Triple Crown (baseball)

Rogers Hornsby (left) and Ted Williams (right) are the only MLB batters to have won the Triple Crown twice. Hornsby achieved this in 1922 and 1925, while Williams accomplished this in 1942 and 1947.

Rogers Hornsby 1928
Ted Williams BBall Digest May 1949 raw

In baseball, a player earns the Triple Crown when he leads a league in three specific statistical categories in the same season. The term "Triple Crown" generally refers to the batting achievement of leading a league in batting average, home runs, and runs batted in (RBI) over the same season.[1][2] The term "Pitching Triple Crown" refers to the pitching achievement of leading a league in wins, strikeouts, and earned run average (ERA).

The term "Triple Crown" is typically used when a player leads one league, such as the American League (AL) or the National League (NL), in the specified categories. A tie for a lead in any category, such as home runs, is sufficient to be considered the leader in that category. A "Major League Triple Crown" may be said to occur when a player leads all of Major League Baseball in all three categories.

Batting Triple Crown

The term "Triple Crown" generally refers to the batting achievement. A batter who completes a season leading a league in batting average, home runs, and runs batted in (RBI) may be said to have won the "Triple Crown".[1] As the term, unless modified, connotes the batting achievement, it may not be necessary to refer to this as the "batting" Triple Crown.

The Triple Crown reflects the ability of a batter to excel in three important ways: to hit safely a high percentage of the time (batting average); to hit the ball long distances (home runs); and to produce when runners are on base, driving them home to score (RBI). It is an uncommon feat to lead all batters in each of these categories. It has been accomplished 17 times in a major league, most recently in 2012, by Miguel Cabrera. Cabrera's was the first since 1967, when Carl Yastrzemski accomplished the feat in back-to-back years with Frank Robinson, the only time this has occurred in baseball history. As such, this helps create enormous offense for a team throughout the season, to the point where the last four times a player won the Triple Crown, his team went to the World Series.

In the major leagues, the most batting Triple Crowns won by a player is two. Rogers Hornsby was the first to accomplish it, winning his first in 1922 and then leading both major leagues in 1925 en route to his second Triple Crown, both with the St. Louis Cardinals.[3][4] Ted Williams later matched this mark in the AL, winning in 1942 and 1947 with the Boston Red Sox.[5][6] The Cardinals have won the most batting Triple Crowns as a franchise with four. Along with Hornsby's two, Tip O'Neill won in the now-defunct American Association in 1887 while the team was known as the St. Louis Browns,[7] and Joe Medwick added the Cardinals' fourth in 1937.[8] Eleven of the thirteen eligible[9] players who have batting Triple Crowns have been elected to the Hall of Fame.[10][11] Baseball writer and ESPN contributor Tim Kurkjian believes the Triple Crown has become more difficult to win with the advent of more hitters who choose to specialize in either hitting for batting average or power.[12]

Batting Quadruple Crown

Even more rare than the Triple Crown is the Quadruple Crown in which a batter leads the league in hits as well as the Triple Crown categories of batting average, home runs, and runs batted in (RBI) over the same season. Not officially recognized by the MLB, Carl Yazstremski achieved this feat during the 1967 season, hitting 189 hits, 44 home runs, and 121 RBI, with a batting average of .326. This was also accomplished by Taiwanese player Wang Po-Jung when he led the Chinese Professional Baseball League or CPBL with a batting average of .407, 31 home runs, 101 RBIs, and 178 hits.[13]

Pitching Triple Crown

Clayton Kershaw (left) and Justin Verlander (right) won the National and American League pitching triple crowns, respectively, in 2011. It was the first time since 1924 that both leagues had pitching triple crown winners.

0308kershaw
Verlander warms up

A pitcher who leads the league in wins, strikeouts, and lowest earned run average (ERA) is said to have won the "Pitching Triple Crown".[14] The term was previously defined as leading the league in wins, ERA, and winning percentage. It was used in that older sense to describe the (ultimately unsuccessful) pursuit of that goal by Johnny Antonelli of the New York Giants in 1954[15] and also by Sandy Koufax in 1963.[16] Koufax was first described as having won the pitching triple crown in the current sense after his 1965 season[17] though the older sense continued to be used.[18]

In contrast to the respective batting statistics, the Pitching Triple Crown statistics are more or less complementary (for example, a pitcher who is especially proficient at striking out batters is likely to give up fewer earned runs, and consequently more likely to win games), therefore, the accomplishment is not as rare as the batting crown.

