Trier

Trier (/trɪər/ TREER,[2][3] German: [tʁiːɐ̯] (listen); Luxembourgish: Tréier [ˈtʀəɪ̯ɐ]), formerly known in English as Treves (/trɛv/ TREV;[4][5] French: Trèves [tʁɛv]) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region. The German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.

Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was later conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum (Latin for "The City of Augustus among the Treveri"). Trier may be the oldest city in Germany.[6][7] It is also the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. The Archbishop-Elector also had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz, Ludwigshafen, and Koblenz.[8] The nearest major cities are Luxembourg (50 km or 31 mi to the southwest), Saarbrücken (80 kilometres or 50 miles southeast), and Koblenz (100 km or 62 mi northeast).

The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD (Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion), which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, and the Academy of European Law (ERA) are all based in Trier. It is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg, Metz and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux (Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg), Rhineland-Palatinate, and Wallonia.

Trier
View over Trier
View over Trier
Coat of arms of Trier

Coat of arms
Location of Trier
Trier is located in Germany
Trier
Trier
Trier is located in Rhineland-Palatinate
Trier
Trier
Coordinates: 49°45′N 6°38′E / 49.750°N 6.633°ECoordinates: 49°45′N 6°38′E / 49.750°N 6.633°E
CountryGermany
StateRhineland-Palatinate
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • Lord MayorWolfram Leibe (SPD)
Area
 • Total117.13 km2 (45.22 sq mi)
Elevation
137 m (449 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31)[1]
 • Total110,013
 • Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Trevian
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
54290–54296 (except 54291)
Dialling codes0651
Vehicle registrationTR
Websitewww.trier.de

History

The first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier.[9] The city of Trier derives its name from the later Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum.

Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum in the 4th century

The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum about 16 BC.[10] The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city later became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul; after the Diocletian Reforms, it became the capital of the prefecture of the Gauls, overseeing much of the Western Roman Empire. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and perhaps as much as 100,000.[11][12][13][14] The Porta Nigra ("Black Gate") dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418, probably in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles. The city continued to be inhabited but was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, and high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.

Trier Stadtmodell
Scale Model of Trier around 1800

The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established.

In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held, perhaps the largest witch trial in European history. It was certainly one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, and the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, and was as such perhaps the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime. This counts only those executed within the city itself, and the real number of executions, counting also those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore even larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established; a total of 1,000 has been suggested but not confirmed.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in finally claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. The German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.

As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.

In June 1940 over 60,000 British prisoners of war, captured at Dunkirk and Northern France, were marched to Trier, which became a staging post for British soldiers headed for German prisoner-of-war camps. Trier was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. The university, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral of Trier was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984.

Geography

View of the city from St. Mary's Column (Mariensäule).
View of the city from St. Mary's Column (Mariensäule).
Trier from the east (Petrisberg).
Trier from the east (Petrisberg).

Trier sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück plateau in the south and the Eifel in the north. The border with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is some 15 km (9 mi) away.

Largest groups of foreign residents
Country of birth Population (2013)
 Poland 688
 France 675
 Luxembourg 573
 Ukraine 476
 Russia 444

Neighbouring municipalities

Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg district

Schweich, Kenn and Longuich (all part of the Verbandsgemeinde Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße), Mertesdorf, Kasel, Waldrach, Morscheid, Korlingen, Gutweiler, Sommerau and Gusterath (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer), Hockweiler, Franzenheim (both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land), Konz (Verbandsgemeinde Konz), Igel, Trierweiler, Aach, Newel, Kordel, Zemmer (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land)

Organization of city districts

Ortsbezirke-trier
Districts of Trier

The Trier urban area is divided into 19 city districts. For each district there is an Ortsbeirat (local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an Ortsvorsteher (local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets.

