Tropical Storm Pabuk (2019)

Tropical Storm Pabuk, also referred to as Cyclonic Storm Pabuk, was a weak storm that struck the Malay Peninsula in January 2019. It was also the earliest-forming storm in both the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and North Indian Ocean basins on record. Forming on the last day of 2018, Pabuk persisted into 2019, spanning two calendar years, and crossed into the North Indian Ocean basin several days later. The first tropical cyclone and named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons, Pabuk originated as a tropical disturbance in the South China Sea on December 28, 2018, which organized into a tropical depression on December 31. A day later, on January 1, 2019, the system intensified into a tropical storm and was named Pabuk. Pabuk made landfall in Thailand on January 4, emerging into the Bay of Bengal in the North Indian Ocean basin shortly afterward. Pabuk weakened after it entered the North Indian Ocean, eventually degenerating into a remnant low on January 7, before dissipating on the next day.

Pabuk killed a total of 10 people, and the storm caused an estimated total of US$157 million in damages. In Thailand, eight people were killed and the economic losses were estimated at about $156 million. Pabuk also caused one death each in Vietnam and Malaysia.

Tropical Storm Pabuk
Cyclonic Storm Pabuk
Tropical storm (JMA scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Pabuk 2019-01-04 0640Z
Pabuk at peak intensity and making landfall in southern Thailand on January 4
FormedDecember 31, 2018
DissipatedJanuary 8, 2019
(Remnant low after January 7)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)
3-minute sustained: 85 km/h (50 mph)
1-minute sustained: 95 km/h (60 mph)
Lowest pressure996 hPa (mbar); 29.41 inHg
Fatalities10 total
Damage$157.2 million (2019 USD)
Areas affectedNatuna Islands, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Andaman Islands
Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon
and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons

Meteorological history

Pabuk 2019 track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical disturbance formed over the southern portion of the South China Sea on December 28, 2018,[1] absorbing the remnants of Tropical Depression 35W (Usman) on December 30.[2] Under high vertical wind shear, the low-pressure area remained disorganized until December 31 when it was upgraded to a tropical depression by both the JMA and the JTWC.[3] As it was designated 36W by the JTWC, it was unofficially the last system of the 2018 typhoon season.[4] At around 06:00 UTC on January 1, 2019, the system was upgraded to the first tropical storm of the 2019 typhoon season and was named Pabuk by the JMA, surpassing Typhoon Alice in 1979 to become the earliest-forming tropical storm in the northwest Pacific Ocean on record.[5] At that time, Pabuk was about 650 km (405 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and drifted westward slowly with a partially exposed low-level circulation center.[6]

Under marginal conditions, including warm sea surface temperatures, excellent poleward outflow but strong vertical wind shear, Pabuk struggled to intensify further for another two days until it accelerated west-northwestward and entered the Gulf of Thailand on January 3, where vertical wind shear was slightly weaker. This made Pabuk the first tropical storm to exist in the gulf since Muifa in 2004. Around that time, the storm tried to form an eye, which was revealed by microwave imagery.[7] On January 4, the Thai Meteorological Department reported that Pabuk had made landfall over Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat at 12:45 ICT (05:45 UTC), although other agencies indicated a landfall at peak intensity between 06:00 and 12:00 UTC.[8] Pabuk became the first tropical storm to make landfall over southern Thailand since Linda in 1997. Shortly after 12:00 UTC, the JMA issued its last full advisory for Pabuk, as the storm exited the basin into the North Indian Ocean.[9][10]

Soon after Pabuk crossed over into the basin, the IMD initiated advisories on the storm, making Pabuk the earliest-forming cyclonic storm for this basin, surpassing Hibaru in 2005, as well as the first cyclonic storm with a name originally assigned by RSMC Tokyo.[11] Over the few days days, Pabuk continued moved west-northwestward, before weakening into a well-marked low on January 7. The system's remnant low then turned to the northeast, subsequently dissipating on January 8.