In the major leagues, the Pitching Triple Crown has been accomplished 38 times. The most by one player is three, accomplished by three players. Grover Cleveland Alexander captured his first two in consecutive seasons with the Philadelphia Phillies (1915–1916), and won a third in 1920 with the Chicago Cubs. Alexander is the only pitcher to win a Pitching Triple Crown with more than one major league team.[19][20][21] Walter Johnson won his three Triple Crowns with the original Washington Senators, leading the league in all three categories in 1913, 1918, and 1924.[22][23][24] Sandy Koufax was the most recent to capture three Triple Crowns, winning his three within four seasons for the Los Angeles Dodgers (1963, 1965–1966); all of Koufax's crowns led both major leagues, the most for any player.[25][26][27]

Other major league pitchers who have won multiple Pitching Triple Crowns include Christy Mathewson (1905 and 1908 New York Giants), Lefty Grove (1930 and 1931 Philadelphia Athletics), Lefty Gomez (1934 and 1937 New York Yankees), and Roger Clemens (1997 and 1998 Toronto Blue Jays).[28]

One pitcher, Guy Hecker, won a Triple Crown in a defunct 19th century major league; he led the American Association in wins, strikeouts, and ERA in 1884 while pitching for the Louisville Colonels.[29]

Eighteen of twenty-four major league pitchers who have won a Triple Crown and are eligible for the Hall of Fame have been elected to the Hall of Fame.[30] The Triple Crown winners who most recently became eligible for the Hall are Pedro Martínez and Randy Johnson. Both were elected to the Hall of Fame in 2015, each in their first year of eligibility.[31]

The most recent major league pitchers to achieve the feat are Clayton Kershaw and Justin Verlander, who won for the NL and AL, respectively, in 2011 (the first season since 1924 to see Triple Crown winners in both leagues).[32]

Major League Records

The first major league pitcher to achieve the pitching Triple Crown was Tommy Bond, in the NL in 1877. The following year, Paul Hines became the first major leaguer to lead the NL in the three batting categories; he and Miguel Cabrera are the only two players to be AL or NL Triple Crown winners and not reach the Hall of Fame, although Cabrera as of 2019 is still playing so ineligible.[10][28] The highest home run total reached by a Crown winner was Mickey Mantle, with 52 in 1956. The highest RBI total belongs to Lou Gehrig, with 165 in 1934. Rogers Hornsby has the highest home run total by a NL winner, 42, from his 1922 campaign. The NL high for RBI is 154, made by Joe Medwick in 1937. Hugh Duffy's .440 average in 1894 is the highest batting average by any player in NL history. Nap Lajoie, in 1901, set the all-time AL single-season high in batting average with .426. Among the major leaguers who earned the pitching Triple Crown, the lowest ERAs belong to Walter Johnson (1.14 in 1913 AL) and Grover Alexander (1.22 in 1915 NL). The highest win total belongs to Charles Radbourn, amassed in 1884, who in that year set a major league single-season record with at least 59 wins.[33][34] Radbourn struck out 441 batters that season, the highest total for a Triple Crown winner. Walter Johnson holds the highest win total by an AL pitching Triple Crown winner, with 36, attained in 1913. Among AL pitching Triple Crown winners, Pedro Martínez registered the highest season strikeout total, with 313 in 1999. Since 1901, the major league pitcher with the highest season strikeout total in the course of a Triple Crown season is Sandy Koufax, punching out 382 in 1965.