The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (December 31, 2009):

Official district number District with associated sub-districts Area
in km2
Inhabitants
11 Mitte/Gartenfeld 2.978 11,954
12 Nord (Nells Ländchen, Maximin) 3.769 13,405
13 Süd (St. Barbara, St. Matthias or St. Mattheis) 1.722 9,123
21 Ehrang/Quint 26.134 9,195
22 Pfalzel 2.350 3,514
23 Biewer 5.186 1,949
24 Ruwer/Eitelsbach 9.167 3,091
31 West/Pallien 8.488 7,005
32 Euren (Herresthal) 13.189 4,207
33 Zewen (Oberkirch) 7.496 3,634
41 Olewig 3.100 3,135
42 Kürenz (Alt-Kürenz, Neu-Kürenz) 5.825 8,708
43 Tarforst 4.184 6,605
44 Filsch 1.601 761
45 Irsch 4.082 2,351
46 Kernscheid 3.768 958
51 Feyen/Weismark 5.095 5,689
52 Heiligkreuz (Alt-Heiligkreuz, Neu-Heiligkreuz, St. Maternus) 2.036 6,672
53 Mariahof (St. Michael) 7.040 3,120
Totals 117.210 105,076

Climate

Trier has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), but with greater extremes than the marine versions of northern Germany. Summers are warm except in unusual heat waves and winters are reoccurringly cold, but not strict. Precipitation is high despite not being on the coast.[15] As a result of the European heat wave in 2003, the highest temperature recorded was 39 °C on 8 August of that year. The lowest recorded temperature was -19.3 °C on February 2, 1956.[16]

Main sights

Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Trier Kaiserthermen BW 1
Ruins of the Imperial Baths
IncludesAmphitheater, Roman bridge, Barbara Baths, Igel Column, Porta Nigra, Imperial Baths, Aula Palatina, Cathedral and Liebfrauenkirche
CriteriaCultural: i, iii, iv, vi
Reference367
Inscription1986 (10th Session)

Trier is known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:

Museums

Rheinische Landesmusée Tréier
Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier
  • Rheinisches Landesmuseum (an important archaeological museum for the Roman period; also some early Christian and Romanesque sculpture);
  • Domschatzkammer (Treasury of Trier Cathedral; with the Egbert Shrine, the reliquary of the Holy Nail, the cup of Saint Helena and other reliquaries, liturgical objects, ivories, manuscripts, etc., many from the Middle Ages);
  • Museum am Dom, formerly Bischöfliches Dom- und Diözesanmuseum (Museum of the Diocese of Trier; religious art, also some Roman artefacts);
  • Stadtmuseum Simeonstift (history of Trier, displaying among other exhibits a scale model of the medieval city);
  • Karl Marx House; a museum exhibiting Marx's personal history, volumes of poetry, original letters, and photographs with personal dedications. There is also a collection of rare first editions and international editions of his works, as well as exhibits on the development of socialism in the 19th century;
  • Toy Museum of Trier;
  • Ethnological and open-air museum Roscheider Hof, a museum in the neighbouring town of Konz, right at the city limits of Trier, which shows the history of rural culture in the northwest Rhineland Palatinate and in the area where Germany, Luxembourg and Lorraine meet;
  • Fell Exhibition Slate Mine; site in the municipality of Fell, 20 km (12 mi) from Trier, containing an underground mine, a mine museum, and a slate mining trail.

Education

Uni Trier Campus 1
Uni Trier Campus 1
HochschuleTrier Central Campus
University of applied sciences, central campus

Trier is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences. The Academy of European Law (ERA) was established in 1992 and provides training in European law to legal practitioners. In 2010 there were about 40 Kindergärten,[18] 25 primary schools and 23 secondary schools in Trier, such as the Humboldt Gymnasium Trier, Max Planck Gymnasium, Auguste Viktoria Gymnasium and the Nelson-Mandela Realschule Plus, Kurfürst-Balduin Realschule Plus, Realschule Plus Ehrang.[19]

Annual events

Tourists in Trier, Germany
Tourists in Trier, Germany.
Sign in Trier's tourist district
Sign in Trier's tourist district.

