Trionyx is a genus of softshell turtles belonging to the family Trionychidae. In the past many species in the family were classified in this genus, but today T. triunguis, the African or Nile softshell turtle, is the only extant softshell still classified as Trionyx. The other species still assigned to this genus are only known from fossils. T. triunguis is a relatively large, aquatic piscivore.

Temporal range: Early Cretaceous to recent, 125.45–0 Ma
Trionyx triunguis Zoo Rostock 15-08-2008 084
T. triunguis, the only extant species
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Family: Trionychidae
Subfamily: Trionychinae
Genus: Trionyx
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809


  • Trionyx aquitanicus Delfortrie,1869 (nomen dubium)[2]
  • Trionyx bowerbanki Lydekker, 1889 (nomen dubium)[2]
  • Trionyx buiei Cope, 1869-1870 (nomen dubium)[3]
  • Trionyx halophilus Cope, 1869 (nomen dubium)[3]
  • Trionyx ikoviensis
  • Trionyx kansaiensis
  • Trionyx miensis Okazaki and Yoshida, 1977
  • Trionyx parisiensis Gray, 1831 (nomen dubium)[2]
  • Trionyx quinni Holman, 1982 (nomen dubium)[3]
  • Trionyx sculptus Gilmore, 1931 (nomen dubium)[2]
  • Trionyx triunguis (Forsskål, 1775) – African or Nile softshell turtle

† = extinct


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  3. ^ a b c
African softshell turtle

The African softshell turtle or Nile softshell turtle (Trionyx triunguis) is a large species of turtle from fresh-water and brackish habitats in Africa (larger parts of East, West and Middle Africa) and the Near East (Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey). It is the only extant species from the genus Trionyx, but in the past many other softshell turtles were placed in this genus; they have now been moved to various other genera. Despite the name "African softshell turtle", it is not the only species or genus of softshell turtle in Africa (the genera Cyclanorbis and Cycloderma are also African).


Apalone is a genus of turtles in the family Trionychidae. Species of Apalone are native to North America.

Asiatic softshell turtle

The Asiatic softshell turtle or black-rayed softshell turtle (Amyda cartilaginea) is a species of softshell turtle in the Trionychidae family. It is not the only softshell turtle in Asia (most trionychines are Asian).

Black softshell turtle

The black softshell turtle or Bostami turtle (Nilssonia nigricans, previously placed in genus Aspideretes) is a species of freshwater turtle found in India (Assam) and Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet). It was long believed to be inbred individuals of the Ganges softshell turtle (A. gangeticus or N. gangeticus) or the Indian peacock softshell turtle (A. hurum or N. hurum), but while it is a close relative of the latter, it is a distinct species.

Burmese peacock softshell

The Burmese peacock softshell turtle (Nilssonia formosa) is a species of softshell turtle in the Trionychidae family. It is one of five species in the genus Nilssonia.

Chinese softshell turtle

The Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is a species of softshell turtle that is endemic to China (Inner Mongolia to Hainan), with records of escapees—some of which have established introduced populations—in a wide range of other Asian countries, as well as Spain, Brazil and Hawaii.Populations native to Northeast China, Russia, Korea and Japan were formerly included in this species, but are now regarded as separate as the northern Chinese softshell turtle (P. maackii). Furthermore, localized populations in Guangxi and Hunan (where the Chinese softshell turtle also is present), as well as Vietnam, are recognized as the lesser Chinese softshell turtle (P. parviformis) and Hunan softshell turtle (P. axenaria).The Chinese softshell turtle is a vulnerable species, threatened by habitat loss and collection for food such as turtle soup. Millions are now farmed, especially in China, to support the food industry, and it is the world's economically most important turtle.

Florida softshell turtle

The Florida softshell turtle (Apalone ferox) is a species of softshell turtle native to the Southeastern United States.

Hunan softshell turtle

The Hunan softshell turtle (Pelodiscus axenaria) is a species of turtle in the family Trionychidae, the softshells. It is endemic to China, where it occurs in Hunan Province. It is found in Taoyuan, Pingjiang, Rucheng, Lingling, and Shaoyang counties of Hunan province (Zhou, Zhang & Fang, 1991).

Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle

Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra indica) also known as small-headed softshell turtle is an endangered species of softshell turtle found in rivers of South Asia. It is very large and feeds on fish, frogs, crustaceans and molluscs, which it ambushes. In the past it was included in Chitra chitra; a species restricted to Southeast Asia using current taxonomy.

Indian peacock softshell turtle

Indian peacock softshell turtle (Nilssonia hurum) is a species of turtle found in South Asia, and is listed on the IUCN Red List as a vulnerable species.

Indian softshell turtle

The Indian softshell turtle (Nilssonia gangetica), or Ganges softshell turtle is a species of softshell turtle found in South Asia in rivers such as the Ganges, Indus and Mahanadi. This vulnerable turtle reaches a carapace length of up to 94 cm (37 in). It feeds mostly on fish, amphibians, carrion and other animal matter, but also takes aquatic plants.

Leith's softshell turtle

Leith's softshell turtle (Nilssonia leithii ) is a species of turtle in the family Trionychidae. The species is found in peninsular Indian rivers including the Bhavani, Godavari, and Moyar Rivers. The type locality is Pune in India.

Malayan softshell turtle

The Malayan softshell turtle (Dogania subplana) is a species of softshell turtle in the family Trionychidae. It is monotypic in its genus.

Smooth softshell turtle

The smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica) is a species of softshell turtle of the family Trionychidae. The species is endemic to North America.

Spiny softshell turtle

The spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) is a species of softshell turtle, one of the largest freshwater turtle species in North America. Both the common name, spiny softshell, and the specific name, spinifera (spine-bearing), refer to the spiny, cone-like projections on the leading edge of the carapace, which are not scutes (scales).


The Trionychidae are a taxonomic family of a number of turtle genera. Softshells include some of the world's largest freshwater turtles, though many can adapt to living in highly brackish areas. Members of this family occur in Africa, Asia, and North America. Most species have traditionally been included in the genus Trionyx, but the vast majority have since been moved to other genera. Among these are the North American Apalone softshells that were placed in Trionyx until 1987.

Trionyx ikoviensis

Trionyx ikoviensis is an extinct species of softshell turtles which existed in what is now Ukraine during the early Lutetian age of the Eocene epoch.

Trionyx kansaiensis

Trionyx kansaiensis is an extinct species of softshell turtle uncovered from the Late Cretaceous of Tajikistan and Qyzylorda, Kazakhstan.

Wattle-necked softshell turtle

The wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri ), also commonly known as Steindachner's soft-shelled turtle, is an endangered Asian species of softshell turtle and the only member of the genus Palea. The shell of females of this freshwater turtle reaches up to 44.5 cm (17.5 in) in length, while it reaches up to 36 cm (14 in) in males, which however have a longer tail than the females.

Turtle family Trionychidae
Extant turtle taxonomy


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