Trinity College (full name: The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in the University of Oxford, of the foundation of Sir Thomas Pope (Knight)) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas Pope, on land previously occupied by Durham College, home to Benedictine monks from Durham Cathedral.
Despite its large physical size, the college is relatively small in terms of student numbers at approximately 400. It was founded as a men's college and has been coeducational since 1979. As of July 2013, Trinity had a financial endowment of £104.2 million.
|Location||Broad Street, Oxford|
|Full name||The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in the University of Oxford, of the foundation of Sir Thomas Pope (Knight)|
|Named for||The Holy Trinity|
|Sister college||Churchill College, Cambridge|
|President||Dame Hilary Boulding|
|Boat club||Boat Club|
Location in Oxford city centre
The site where Trinity College now stands was originally occupied by Durham College, built for Benedictine monks from Durham Cathedral. This college had been founded after land was bought in 1291, though monks had been sent to Oxford for a few years previous to this. The site was surrendered to the crown in March 1545, being granted to private owners in 1553. They were then acquired by civil servant Thomas Pope on 20 February 1555 (February 1554 as then was), who used them to found Trinity College 16 days later. Durham College was originally dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St Cuthbert, and the Trinity, and it is thought that Trinity College took its name from the last element of this dedication.
Trinity College was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas Pope, on land bought following the abolition of Durham College during the period of Protestant Reformation, whose buildings housed the original foundation. Pope was a Catholic who had no surviving children, and he hoped that by founding a college he would be remembered in the prayers of its students. His remains are still encased beside the chapel altar. The original foundation provided for a president, 12 fellows, and 12 scholars, and for up to 20 undergraduates. The fellows were required to take Holy Orders and to remain unmarried.
The college remained a largely all-male institution until 1979, when (in common with a number of other Oxford colleges) it admitted its first women undergraduates. It is now fully co-educational and co-residential.
Trinity was one of the locations used for filming of the original series Brideshead Revisited; its grounds were also, in part, the basis for Fleet College in Charles Finch's The Last Enchantments. Trinity has also featured heavily in episodes of Inspector Morse, Lewis and Endeavour.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Trinity and those of its immediate neighbour to the west, Balliol College. It has manifested itself on the sports field and the river; in the form of songs (of greater or less offensiveness) sung over the dividing walls; and in the form of "raids" on the other college. The rivalry is also reflected in that which exists between Trinity College, Cambridge and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge though the two Trinities are not themselves sister colleges.
In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, president of Trinity, was supposedly observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, although the first antagonism was recorded in 1583, the rivalry in its modern form appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side. The traditional words run:
Although these words are now rarely heard, the singing of songs over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli". The traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia during the First World War.
The rivalry was given an extra edge in the early 20th century by the contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and Trinity's traditional conservatism and social exclusivity. The president of Trinity between 1907 and 1938 was Herbert Blakiston, who became notorious for his reluctance to admit non-white students. Notably, he stubbornly resisted pressure from the India Office to admit undergraduates from British India, something that government department was attempting to promote. Balliol in contrast did admit a number of Indian and Asiatic students which gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos".
In Five Red Herrings (1931), a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter (a Balliol man) is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey. 'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers also alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise (1933): Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."
One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR (complete with daffodils). One of the most famous incidents was perpetrated by three Trinity students (Richard Todd, Richard Cohen and Deidrie Small) on the new intake of freshers to Balliol in October 1985. They sent personally addressed letters to each of Balliol's new freshers on Balliol headed notepaper. It enclosed a narrow neck 100ml screw-top receptacle. The attached letter read, "Dear [X], Welcome to Balliol. As you are aware the university requires a short medical check-up as part of your Coming-Up. Could you therefore please provide a urine sample in the attached sample bottle and return it to your college tutor's office by no later than 5.00 PM on Wednesday." The letters were sent out on that Wednesday evening. Balliol admitted to some 57 being returned. The incident was subsequently reported in the Daily Express under the headline, "students play wee joke on neighbours". The incident concluded with Todd and Cohen unfurling a banner over Balliol reading, "We are Balliol. Please Don't Take The Piss!". The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalism of Trinity's SCR pond in 2010, which led to the death of all but one of the fish.