Transportation

Trier station has direct railway connections to many cities in the region. The nearest cities by train are Cologne, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. Via the motorways A 1, A 48 and A 64 Trier is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken and Luxembourg. The nearest commercial (international) airports are in Luxembourg (0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn (1:00 h), Saarbrücken (1:00 h), Frankfurt (2:00 h) and Cologne/Bonn (2:00 h). The Moselle is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises. A new passenger railway service on the western side of the Mosel is scheduled to open in December 2018.[20]

Sports

Moselstadium Trier 02
Moselstadium Trier

Major sports clubs in Trier include:

Notable residents

See Heinz Monz: Trierer Biographisches Lexikon. Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, Koblenz 2000. 539 p. ISBN 3-931014-49-5.

Karl Marx 001
Karl Marx
Caspar-Olevian
Kaspar Olevianus

International relations

Trier is a fellow member of the QuattroPole union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, and Metz (neighbouring countries: Luxembourg and France).

Twinning

Trier is twinned with:

Namesakes

References

  1. ^ "Bevölkerungsstand 2017 - Gemeindeebene". Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (in German). 2018.
  2. ^ "Trier" (US) and "Trier". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  3. ^ "Trier". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  4. ^ "Trèves" (US) and "Trèves". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  5. ^ "Trèves". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  6. ^ Rathaus der Stadt Trier. "Stadt Trier - City of Trier - La Ville de Trèves | Website of the Municipality of Trier". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-08-08. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  7. ^ The honor is disputed among Trier, Worms, Kempten, and Cologne.
  8. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden am 31.12.2010" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (in German). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31.
  9. ^ See: Heinen, pp. 1-12.
  10. ^ The City of Trier, Uni Trier, retrieved 11 May 2019
  11. ^ "TRIER THE CENTER OF ANTIQUITY IN GERMANY" (PDF). 8 March 2012. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  12. ^ LaVerne, F.K. (1991). Europe by Eurail 2010: Touring Europe by Train. Globe Pequot Press. p. 337. ISBN 9780762761630. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  13. ^ 2.
  14. ^ "The Fall and Decline of the Roman Urban Mind | Svante Fischer and Helena Victor - Academia.edu". academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  15. ^ "Trier, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
  16. ^ "Wetterrekorde Deutschland". Wetterdienst.de (in German). Retrieved 2019-02-02.
  17. ^ "Trier (10609) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  18. ^ "Stadt Trier - Startseite | Kindergärten in Trier". cms.trier.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  19. ^ "Stadt Trier - Startseite – Schulen in Trier". cms.trier.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  20. ^ Fender, Keith (12 February 2014). "Plans approved for Trier suburban line Written by". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  21. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Helena - Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon". heiligenlexikon.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.
  22. ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula (in Croatian and Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
  23. ^ "Fort Worth". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-11.

External links

Antichrist (film)

Antichrist is a 2009 English-language Danish experimental horror film written and directed by Lars von Trier, and starring Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg. It tells the story of a couple who, after the death of their child, retreat to a cabin in the woods where the man experiences strange visions and the woman manifests increasingly violent sexual behaviour and sadomasochism. The narrative is divided into a prologue, four chapters and an epilogue.

Written in 2006 while von Trier had been hospitalised due to a significant depressive episode, the film was largely influenced by his own struggles with depression and anxiety. Filming began in the late summer of 2008, primarily in Germany, and was a Danish production co-produced by several other film production companies from six different European countries.

After its premiere at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival, where Gainsbourg won the festival's award for Best Actress, the film immediately caused controversy, with critics generally praising its artistic execution but remaining strongly divided regarding its substantive merit. Other awards won by the film include the Robert Award for best Danish film, The Nordic Council Film Prize for best Nordic film and the European Film Award for best cinematography. The film is dedicated to the Soviet filmmaker Andrei Tarkovsky (1932–86).

Antichrist is the first film in von Trier's unofficially titled Depression Trilogy. It was followed in 2011 by Melancholia and then by Nymphomaniac in 2013.