Triple Crown winners

Key
Year Links to the article about the corresponding Professional Baseball season
dagger Member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum or Japanese Baseball Hall of Fame
double-dagger Player is active
* Denotes "Major League" Triple Crown
§ Player also won the MVP Award in the same year
HR Home runs
RBI Runs batted in
AVG Batting average
W Wins
K Strikeouts
ERA Earned run average
NL National League
AL American League
AA American Association
CL Central League
PL Pacific League

Major League Baseball

Batting

Research in 2015 restored the Chicago Cubs' Heinie Zimmerman of 1912 to the list.[35] There is doubt over whether Hugh Duffy's 1894 RBI totals were the highest.[36]

Miguel Cabrera (2011)
Miguel Cabrera is the most recent batting Triple Crown winner, achieving it in 2012; the first since 1967.
Year Player Position Team League HR RBI AVG Ref(s)
1878 Paul Hines Center fielder Providence Grays NL 4 50 .358 [37]
1887 Tip O'Neill Left fielder St. Louis Browns AA 14 123 .435 [7]
1894 Hugh DuffyMember of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Outfielder Boston Beaneaters NL 18 145 .440 [38]
1901 Nap Lajoiedagger Second baseman Philadelphia Athletics AL 14 125 .426 [39]
1909 Ty Cobbdagger Right fielder Detroit Tigers AL 9* 107* .377* [40][41]
1912 Heinie Zimmerman Third baseman Chicago Cubs NL 14 104 .372 [42]
1922 Rogers Hornsbydagger Second baseman St. Louis Cardinals NL 42 152 .401 [3]
1925 Rogers Hornsbydagger Second baseman St. Louis Cardinals NL 39* 143* .403* [4][43]
1933 Jimmie Foxxdagger§ First baseman Philadelphia Athletics AL 48 163 .356 [44]
1933 Chuck Kleindagger Right fielder Philadelphia Phillies NL 28 120 .368 [45]
1934 Lou Gehrigdagger First baseman New York Yankees AL 49* 165* .363* [46][47]
1937 Joe Medwickdagger§ Left fielder St. Louis Cardinals NL 31 154 .374 [48]
1942 Ted Williamsdagger Left fielder Boston Red Sox AL 36* 137* .356* [5][49]
1947 Ted Williamsdagger Left fielder Boston Red Sox AL 32 114 .343 [6]
1956 Mickey Mantledagger§ Center fielder New York Yankees AL 52* 130* .353* [50][51]
1966 Frank Robinsondagger§ Right fielder Baltimore Orioles AL 49 122 .316 [52]
1967 Carl Yastrzemskidagger§ Left fielder Boston Red Sox AL 44 121 .326 [53]
2012 Miguel Cabreradouble-dagger§ Third Baseman Detroit Tigers AL 44 139 .330 [54]

