Tropic of Cancer

The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This occurs on the June solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent.[1] It is currently 23°26′12.5″ (or 23.4368°) north of the Equator.

Its Southern Hemisphere counterpart, marking the most southerly position at which the Sun can be directly overhead, is the Tropic of Capricorn. These tropics are two of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of Earth; the others being the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and the Equator. The positions of these two circles of latitude (relative to the Equator) are dictated by the tilt of Earth's axis of rotation relative to the plane of its orbit.

Coordinates: 23°26′12.5″N 0°0′0″W / 23.436806°N -0.00000°E

World map with tropic of cancer
World map showing the Tropic of Cancer
Trópico de Cáncer en México - Carretera 83 (Vía Corta) Zaragoza-Victoria, Km 27+800
Carretera 83 (Vía Corta) Zaragoza-Victoria, km 27+800. Of all crossings of the Tropic of Cancer with Mexican federal highways, this is the only place where the latitude is marked with precision and where the annual drift between the years 2005 and 2010 can be appreciated.

Name

When this line of latitude was named in the last centuries BC, the Sun was in the constellation Cancer (Latin for crab) at the June solstice, the time each year that the Sun reaches its zenith at this latitude. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, this is no longer the case; today the Sun is in Taurus at the June solstice. The word "tropic" itself comes from the Greek "trope (τροπή)", meaning turn (change of direction, or circumstances), inclination, referring to the fact that the Sun appears to "turn back" at the solstices.

Geography

The Tropic of Cancer's position is not fixed, but constantly changes because of a slight wobble in the Earth's longitudinal alignment relative to its orbit around the Sun. Earth's axial tilt varies over a 41,000-year period from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees and currently resides at about 23.4 degrees. This wobble means that the Tropic of Cancer is currently drifting southward at a rate of almost half an arcsecond (0.468″) of latitude, or 15 metres, per year (it was at exactly 23° 27′N in 1917 and will be at 23° 26'N in 2045).[2] See axial tilt and circles of latitude for further information.

North of the tropic are the subtropics and the North Temperate Zone. The equivalent line of latitude south of the Equator is called the Tropic of Capricorn, and the region between the two, centered on the Equator, is the tropics.

There are approximately 13 hours, 35 minutes of daylight during the summer solstice. During the winter solstice, there are 10 hours, 41 minutes of daylight.

Starting at the prime meridian and heading eastward, the Tropic of Cancer passes through the following countries and territories:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
23°26′N 0°0′E / 23.433°N 0.000°E  Algeria
23°26′N 11°51′E / 23.433°N 11.850°E  Niger
23°26′N 12°17′E / 23.433°N 12.283°E  Libya The Tropic touches on the northernmost point of  Chad at 23°26′N 15°59′E / 23.433°N 15.983°E
23°26′N 25°0′E / 23.433°N 25.000°E  Egypt The Tropic passes through Lake Nasser
23°26′N 35°30′E / 23.433°N 35.500°E Red Sea
23°26′N 38°38′E / 23.433°N 38.633°E  Saudi Arabia
23°26′N 52°10′E / 23.433°N 52.167°E  United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi emirate only
23°26′N 55°24′E / 23.433°N 55.400°E  Oman
23°26′N 58°46′E / 23.433°N 58.767°E Indian Ocean Arabian Sea
23°26′N 68°23′E / 23.433°N 68.383°E  India States of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal
23°26′N 88°47′E / 23.433°N 88.783°E  Bangladesh Khulna, Dhaka, and Chittagong Divisions
23°26′N 91°14′E / 23.433°N 91.233°E  India State of Tripura
23°26′N 91°56′E / 23.433°N 91.933°E  Bangladesh Chittagong Division
23°26′N 92°19′E / 23.433°N 92.317°E  India State of Mizoram
23°26′N 93°23′E / 23.433°N 93.383°E  Myanmar Chin State, Sagaing Division, Mandalay Division, Shan State
23°26′N 98°54′E / 23.433°N 98.900°E  China Provinces of Yunnan (passing about 7 km north of the border with  Vietnam), Guangxi, and Guangdong
23°26′N 117°8′E / 23.433°N 117.133°E Taiwan Strait
23°26′N 120°8′E / 23.433°N 120.133°E  Taiwan Chiayi County, Hualien County
23°26′N 121°29′E / 23.433°N 121.483°E Philippine Sea
23°26′N 142°00′E / 23.433°N 142.000°E Pacific Ocean Passing just south of Necker Island, Hawaii,  United States
23°26′N 110°15′W / 23.433°N 110.250°W  Mexico State of Baja California Sur
23°26′N 109°24′W / 23.433°N 109.400°W Gulf of California
23°26′N 106°35′W / 23.433°N 106.583°W  Mexico States of Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas
23°26′N 97°45′W / 23.433°N 97.750°W Gulf of Mexico
23°26′N 83°0′W / 23.433°N 83.000°W Atlantic Ocean Passing through the Straits of Florida and the Nicholas Channel
Passing just south of the Anguilla Cays ( Bahamas)
Passing through the Santaren Channel and into the open ocean
23°26′N 76°0′W / 23.433°N 76.000°W  Bahamas Exuma Islands and Long Island
23°26′N 75°10′W / 23.433°N 75.167°W Atlantic Ocean
23°26′N 15°57′W / 23.433°N 15.950°W Western Sahara Claimed by  Morocco and the  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
23°26′N 12°0′W / 23.433°N 12.000°W  Mauritania
23°26′N 6°23′W / 23.433°N 6.383°W  Mali
23°26′N 2°23′W / 23.433°N 2.383°W  Algeria