The main entrance to the college is on Broad Street, located between Balliol College and Blackwell's bookshop, and opposite Turl Street. It is enclosed by an iron palisade rather than a wall, and the college's distinctive blue gates provide it with a more open and accessible appearance than many others in Oxford. The rear of the college backs onto St John's College, and has entrances on both St Giles' and Parks Road. As well as its four major quadrangles, the college also boasts a large lawn and expansive gardens, which include a small area of woodland.
Durham College was built around a single quadrangle, now known as the Durham quadrangle. The only major surviving building from the Durham College foundation is the east range of Durham quad, containing the Old Library, which dates from 1421, although elements of the pre-Reformation fabric also survive on the opposite side of the quad, at either end of the 17th-century hall.
The chapel, though relatively modest in size compared to some of its Oxford counterparts, was the first college chapel to be designed entirely in the Baroque style. It was designed by Henry Aldrich, with advice from Christopher Wren, and was consecrated in 1694.
On the top of the west tower sit four female statues, which represent Astronomy, Geometry, Medicine, and Theology.
The front quadrangle between the Durham quadrangle and Broad Street was formed by the new buildings (1883–1885) and the president's lodgings (1885–1887), both designed by Thomas Graham Jackson. It also includes some older buildings on Broad Street: four old cottages and Kettell Hall, a stone house built by President Ralph Kettell in around 1620.
The college offers accommodation to all undergraduate students. First and second years are housed on the college's main site, and third and fourth years in college buildings on the Woodstock Road. The college has a squash court on site.
The Trinity College Chapel Choir consists of up to eight choral scholars and over thirty voluntary singers. The College has one of the largest chapel choirs in the university with the majority of members from within the college. The choir sing a weekly Evensong on a Sunday with occasional weekly services to mark college events. Trinity College has no music director, and responsibility falls to the organ scholars and is overseen by the chaplain.
The choir goes on annual tours, recent tours include Dublin in 2008, where they sang concerts and a Sung Eucharist in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, Rome in Summer 2009, Paris in 2010, Barcelona in 2011 and Vienna in 2012. In 2009, the choir released a CD, called 'A Voice from Afar', directed by then-organ scholar, Catherine Wallace.
In over four centuries of its history, Trinity has produced a number of notable students who have led careers in fields such as; academia, politics, science, religions and the arts.
Sir Adolphus Oughton, 1st Baronet of Tachbrook, Warwickshire (c. 1685 – 4 September 1736), was a British Army officer and politician.
Oughton was the son of Adolphus Oughton and Mary Samwell, daughter of Richard Samwell, of Upton, Northamptonshire. and educated at Trinity College, Oxford and the Middle Temple (1703).
He joined the British Army and was a captain and lieutenant-colonel in the 1st Foot Guards (1706), a 1st major and colonel in the Coldstream Guards (1715) and a lieutenant-colonel (1717) in the 8th Dragoons, of which regiment he assumed the colonelcy in 1733. He was promoted brigadier-general in 1735. He was Groom of the Bedchamber to the Prince of Wales from 1714 to 1717.He sat as Member of Parliament for Coventry between 1715 and 1736. In 1718 he was created a baronet, of Tetchbrook in the County of Warwick.He died in September 1736. He had first married his cousin, Frances Wagstaffe, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Wagstaffe and the widow of Sir Edward Bagot, 4th Baronet, M.P., of Blithfield, Staffordshire. He secondly married Elizabeth, the daughter of John Baber of Sunninghill, Berkshire. He had no legitimate children and thus the baronetcy became extinct, although he did however leave an illegitimate son, James Adolphus Dickenson Oughton, who became a lieutenant-general in the British Army.Anthony Quinton
Anthony Meredith Quinton, Baron Quinton, FBA (25 March 1925 – 19 June 2010) was a British political and moral philosopher, metaphysician, and materialist philosopher of mind.Anthony Russell
Anthony John Russell (born 25 January 1943) is a retired British Church of England bishop. He was the Bishop of Dorchester from 1988 to 2000 and Bishop of Ely from 2000 to 2010.Archibald Robertson (bishop)