Pitching

GC Alexander retouched
Grover Cleveland Alexander won three National League pitching Triple Crowns (1915–1916, 1920) with two different teams.
Sandy Koufax
Hall of Famer Sandy Koufax won three National League pitching Triple Crowns, two consecutively and all three within four seasons.
Walter Johnson 1924
Walter Johnson won three American League pitching Triple Crowns with the Washington Senators.
Year Player Team League ERA W K Ref(s)
1877 Tommy Bond Boston Red Caps NL 2.11 40 170 [55]
1884 Guy Hecker Louisville Colonels AA 1.80 52 385 [29]
1884 Charles Radbourndagger Providence Grays NL 1.38 59 441 [56]
1888 Tim Keefedagger New York Giants NL 1.74 35 335 [57]
1889 John Clarksondagger Boston Beaneaters NL 2.73 49 284 [58]
1894 Amos Rusiedagger New York Giants NL 2.78 36 195 [59]
1901 Cy Youngdagger Boston Americans AL 1.62 33 158 [60]
1905 Christy Mathewsondagger New York Giants NL 1.27 31 206 [61]
1905 Rube Waddelldagger Philadelphia Athletics AL 1.48 27 287 [62]
1908 Christy Mathewsondagger New York Giants NL 1.43 37 259 [63]
1913 Walter Johnsondagger Washington Senators AL 1.14* 36* 243* [22][64]
1915 Grover Cleveland Alexanderdagger Philadelphia Phillies NL 1.22* 31* 241* [19][65]
1916 Grover Cleveland Alexanderdagger Philadelphia Phillies NL 1.55 33 167 [20]
1918 Walter Johnsondagger Washington Senators AL 1.27* 23* 162* [23][66]
1918 Hippo Vaughn Chicago Cubs NL 1.74 22 148 [67]
1920 Grover Cleveland Alexanderdagger Chicago Cubs NL 1.91 27 173 [21]
1924 Walter Johnsondagger Washington Senators AL 2.72 23 158 [24]
1924 Dazzy Vancedagger Brooklyn Robins NL 2.16* 28* 262* [68][69]
1930 Lefty Grovedagger Philadelphia Athletics AL 2.54* 28* 209* [70][71]
1931 Lefty Grovedagger§ Philadelphia Athletics AL 2.06* 31* 175* [72][73]
1934 Lefty Gomezdagger New York Yankees AL 2.33 26 158 [74]
1937 Lefty Gomezdagger New York Yankees AL 2.33 21 194 [75]
1939 Bucky Walters§ Cincinnati Reds NL 2.29 27 137 [76]
1940 Bob Fellerdagger Cleveland Indians AL 2.61 27 261 [77]
1945 Hal Newhouserdagger§ Detroit Tigers AL 1.81* 25* 212* [78][79]
1963 Sandy Koufaxdagger§ Los Angeles Dodgers NL 1.88* 25* 306* [25][80]
1965 Sandy Koufaxdagger Los Angeles Dodgers NL 2.04* 26* 382* [26][81]
1966 Sandy Koufaxdagger Los Angeles Dodgers NL 1.73* 27* 317* [27][82]
1972 Steve Carltondagger Philadelphia Phillies NL 1.97 27 310 [83]
1985 Dwight Gooden New York Mets NL 1.53* 24* 268* [84][85]
1997 Roger Clemens Toronto Blue Jays AL 2.05 21 292 [86]
1998 Roger Clemens Toronto Blue Jays AL 2.65 20 271 [87]
1999 Pedro Martínezdagger Boston Red Sox AL 2.07 23 313 [88]
2002 Randy Johnsondagger Arizona Diamondbacks NL 2.32 24 334 [89]
2006 Johan Santana Minnesota Twins AL 2.77* 19* 245* [90][91]
2007 Jake Peavy San Diego Padres NL 2.54 19 240 [92]
2011 Clayton Kershawdouble-dagger Los Angeles Dodgers NL 2.28 21 248 [93]
2011 Justin Verlanderdouble-dagger§ Detroit Tigers AL 2.40 24 250 [94]

Nippon Professional Baseball

Batting

Hiromitsu Ochiai
NPB Hall of Famer Hiromitsu Ochiai is the only player to have won three batting Triple Crowns in any league.
Year Player Position Team League HR RBI AVG Ref(s)
1938 Fall Haruyasu Nakajima dagger § First Baseman Tokyo Giants JPBL 10* 38* .361* [95]
1965 Katsuya Nomura dagger § Catcher Nankai Hawks PL 42 110 .320 [95]
1973 Sadaharu Oh dagger § First Baseman Yomiuri Giants CL 51 114 .355 [95]
1974 Sadaharu Oh dagger § First Baseman Yomiuri Giants CL 49 107 .332 [95]
1982 Hiromitsu Ochiai dagger § Third Baseman Lotte Orions PL 32 99 .325 [95]
1984 Greg Wells § First baseman Hankyu Braves PL 37 130 .355 [95]
1985 Hiromitsu Ochiai dagger § Third Baseman Lotte Orions PL 52 146 .367 [95]
1985 Randy Bass § First Baseman Hanshin Tigers CL 54 134 .350 [95]
1986 Hiromitsu Ochiai dagger Third Baseman Lotte Orions PL 50 116 .360 [95]
1986 Randy Bass First Baseman Hanshin Tigers CL 47 109 .389 [95]
2004 Nobuhiko Matsunaka § Left Fielder Fukuoka Daiei Hawks CL 44 120 .358 [95]