Climate

Axial tilt vs tropical and polar circles
Relationship between Earth's axial tilt (ε) to the tropical and polar circles

Excluding cooler highland regions in China, the climate at the Tropic of Cancer is generally hot and dry except for easterly coastal areas where orographic rainfall can be very heavy, in some places reaching 4 metres (160 in) annually. Most regions on the Tropic of Cancer experience two distinct seasons: an extremely hot summer with temperatures often reaching 45 °C (113 °F) and a warm winter with maxima around 22 °C (72 °F). Much land on or near the Tropic of Cancer is part of the Sahara Desert, while to the east the climate is torrid monsoonal with a short wet season from June to September and very little rainfall for the rest of the year.

The highest mountain on or adjacent to the Tropic of Cancer is Yushan in Taiwan; though it had glaciers descending as low as 2,800 metres (9,190 ft) during the Last Glacial Maximum, none survive and at present no glaciers exist within 470 kilometres (290 mi) of the Tropic of Cancer; the nearest currently surviving are the Minyong and Baishui in the Himalayas to the north and on Iztaccíhuatl to the south.

Circumnavigation

According to the rules of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, for a flight to compete for a round-the-world speed record, it must cover a distance no less than the length of the Tropic of Cancer, cross all meridians, and end on the same airfield where it started.

Length of the Tropic on 11 December 2015, at 23°26′14″N is 36,788 kilometres (22,859 mi).[3]

For an ordinary circumnavigation the rules are somewhat relaxed and the distance is set to a rounded value of at least 36,770 kilometres (22,850 mi).

Gallery

Tropicofcancer

Road sign south of Dakhla, Western Sahara marking the Tropic of Cancer. The sign was placed by Budapest-Bamako rally participants; thus, the inscription is in English and Hungarian.

Tropic of Cancer - a few miles from Rann of Kutch

Sign marking the Tropic of Cancer a few miles from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India

Tropic of cancer passes through Madhay Pradesh

Sign marking the Tropic of Cancer in Madhya Pradesh, India

Tropic of cancer nadia wb india

Sign marking the Tropic of Cancer on National Highway 34 in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

Tropic of Cancer in Hualian Taiwan

Tropic of Cancer mark in Ruisui Township, Hualien County, Taiwan

See also

References

  1. ^ "PHP Science Labs". Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ Montana State University: Milankovitch Cycles & Glaciation Archived August 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ RhumbSolve online rhumb line calculator.

External links

155th meridian west

The meridian 155° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 155th meridian west forms a great circle with the 25th meridian east.

165th meridian east

The meridian 165° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 165th meridian east forms a great circle with the 15th meridian west.

170th meridian west

The meridian 170° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 170th meridian west forms a great circle with the 10th meridian east.

175th meridian east

The meridian 175° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, New Zealand, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 175th meridian east forms a great circle with the 5th meridian west.

175th meridian west

The meridian 175° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 175th meridian west forms a great circle with the 5th meridian east.

35th meridian west

The meridian 35° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

40th meridian west

The meridian 40° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 40th meridian west forms a great circle with the 140th meridian east.

50th parallel south

The 50th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and South America.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 22 minutes during the December solstice and 8 hours, 4 minutes during the June solstice. On December 21, the sun is at 63.83 degrees in the sky and on June 21, the sun is at 16.17 degrees in the sky.

65th meridian east

The meridian 65° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 65th meridian east forms a great circle with the 115th meridian west.

80th parallel south

The 80th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 80 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

It passes through Antarctica and Antarctic ice shelves.

Geographical zone

The five main latitude regions of the Earth's surface comprise geographical zones, divided by the major circles of latitude. The differences between them relate to climate. They are as follows:

The North frigid zone, between the Arctic Circle 66.5° N and the North Pole 90° N. Covers 4.12% of Earth's surface.

