and animal life adapting to drought conditions for several months. Aw climates often (but not always as in Africa) occur in higher tropical latitudes, between 15 and 20 north and south. Aw climates often feature tree-studded grasslands, rather than thick jungle. It is this widespread occurrence of tall, course grass (called savanna) which has led to Aw climates often being referred to as tropical savanna. However, there is some doubt whether tropical grasslands are climatically induced. Additionally, pure savannas, with out trees, are the exception rather than the rule.

This type of tropical climate occurs in northern Australia, across the Sudan and eastern Africa, and parts south-central Brazil and adjacent parts of Bolivia and Paraguay and western Madagascar in the southern hemisphere. In the northern hemisphere tropical savanna climate occurs north of the Amazon in Venezuela and Colombia, as well as parts of western Central America, western Cuba, and the extreme southern part of Florida in the United States.[1]:208–11

Cities featuring a Tropical savanna climate

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days. This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year.



Owing to different causes certain places within the tropics do not have a tropical climate, such as some desert areas and alpine regions.

  • Examples:
    • Southern part of Arabian Peninsula.
    • The Sahara Desert.
    • Alpine regions of the tropics. Mountaintops within the tropics, e.g. Mount Kenya, can be cold. However, like lowlands in the tropics (and unlike cold winter temperate zone regions), there is little seasonal variation of temperature.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

Intertropical Convergence Zone vertical velocity at 500 hPa, July average in units of pascals per second. Ascent (negative values) is equator; descent (positive values) is more diffuse.

Because of the effect of sun angle on climate most areas within the tropics are hot year-round, with diurnal variations in temperature exceeding seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in tropical climate are dominated by changes in precipitation, which are in turn largely influenced by the tropical rain belt or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a portion of the Hadley cell. The ITCZ is shown, for July average, in the graphic. Areas of ascending air have heavy rainfall; areas of descending air are dry. The ITCZ somewhat follows the solar equator throughout the year, but with geographical variations, and in some areas (India) is heavily influenced by local large-scale monsoons.

See also


  1. ^ a b McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  2. ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-415-12519-2.
Battambang Province

Battambang (Khmer: បាត់ដំបង, IPA: [ˌɓat ɗɑm ˈɓɑːŋ], "A Lost Stick") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the far northwest. Bordering provinces are Banteay Meanchey to the north, Pursat to the east and south, Siem Reap to the northeast, and Pailin to the west. The northern and southern extremes of the province's western boundaries form part of the international border with Thailand. In addition, Tonle Sap forms part of the northeastern boundary between Siem Reap and Pursat. Its capital and largest city is Battambang.

With a population of 1,036,523, it ranks as the third most populous province. In land area, Battambang is the fifth largest province of Cambodia. Battambang is one of the provinces included in the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve. The province's fertile rice fields have led to a mostly agricultural economy giving rise to the moniker "the Rice Bowl of Cambodia". The province features a range of cultures as well as natural resources. Seventy five percent of the area is jungles and mountains. The area has a tropical climate.

Chah Varz

Chah Varz (Persian: چاه ورز‎, also Romanized as Chāh Varz; also known as Chāh Vard) is a city in Chah Varz District, in the Lamerd County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,640, in 521 families.Chah Varz is located about 300 km south of provincial capital city of Shiraz. It has a tropical climate and contains historical places. It is located near one of the biggest natural gas sites (Azadegan).


Futalognkosaurus ( FOO-tə-long-ko-SAW-rəs; meaning "giant chief lizard") is a genus of titanosaurian dinosaur. The herbivorous Futalognkosaurus lived approximately 87 million years ago in the Portezuelo Formation, in what is now Argentina, of the Coniacian stage of the late Cretaceous Period. The fish and fossilized leaf debris on the site, together with other dinosaur remains, suggest a warm tropical climate in Patagonia during this period.

Goan cuisine

Goan cuisine consists of regional foods popular in Goa, an Indian state located along India's west coast on the shore of the Arabian Sea. Rice, seafood, coconut, vegetables, meat, pork and local spices are some of the main ingredients in Goan cuisine. The area is located in a tropical climate, which means that spices and flavors are intense. Use of kokum is another distinct feature. Goan food is considered incomplete without fish.

The cuisine of Goa originated from its Hindu roots, and was influenced by the 451 years of Portuguese colonialisation and the century of Muslim rule that preceded the Portuguese. Many Catholic dishes are either similar to or variants of their Portuguese counterparts in both naming or their use of ingredients.

Ice skating in India

Ice skating is popular in North India in places like Ladakh, Kashmir and Shimla where cold weather occurs and it is possible to skate outdoors. Much of India has a tropical climate, hence in the rest of the country, ice skating is limited to the few artificial rinks available. An ice skating festival is organised in Shimla every year.

Klima Tropiko

Klima Tropiko (Greek: Κλίμα Τροπικό; English: Tropical Climate) is the name of a Greek album by singer Anna Vissi released in Greece and Cyprus in February 1996. It reached 2x Platinum, acclaiming both critical and commercial success and establishing Vissi's image as a pop icon and contemporary artist in both Greece and Cyprus. Eleni, her bonus track, was sung by Hülya Avşar, who is famous Turkish actor and singer as "Sevdim" ("I loved" in Turkish) in 2000.