Breaking the Waves

Breaking the Waves is a 1996 drama film directed and written by Lars von Trier and starring Emily Watson. Set in the Scottish Highlands in the early 1970s, it is about an unusual young woman and of the love she has for her husband, who asks her to have sex with other men when he becomes immobilized from a work accident. The film is an international co-production led by von Trier's Danish company Zentropa. It is the first film in Trier's Golden Heart Trilogy which also includes The Idiots (1998) and Dancer in the Dark (2000).

As von Trier's first film made after his founding of the Dogme 95 movement, it is heavily influenced by the movement's style and ethos, although the film breaks several of the rules laid out by the movement's manifesto. Breaking the Waves has been described as "perhaps von Trier's most widely acclaimed film", and has won numerous awards including the Grand Prix at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival.

Cathedral of Trier

The High Cathedral of Saint Peter in Trier (German: Hohe Domkirche St. Peter zu Trier), or Cathedral of Trier (German: Trierer Dom), is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the oldest church in Germany and the largest religious structure in Trier, notable for its long life span and grand design. The central part of the nave was built of Roman brick in the early fourth century, resulting in a cathedral that was added onto gradually in different eras. The imposing Romanesque westwork, with four towers and an additional apse, has been copied repeatedly. The Trier Cathedral Treasury contains an important collection of Christian art. In 1986 the church was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier.

DBLP

DBLP is a computer science bibliography website. Starting in 1993 at the University of Trier, Germany, it grew from a small collection of HTML files and became an organization hosting a database and logic programming bibliography site. DBLP listed more than 3.66 million journal articles, conference papers, and other publications on computer science in July 2016, up from about 14,000 in 1995. All important journals on computer science are tracked. Proceedings papers of many conferences are also tracked. It is mirrored at three sites across the Internet.For his work on maintaining DBLP, Michael Ley received an award from the Association for Computing Machinery and the VLDB Endowment Special Recognition Award in 1997.

DBLP originally stood for DataBase systems and Logic Programming. As a backronym, it has been taken to stand for Digital Bibliography & Library Project; however, it is now preferred that the acronym be simply a name, hence the new title "The DBLP Computer Science Bibliography".Users of dblp remain unaffected by some additional attributes in the DTD as of February 2016, which are meant to support future versions of the data file. Thus consumers of the raw dblp.xml file should update their local dblp.dtd file, according to the notice on the home page, as of February 2016.

Dancer in the Dark

Dancer in the Dark (Danish: Danser i mørket) is a 2000 musical melodrama film directed by Lars von Trier. It stars Icelandic musician Björk as a daydreaming immigrant factory worker who suffers from a degenerative eye condition and is saving up to pay for an operation to prevent her young son from suffering the same fate. Catherine Deneuve, David Morse, Cara Seymour, Peter Stormare, Siobhan Fallon Hogan and Joel Grey also star.

The soundtrack for the film, released as the album Selmasongs, was written mainly by Björk, but a number of songs featured contributions from Mark Bell and the lyrics were by von Trier and Sjón. Three songs from Rodgers and Hammerstein's The Sound of Music were also used in the film.

This is the third film in von Trier's "Golden Heart Trilogy"; the other two films are Breaking the Waves (1996) and The Idiots (1998). The film was an international co-production among companies based in thirteen countries and regions: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was shot with a handheld camera, and was somewhat inspired by a Dogme 95 look.

Dancer in the Dark premiered at the 2000 Cannes Film Festival to standing ovations and controversy, but was nonetheless awarded the Palme d'Or, along with the Best Actress award for Björk. The song "I've Seen It All", with Thom Yorke, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song but lost to "Things Have Changed" by Bob Dylan from Wonder Boys. The film continues to polarize critics, being seen by some as melodramatic and by others as one of the greatest films of all time.