Pitching

Giants sugano 19
Tomoyuki Sugano is the most recent pitching Triple Crown winner, achieving it in 2018.
Year Player Team League ERA W K Ref(s)
1937 Spring Eiji Sawamura dagger § Tokyo Giants JPBL 0.81* 24* 196* [95]
1938 Fall Victor Starffin dagger Tokyo Giants JPBL 1.05* 19* 146* [95]
1943 Hideo Fujimoto dagger Tokyo Giants JPBL 0.73* 34* 253* [95]
1948 Hiroshi Nakao Yomiuri Giants JPBL 1.84* 27* 187* [95]
1954 Shigeru Sugishita dagger § Chunichi Dragons CL 1.39 32 273 [95]
1954 Motoji Takuwa Nankai Hawks PL 1.58 26 275 [95]
1958 Masaichi Kaneda dagger Kokutetsu Swallows CL 1.30 31 311 [95]
1958 Kazuhisa Inaodagger § Nishitetsu Lions PL 1.42 33 334 [95]
1959 Tadashi Sugiura dagger Nankai Hawks PL 1.40 38 336 [95]
1961 Hiroshi Gondo dagger Chunichi Dragons CL 1.70 35 310 [95]
1961 Kazuhisa Inao dagger Nishitetsu Lions PL 1.69 42 353 [95]
1978 Keishi Suzukidagger Kintetsu Buffaloes PL 2.02 25 178 [95]
1980 Isamu Kida Nippon Ham Fighters PL 2.28 22 225 [95]
1981 Suguru Egawa Yomiuri Giants CL 2.29 20 221 [95]
1985 Tatsuo Komatsu Chunichi Dragons CL 2.65 17 172 [95]
1990 Hideo Nomo dagger Kintetsu Buffaloes PL 2.91 18 287 [95]
1999 Koji Uehara Yomiuri Giants CL 2.09 20 179 [95]
2006 Kazumi Saito Seibu Lions PL 1.75 18 205 [95]
2010 Kenta Maeda double-dagger Hiroshima Carp CL 2.21 15 174 [95]
2018 Tomoyuki Sugano double-dagger Yomiuri Giants CL 2.14 15 200 [95]

See also

References

General
  • "MLB Triple Crown Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  • "MLB Baseball Hall of Fame Inductees". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  • Gammons, Peter; Gillette, Gary; Palmer, Pete. The ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition (ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia). Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-4771-7.
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1999 Colorado Rockies season

The Colorado Rockies' 1999 season was the seventh for the Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise located in Denver, Colorado, their seventh in the National League (NL), and fifth at Coors Field. The team competed in the National League West, finishing in fifth and last place with a record of 72–90, Jim Leyland, a longtime manager in MLB, debuted as the Rockies' new manager, and resigned following the season.

The Rockies, along with the San Diego Padres, made MLB history on Opening Day, April 4, 1999, by playing a contest in Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey in Monterrey, Mexico, making it the first Opening Day game held outside of the United States or Canada. Larry Walker won his second batting title by leading MLB with .379 average, setting a Rockies' club record, and the fourth-high single-season average since Ted Williams hit .406 in 1941. Besides winning the batting championship, Walker also led the major leagues in on-base percentage (.458), and slugging percentage (.710), becoming the first player to lead MLB in all three categories since George Brett in 1980, and the first National Leaguer since Stan Musial in 1943.

Amos Rusie

Amos Wilson Rusie (May 30, 1871 – December 6, 1942), nicknamed "The Hoosier Thunderbolt", was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball during the late 19th century. He had a 10-season career in the National League (NL), which consisted of one season with the Indianapolis Hoosiers in 1889, eight with the New York Giants from 1890 to 1898, and one with the Cincinnati Reds in 1901.

He is best known for the speed in which he pitched a baseball. The velocity of his fastball was unknown, but it has been estimated that he threw it in the mid to upper 90s. He led the league in strikeouts five times, and won 20 or more games eight times. Though he did throw hard, he did not have good control of his pitches, leading the league in walks five times and being seventh all-time among the career pitching leaders in that category. In 1890 he walked 289, the all-time single-season record.