Archibald Robertson (29 June 1853 – 29 January 1931) was the seventh Principal of King's College London who later served as Bishop of Exeter.Arthur Cartwright
Arthur Babington Cartwright was Archdeacon of Malta from 1897 to 1901.Cartwright was born in 1856, educated at Trinity College, Oxford and ordained in 1884. He served curacies in Bramshott, Ringwood and Mayfair. In 1895 he married Annie Isabella Chadwick at St Mary, Charlton-on-Otmoor. They moved to Valletta where he was Chaplain until his promotion to Archdeacon. He was Rector of Icklingham.Brownlow North
Brownlow North (17 July 1741 – 12 July 1820) was a bishop of the Church of England.Christopher Tolkien
Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November 1924) is the third son of the author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973), and the editor of much of his father's posthumously published work. He drew the original maps for his father's The Lord of the Rings, which he signed C. J. R. T.Constantine Louloudis
Constantine Michael Louloudis (born 15 September 1991) is a Greek-British rower. He is a dual Olympian, two time Olympic medal winner and two time world champion.Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (19 June 1897 – 9 October 1967) was an English physical chemist and a Nobel Prize laureate.Damian Hinds
Damian Patrick George Hinds (born 27 November 1969) is a British Conservative Party politician who is the Education Secretary and Member of Parliament (MP) for East Hampshire. He was Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury from May 2015 until he was made Employment Minister at the Department for Work and Pensions by the Prime Minister in July 2016. He was promoted to Secretary of State for Education on 8 January 2018.George Neville-Grenville
In this name, the family name is Neville (until 1825) or Neville-Grenville (after 1825), not Grenville. The Very Rev George Neville-Grenville (surnamed Neville until 1825; 17 August 1789 – 10 June 1854) was Dean of Windsor in the mid nineteenth century.Neville was born a younger son of the Hon Richard Griffin MP (later 2nd Baron Braybrooke) and the Hon Mrs Griffin (née Catherine Grenville and later Lady Braybrooke, a daughter of prime minister George Grenville); his elder brother was (later) Richard Griffin, 3rd Baron Braybrooke. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge from 1813; Dean of Windsor from 1846, and held both posts until his death. An Honorary Chaplain to the Queen, he was also registrar of the Order of the Garter. Of his two sons, one (Ralph) was a Tory MP; the other (Frederick) was a priest – vicar of Butleigh and a prebendary at Wells Cathedral.John Gilbert (archbishop of York)
John Gilbert (18 October 1693–9 August 1761) was Archbishop of York from 1757 to 1761.John Percival (bishop)
John Percival (27 September 1834 – 3 December 1918) was the first headmaster of Clifton College, where he made his reputation as a great educator. In his 17 years at Clifton numbers rose to 680. He accepted the presidency of Trinity College, Oxford to recover from his years at Clifton. It was from Trinity that he went to Rugby to become headmaster of Rugby School before becoming Bishop of Hereford.Nathaniel Lloyd
Sir Nathaniel Lloyd (1669–1745) was an English jurist and Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.Phil Harvey (manager)
Philip Christopher Hammond Harvey (born 29 August 1976) is an English creative director and manager of the band Coldplay.Harvey attended Sherborne School alongside Chris Martin from 1990 to 1995, where he was the second academic scholar in his year group; he then proceeded to study Classics at Trinity College, Oxford.Ralph Bathurst
Ralph Bathurst, FRS (1620 – 14 June 1704) was an English theologian and physician.Robert Skinner (bishop)
Robert Skinner (10 February, 1591 – 14 June, 1670) was an English bishop successively of Bristol, Oxford, and Worcester.Robert Wright (English bishop)
Robert Wright (1560–1643) was an English bishop, first holding the see of Bristol and then the see of Lichfield and Coventry. He died at an episcopal palace, under siege in the First English Civil War.Thomas Legh Claughton
Thomas Legh Claughton (6 November 1808 – 25 July 1892) was a British academic, poet and clergyman. He was professor of poetry at Oxford University from 1852 to 1857; Bishop of Rochester; and the first Bishop of St Albans.
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