Dogme 95

Dogme 95 was a filmmaking movement started in 1995 by the Danish directors Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg, who created the "Dogme 95 Manifesto" and the "Vows of Chastity" (Danish: kyskhedsløfter). These were rules to create filmmaking based on the traditional values of story, acting, and theme, and excluding the use of elaborate special effects or technology. It was an attempt to take back power for the director as artist, as opposed to the studio. They were later joined by fellow Danish directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, forming the Dogme 95 Collective or the Dogme Brethren. Dogme (pronounced [ˈtɒʊ̯mə]) is the Danish word for dogma.

Electorate of Trier

The Electorate of Trier (German: Kurfürstentum Trier or Kurtrier), traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the prince-archbishop of Trier (Erzbistum Trier), also prince-elector of the empire. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Mainz, among which Mainz ranked first.

The capital of the electorate was Trier, with the main residence of the Elector being Koblenz from the 16th century onward. The electorate was secularized in 1803 during Napoleonic rule.

The Elector of Trier, in his capacity as archbishop, also administered the archdiocese of Trier, whose territory did not correspond to the electorate (see map below).

Lars von Trier

Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier; 30 April 1956) is a Danish film director and screenwriter with a prolific and controversial career spanning almost four decades. His work is known for its genre and technical innovation; confrontational examination of existential, social, and political issues; and his treatment of subjects such as mercy, sacrifice, and mental health.Among his more than 100 awards and 200 nominations at film festivals worldwide, von Trier has received: the Palme d'Or (for Dancer in the Dark), the Grand Prix (for Breaking the Waves), the Prix du Jury (for Europa), and the Technical Grand Prize (for The Element of Crime and Europa) at the Cannes Film Festival. In March 2017, he began filming The House That Jack Built, an English-language serial killer thriller.Von Trier is the founder and shareholder of the international film production company Zentropa Films, which has sold more than 350 million tickets and garnered seven Academy Award nominations over the past 25 years.

Melancholia (2011 film)

Melancholia is a 2011 psychological drama science fiction art film written and directed by Lars von Trier and starring Kirsten Dunst, Charlotte Gainsbourg, and Kiefer Sutherland, with Alexander Skarsgård, Brady Corbet, Cameron Spurr, Charlotte Rampling, Jesper Christensen, John Hurt, Stellan Skarsgård, and Udo Kier in supporting roles. The film's story revolves around two sisters, one of whom is preparing to marry just before a rogue planet is about to collide with Earth.

Von Trier's initial inspiration for the film came from a depressive episode he suffered. The film is a Danish production by Zentropa, with international co-producers in Sweden, France, Germany and Italy. Filming took place in Sweden. Melancholia prominently features music from the prelude to Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde (1857–1859). It is the second entry in von Trier's unofficially titled "Depression Trilogy", preceded by Antichrist and followed by Nymphomaniac.Melancholia premiered 18 May 2011 at the 64th Cannes Film Festival—where it was critically lauded. Dunst received the festival's Best Actress Award for her performance, which was a common area of praise among critics. Although not without its detractors, many critics and film scholars have considered the film to be a personal masterpiece, and one of the best films of 2011.

Moselle

The Moselle (French: la Moselle IPA: [mɔzɛl]; German: Mosel IPA: [ˈmoːzəl]; Luxembourgish: Musel) is a river that flows through France, Luxembourg, and Germany. It is a left tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is also drained by the Moselle through the Sauer and the Our.

The Moselle "twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germany's most beautiful river valleys." It flows through a region that has been influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where "some of the best Rieslings grow", and numerous ruined castles dominate the hilltops above wine villages and towns that line the riverbanks. Traben-Trarbach with its art nouveau architecture and Bernkastel-Kues with its traditional market square are two of the many tourist attractions on the Moselle river.

New Trier High School

New Trier High School (, also known as New Trier Township High School or NTHS) is a public four-year high school, with its main campus for sophomores through seniors located in Winnetka, Illinois, United States, and a freshman campus in Northfield, Illinois, with freshman classes and district administration. Founded in 1901, the school serves the Chicago North Shore suburbs of Wilmette, Kenilworth, Winnetka, Glencoe, Northfield, and portions of Northbrook, Glenview, and unincorporated Cook County. New Trier's logo depicts the Porta Nigra, a symbol of Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The athletic teams are known as the Trevians, an archaic demonym for the people of Trier.