In 1897 one of his fastballs struck future Hall of Famer Hughie Jennings in the head, rendering him comatose for four days before recovery. Rusie's wildness had been a catalyst for officials to change the distance from the pitching rubber to home plate from 50 feet (15 m) to the current 60 feet (18 m), 6 inches. This ruling was made effective for the 1893 season, at the peak of Amos Rusie's pitching prowess. The distance change did not reduce Rusie's effectiveness, as he led the league in strikeouts for three straight seasons afterward, while also winning what later would be known as the pitching triple crown in 1894. For his accomplishments, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1977 by the Veterans Committee.

Baseball Prospectus Internet Baseball Awards

The annual Greg Spira Memorial Internet Baseball Awards (IBA) are based on fan voting. They were founded in 1991 by Greg Spira with the Most Valuable Player, Cy Young (now Pitcher of the Year), and Rookie of the Year awards, in each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball. In 1998, an award for Manager of the Year was added in each league. Spira managed the awards until his death at the end of 2011. The awards were then named in his memory.

Cy Young

Denton True "Cy" Young (March 29, 1867 – November 4, 1955) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher. Born in Gilmore, Ohio, he worked on his family's farm as a youth before starting his professional baseball career. Young entered the major leagues in 1890 with the National League's Cleveland Spiders and pitched for them until 1898. He was then transferred to the St. Louis Cardinals franchise. In 1901, Young jumped to the American League and played for the Boston Red Sox franchise until 1908, helping them win the 1903 World Series. He finished his career with the Cleveland Naps and Boston Rustlers, retiring in 1911.

Young was one of the hardest-throwing pitchers in the game early in his career. After his speed diminished, he relied more on his control and remained effective into his forties. By the time Young retired, he had established numerous pitching records, some of which have stood for over a century. He holds MLB records for the most career wins, with 511, along with most career innings pitched, games started, and complete games. He led his league in wins during five seasons and pitched three no-hitters, including a perfect game.

Young was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937. In 1956, one year after his death, the Cy Young Award was created to honor the best pitcher in Major League Baseball for each season.

Larry Walker

Larry Kenneth Robert Walker (born December 1, 1966) is a Canadian former professional baseball right fielder in Major League Baseball (MLB). During his 17-year career, he played for the Montreal Expos, Colorado Rockies, and St. Louis Cardinals. In 1997, he became the only player in major league history to register both a .700 slugging percentage and 30 stolen bases in the same season, on his way to winning the National League (NL) Most Valuable Player Award (MVP). The first player in more than 60 years to hit at least .360 in each of three consecutive seasons from 1997 to 1999, Walker also won three NL batting championships. Honors include induction into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2007, the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame in 2009, and acclaim from Sports Illustrated in 1999 as the 13th greatest sporting figure from Canada.

Widely considered a five-tool talent of prodigious athleticism and instincts, Walker hit for both average and power, combined with well above-average speed, defense and throwing strength and accuracy. He was recognized as the top Canadian athlete in 1998 with the Lou Marsh Trophy. Other awards include five MLB All-Star selections, seven Gold Gloves, three Silver Sluggers, and nine Tip O'Neill Awards. His career slugging percentage (.565) ranks 12th all-time. Walker is one of only 19 hitters in history to accomplish a .300 batting average, 400 on-base percentage (OBP), and .500 slugging percentage (SLG) with at least 5,000 plate appearances, and one of six whose careers began after 1960. Considering advanced metrics, he is one of three players in history to rank within the top 100 of each of batting runs, baserunning runs, and defensive runs saved; the others are Barry Bonds and Willie Mays.

From the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Walker spent his youth playing hockey with consuming NHL goaltender aspirations. That dream never materialized; however, the Expos saw his baseball potential and signed him in 1984. By 1990, Walker became their starting right fielder, propelling them to the majors' best record in 1994 when that year's strike stopped their first serious World Series run. He signed with the Rockies as a free agent following the season, and, during a six-year period starting in 1997, was the major league batting leader three times while finishing second in the NL twice. In 1997, he also led the league in home runs, OBP, SLG, while joining the 30–30 club, registering 12 outfield assists and leading his position with four double plays turned.