Impact

Nasa-worldview-2018-12-30T00 00 00Z-to-2019-01-08T00 00 00Z
Satellite loop from NASA's EOSDIS Worldview, displaying Pabuk's lifespan

In Vietnam, Pabuk resulted in the death of one person.[12] The storm also caused an estimated 27.87 billion (US$1.2 million) in damages in the country.[13] Elsewhere, many people were forced to evacuate coastal areas of Thailand. In Bangkok, rain and storm surge flooded roads in the large city, and there was reports of major wind damage by nightfall, with many trees downed.[14] Pabuk killed 8 people in Thailand, including one Russian tourist;[15][16] 3 of the victims were killed by flying debris and the storm surge.[17] Pabuk's damage in Thailand were estimated to be 5 billion bahts (US$156 million).[18] Pabuk killed one person by drowning in Malaysia.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "97W INVEST". United States Naval Research Laboratory. 28 December 2018. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Tropical Depression 35W (Thirtyfive) Warning Nr 023". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 30 December 2018. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  3. ^ "WTPQ20 RJTD 310600 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory". Japan Meteorological Agency. 31 December 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-01-01. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  4. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 36W (Thirtysix) Warning Nr 001". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 31 December 2018. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. ^ "WTPQ20 RJTD 010600 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory". Japan Meteorological Agency. 1 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-01-01. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 36W (Thirtysix) Warning Nr 005". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 1 January 2019. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  7. ^ "JTWC/36W/#16/01-04 00Z Prognostic Reasoning". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 4 January 2019. Archived from the original on 4 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Weather Warning "Tropical Storm "PABUK"" No. 18 Time Issued January 4, 2019". Thai Meteorological Department. 4 January 2019. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  9. ^ "WTPQ20 RJTD 041200 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory". Japan Meteorological Agency. 4 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  10. ^ "WTPQ30 RJTD 041200 RSMC Tropical Cyclone Prognostic Reasoning Reasoning No.18 for TS 1901 Pabuk (1901)". Japan Meteorological Agency. 4 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-01-06. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin No. 1" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. 4 January 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Bão số 1 áp sát miền Tây: Sập nhà, 1 người chết" (in Vietnamese). VietNamNet. January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  13. ^ Trương, Huyền (January 6, 2019). "Hậu quả do bão số 1: Còn 2 người mất tích, thiệt hại ước tính 30 tỷ đồng" (in Vietnamese). Báo Kinh Tế Đô Thị. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  14. ^ Kocha Olarn (5 January 2019). "Storm kills 3 in Thailand, moves into Andaman Sea". Cable News Network. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Thai preparedness limits Pabuk damage". The Thaiger. January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  16. ^ Panpetch, Sumeth (January 3, 2019). "Thailand braces for powerful storm at southern beach towns". Associated Press. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  17. ^ "Tropical Storm Pabuk Strikes Thailand's Resort Islands". The New York Times. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  18. ^ Nguyen, Anuchit (4 January 2019). "Thai Tropical Storm Weakens After Thrashing Southern Region". Bloomberg. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  19. ^ "罔顧「帕布」風暴來襲警報2男子冒險出海遇巨浪釀1死" (in Chinese). Oriental Daily News. January 4, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.

External links

Typhoon Pabuk

The name Pabuk has been used to name four tropical cyclones in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The name was submitted by Laos and refers to a type of large freshwater fish in the Mekong River.

Typhoon Pabuk (2001) (T0111, 14W) – struck Japan

Typhoon Pabuk (2007) (T0706, 07W, Chedeng) – struck Taiwan and China

Severe Tropical Storm Pabuk (2013) (T1320, 19W) – classified as a typhoon by the JTWC

Tropical Storm Pabuk (2019) (T1901, 36W) – earliest-forming tropical storm on record in the Northwest Pacific, surpassing Alice in 1979

Tropical cyclones of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

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