A landhuis (plural landhuizen) is a Dutch colonial country house, often the administrative heart of a particuliere land or private domain in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. Many country houses were built by the Dutch in other colonial settlements, such as Galle, Cape Town and Curaçao, but none as extensively or elaborately as in the Residency of Batavia (an area that includes parts of modern-day Jakarta, West Java and Banten provinces). Much of Batavia's reputation as "Queen of the East" rested on the grandeur of these 18th-century mansions.They were conceived as replicas of the Dutch architecture. Later, designs included features from Javanese vernacular architecture, partly in response to the tropical climate. The result, a fusion of Western and Javanese architecture, became known later as the Indies Style from the Dutch East Indies. The Indies Style is the first form of a fusion of Dutch and local architecture which gave rise to the subsequent style of early Dutch Rationalist architecture in Indonesia. Despite its heritage and protected status, many of the Indies' country houses were left to deteriorate or were demolished, often due to lack of maintenance. Many of these houses were within the complex owned by the National Police. Many were transformed into dormitories with improper preservation.

List of rivers of Singapore

The geographically small island nation of Singapore has few rivers of significant length or width. The longest of which, the Kallang River, is only 10 km in length. The Singapore River, perhaps the most famous in the country, is of insignificant length as well. However, the country's tropical climate and heavy rainfall require a very comprehensive network of natural draining systems, much of which has become concrete system as urbanisation spread across the island.

Montane ecosystems

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. They are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.

Pato Branco

Pato Branco ("White Duck" in English) is a city in the southwest part of the Brazilian state Paraná. The municipality covers 537,8 km² (206.7 mi²) and has a population of 81,893 (2007 IBGE estimate). Pato Branco started off as a village in 1942 and was given status as a city December 14th 1952. It has two private colleges, Faculdade Mater Dei and Faculdade de Pato Branco, and a campus of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná. The city has experienced a positive economic development throughout the last few years.

Pato Branco is located 760 meters above sea level and has a sub-tropical climate with warm summers and mild winters, morning frost being usual during the winter season. Occasional snowfall. There is no defined period of drought. The coldest month of the year is July with an average temperature of 14.2°C (57.6°F). January is the warmest month with an average of 22.5°C (72.5°F).

The current mayor (elected for 2013-2016) is Augustinho Zucchi.

The city has a small general aviation airport (Juvenal Loureiro Cardoso Airport).

Rugby union in French Polynesia

Rugby union in French Polynesia, particularly on the main island of Tahiti, is a popular sport.Traditionally, matches tend to be held in the evening rather than the afternoon, due to the tropical climate. Because of this, Tahitian rugby organisers tend to put on entertainment during the day, to keep visiting rugby players etc. happy.


Siphofaneni is a town in the Lubombo Region of central Eswatini 45 kilometres from Manzini and 20 kilometres from Big Bend, a major sugarcane-producing town on the main highway leading to Durban. It has a tropical climate, very hot during summer and cold in winter. Malaria is endemic in Lubombo. Siphofaneni has hot springs and is surrounded by several sugarcane farms. It is located on the banks of the largest river in Swaziland, the Usutu. Goods trains of the Swaziland Railways Authority pass through the town.

South Florida

South Florida (colloquially and locally known as SoFlo) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Florida's southernmost counties, including Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach. It is the fourth most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. It is one of Florida's three most common "directional" regions, the others being Central Florida and North Florida. It includes the populous Miami metropolitan area, the Everglades, the Florida Keys, Treasure Coast (which includes Martin and St. Lucie county), and other localities. South Florida is the only part of the continental United States with a tropical climate.

Southern Australia

The term Southern Australia is generally considered to include the states and territories of Australia of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia. The part of Western Australia south of latitude 26° south – a definition widely used in law and state government policy – is also usually included.

Although it comprises about half of the total area of Australia, Southern Australia includes about three-quarters of the Australian population, the two largest cities (Sydney and Melbourne), the political capital (Canberra), the main food growing areas and the main industrial centres. The area is also notable for its primarily temperate, mediterranean, alpine or arid environmental and climatic conditions which contrasts to the mainly tropical climate of Northern Australia.

Southern Australia suffers from bushfires and wildfires.


Sumbe (pre-1975: Novo Redondo) is a city located in west central Angola. It is the administrative capital of Cuanza Sul Province. Its population counts about 26,000. The city has a dry tropical climate. The hottest temperatures are from January to April, and the coldest months are July and August. Air transportation is serviced by Angola Air Services, SAL, and Inter Transit.


Tambunan (Malay: Pekan Tambunan) is the capital of the Tambunan District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Its population was estimated to be around 2,553 in 2010. It is located 80 kilometres east of the state capital, Kota Kinabalu (to which is connected by the Kota Kinabalu-Tambunan-Keningau Highway, 48 kilometres south of Ranau and 48 kilometres north of Keningau. At an average altitude of 750 metres, this valley town, which is part of the Crocker Range, experiences a mild tropical climate all year long. The valley is peppered with terraced paddy fields and 70 villages. The dense forests of bamboo around Tambunan town are a legacy of the British colonial period, during which an edict stated that 20 bamboo sprouts had to be planted for every bamboo cut.

Tropical rainforest climate

A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and has at least 60 mm (2.4 inches) of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot and wet.


The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in

the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone). The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year (which is a subsolar point) - thus the latitude of the tropics is roughly equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt.

The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone.

The tropics comprise 40% of the Earth's surface area and contain 36% of the Earth's landmass. As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, and this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s.

Vietnamese wine

Vietnamese wine is wine produced in Vietnam. The area was first cultivated for viticulture during the French colonial rule of the region in the late 19th century. The region's tropical climate was ill-suited for the type of Vitis vinifera that the French colonists were used to and the wine industry turned its attention to fruit wine production. The late 20th century saw a renewed focus on the development of Vitis vinifera with the assistance of flying winemakers from regions like Australia. In 1995, a joint venture with Australian winemakers started an aggressive planting scheme to reintroduce international grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay to land that was until recently littered with landmines left over from the Vietnam War.

Class A
Class B
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Class D
Class E
Temperate seasons
Tropical seasons

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