Desiring a trade to a contending team, the Rockies sent Walker to St. Louis in the middle of their 105-win season of 2004 and he made his first World Series appearance while tying or setting three Cardinals postseason records. He announced his retirement from playing baseball after Game 6 of the 2005 National League Championship Series. Following his playing career, Walker has served as a guest instructor for the Cardinals, and, since 2009, has coached the Canadian national team. In that time, Team Canada has competed in three World Baseball Classic (WBC) tournaments, and twice at the Pan Am Games, winning consecutive Pan Am gold medals in 2011 and 2015. Active on the American Baseball Hall of Fame ballot as of 2019, he has appeared nine times in ten years of eligibility, receiving 54.6 of 75 percent required to gain election.

Lefty Grove

Robert Moses "Lefty" Grove (March 6, 1900 – May 22, 1975) was an American professional baseball pitcher. After having success in the minor leagues during the early 1920s, Grove became a star in Major League Baseball with the American League's Philadelphia Athletics and Boston Red Sox. One of the greatest pitchers in history, Grove led the American League in wins in four separate seasons, in strikeouts seven years in a row, and had the league's lowest earned run average a record nine times. Over the course of the three years from 1929 to 1931 he twice won the pitcher's Triple Crown, leading the league in wins, strikeouts, and ERA, while amassing a 79-15 record and leading the Athletics to three straight AL championships. Overall, Grove won 300 games in his 17-year MLB career. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1947.

Players Choice Awards

The Players Choice Awards are annual Major League Baseball awards, given by the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA).

The Players Choice Awards are given following a secret ballot by players. Four awards go to a player in each league, while two awards each go to one player in all of Major League Baseball. Prize money is donated to a charity of each winner's choice.The first Players Choice Awards were given in 1992, to the Comeback Player in each of the two major leagues. There were no other awards that year. In 1993, the Comeback Player awards were replaced by an Outstanding Player award for each league. Then, in 1994, two more categories were added: Outstanding Pitcher (in each league) and Outstanding Rookie (in each league).

In 1997, the dual Comeback Player awards were again named, along with the first-ever single award — the Man of the Year — for one player in all of Major League Baseball. In 1998, a second non-dual award was added, Player of the Year. In addition, the Man of the Year award was renamed in honor of Marvin Miller, former executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association. In 1999, a special Player of the Decade award was given.

In 2015, a third non-dual award was created. The "Always Game" award is given to the player who – game in and game out – constantly exhibits positive energy, grit, tenacity, hustle, perseverance, relentlessness and sportsmanship; all for the benefit of his teammates and fans.

Rube Waddell

George Edward "Rube" Waddell (October 13, 1876 – April 1, 1914) was an American southpaw pitcher in Major League Baseball (MLB). In a career spanning 13 years, he played for the Louisville Colonels (1897, 1899), Pittsburgh Pirates (1900–01) and Chicago Orphans (1901) in the National League, and the Philadelphia Athletics (1902–07) and St. Louis Browns (1908–10) in the American League. Born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, Waddell was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946.

Waddell was a remarkably dominant strikeout pitcher in an era when batters mostly slapped at the ball to get singles. He had an excellent fastball, a sharp-breaking curveball, a screwball, and superb control (his strikeout-to-walk ratio was almost 3-to-1). He led the major leagues in strikeouts for six consecutive years.

Sporting News Pitcher of the Year Award

Sporting News established the Pitcher of the Year Award in 1944. Until the award was replaced by two separate awards in 2013, it was given annually to the pitcher in each league having the most outstanding season. No awards were given in 1946 or 1947. This award was established before there was a Cy Young Award. The Cy Young Award is voted by baseball writers from each city, and critics claim the writers who follow a particular team or player throughout a season are naturally disposed to vote for him. Starting in 2013, the Starting Pitcher of the Year Award and Relief Pitcher of the Year Award are given annually to the starting and relief pitchers in each league judged by Sporting News baseball experts as having had the most outstanding season, and is one of the oldest and most prestigious pitching awards in Major League Baseball.

Triple Crown

A Triple Crown is the act of winning or completing the three most important or difficult or prestigious events, tournaments, or prizes in a given field. Originating in England in the mid-19th century in the sport of horse racing, it has spread to other competitive endeavors.

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Major League Baseball batters who have won the Triple Crown
Major League Baseball pitchers who have won the Triple Crown

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