The North temperate zone, between the Tropic of Cancer 23.5° N and the Arctic Circle 66.5° N. Covers 25.99% of Earth's surface.

The Torrid zone, between the Tropic of Cancer 23.5° N and the Tropic of Capricorn 23.5° S. Covers 39.78% of Earth's surface.

The South temperate zone, between the Tropic of Capricorn 23.5° S and the Antarctic Circle 66.5° S. Covers 25.99% of Earth's surface.

The South frigid zone, from Antarctic Circle 66.5° S and the South Pole 90° S. Covers 4.12% of Earth's surface.

On the basis of latitudinal extent, the globe is divided into three broad heat zones.

Henry Miller

Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer. He was known for breaking with existing literary forms and developing a new type of semi-autobiographical novel that blended character study, social criticism, philosophical reflection, stream of consciousness, explicit language, sex, surrealist free association, and mysticism. His most characteristic works of this kind are Tropic of Cancer, Black Spring, Tropic of Capricorn and The Rosy Crucifixion trilogy, which are based on his experiences in New York and Paris (all of which were banned in the United States until 1961). He also wrote travel memoirs and literary criticism, and painted watercolors.

Panda Bear Meets the Grim Reaper

Panda Bear Meets the Grim Reaper is the fifth studio album by American recording artist Panda Bear (Noah Lennox). It was released on January 9, 2015 by the Domino Recording Company. Panda Bear Meets the Grim Reaper was preceded by the digital release of an extended play, "Mr Noah", and three singles, "Mr Noah", "Boys Latin" and "Crosswords".

Tropic of Cancer (TV series)

Tropic of Cancer is a BBC television documentary presented by Simon Reeve. It was first broadcast on BBC Two in 2010. It follows his previous series Equator and Tropic of Capricorn.

Tropic of Cancer (film)

Tropic of Cancer is a 1970 American drama film directed by Joseph Strick and written by Betty Botley and Joseph Strick. It is based on Henry Miller's autobiographical novel Tropic of Cancer. The film stars Rip Torn, James T. Callahan, David Baur, Laurence Lignères, Phil Brown and Dominique Delpierre. The film was released on February 27, 1970, by Paramount Pictures.Filming took place on location in Paris, produced by Joseph Strick with some help from the author, whose persona was portrayed by Rip Torn and his wife Mona by Ellen Burstyn. The novel had provided a test for American laws on pornography in the early 1960s, and the film was rated X in the United States, which was later changed to an NC-17 rating in 1992. In the UK the film was refused a theatrical 'X' certificate by the BBFC. Strick had previously adapted other works of literature - Jean Genet's The Balcony and James Joyce's Ulysses.

Tropic of Cancer (novel)

Tropic of Cancer is a novel by Henry Miller that has been described as "notorious for its candid sexuality" and as responsible for the "free speech that we now take for granted in literature". It was first published in 1934 by the Obelisk Press in Paris, France, but this edition was banned in the United States. Its publication in 1961 in the U.S. by Grove Press led to obscenity trials that tested American laws on pornography in the early 1960s. In 1964, the U.S. Supreme Court declared the book non-obscene. It is regarded as an important work of 20th-century literature.

Tropic of Capricorn

The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude where the Sun can be directly overhead. Its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer.

The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of Earth. As of 18 March 2019, its latitude is 23°26′12.5″ (or 23.43679°) south of the Equator, but it is very gradually moving northward, currently at the rate of 0.47 arcseconds, or 15 metres, per year.

Xun River

The Xun River (Chinese: 浔江, pinyin: Xún Jiāng, jyutping: Cham4 Gong1) is a short section of the main branch of the Pearl River system upstream from the Xi Jiang in China. Although less than 150 km long, it is of considerable importance in Guangxi Province as it drains the majority of the province. The Xun River in name is formed by the Yu and Qian rivers, with the Qian being the greater of the two tributaries. The Xun then flows out of Guiping and through Pingnan, finally joining with the Gui Jiang in Wuzhou to form the Xi Jiang. The Xun is also a section of the Pearl's longest tributary.

The Xun River flows from west to east roughly along the Tropic of Cancer.

Zhuoxi

Zhuoxi Township (Chinese: 卓溪鄉; pinyin: Zhuóxī Xiāng) is a mountain indigenous township in Hualien County, Taiwan, bisected by the Tropic of Cancer. It lies on the Central Mountain Range (up to 95% of its area) with steep mountains which makes it the highest township in the county. The population is 6,210 inhabitants, including Bunun people, Truku people and Seediq people. The main economic activity is agriculture.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.