New Trier Township, Cook County, Illinois

New Trier Township () is one of 29 townships in Cook County, Illinois, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 55,424.The township contains New Trier High School, but the borders of the school district do not line up exactly with the borders of the township.

Paul J. and Ida Trier House

The Paul J. and Ida Trier House is a historic building located in Johnston, Iowa, United States. It is a Frank Lloyd Wright designed Usonian home that was constructed in 1958. It was the last of seven Wright Usonians built in Iowa. While it is now located in a residential area, it was constructed in an area surrounded by rural farmland. The Trier house is a variation on the 1953 Exhibition House at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York. The north wing of the house was designed by Taliesin Associates and built in 1967. It was originally the carport, which was enclosed for a playroom. The present carport on the front and an extension of the shop was added at the same time.

The exterior of the house is composed of hollow clay tile blocks, while the addition is brick matching the tiles. A low, flat roof caps the home. The interior features red concrete slab floors, with the exception of the kitchen where they are slate. Philippine mahogany is used for the woodwork. A large fireplace is located in the living room. The living room, kitchen, and bedrooms all face south with window walls in the living room and master bedroom. A deep overhang shades the rooms in the summer. The other bedrooms and the study have a band of windows. Typical of a Wright-designed home, the house is integrated into the site and opened to the outdoors.

Recluse

A recluse is a person who lives in voluntary seclusion from the public and society. The word is from the Latin recludere, which means "shut up" or "sequester". Historically, the word referred to a hermit's total isolation from the world. Examples are Symeon of Trier, who lived within the great Roman gate Porta Nigra with permission from the Archbishop of Trier, or Theophan the Recluse, the 19th-century Orthodox monk who was later glorified as a saint. Celebrated figures who spent, or have spent, significant portions of their lives as recluses include Virgil, Michelangelo, Isaac Newton, Emily Brontë, J. D. Salinger, Bobby Fischer, Emily Dickinson, Gustave Flaubert, Paul Cézanne, Nikola Tesla, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, H. P. Lovecraft, Thomas Ligotti, Marie Curie, Marcel Proust, Howard Hughes, Greta Garbo, Mina Mazzini, Jackson Pollock, Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, Glenn Gould, Jean-Luc Godard, Thomas Pynchon, John Swartzwelder, Paul Allen, Layne Staley, Richard Proenneke, Syd Barrett, Michael Jackson

and Mark Hollis .

Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier

The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany. When it was the archbishopric and Electorate of Trier, it was one of the most important states of the Holy Roman Empire, both as an ecclesiastical principality and as a diocese of the church. Unlike the other Rhenish dioceses — Mainz and Cologne, Trier was the former Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum. Given its status, Trier has always been the seat of a bishop since Roman times, one of the oldest dioceses in all of Germany. The diocese was elevated to an Archdiocese in the time of Charlemagne and was the metropolitan for the dioceses of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. After the victory of Napoleon Bonaparte of France, the archdiocese was lowered to a diocese and is now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Cologne. The diocesan cathedral is the Cathedral of Saint Peter.

SV Eintracht Trier 05

SV Eintracht Trier 05 is a German association football club based in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate. It was formed on 11 March 1948 out of the merger of Westmark 05 Trier and Eintracht Trier 06, on the 43rd anniversary of the establishment of predecessor Trier Fußball Club 05. The team badge incorporates Trier's most famous landmark, the Porta Nigra, an ancient Roman city gate still standing in Germany's oldest city.

Trier-Saarburg

Trier-Saarburg (Luxembourgish: Landkrees Tréier-Saarburg) is a district in the west of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from the north and clockwise) Bitburg-Prüm, Bernkastel-Wittlich, Birkenfeld, Sankt Wendel (Saarland), and Merzig-Wadern (Saarland). To the west it borders Luxembourg. The district-free city Trier is completely surrounded by the district.

Trier of fact

A trier of fact, or finder of fact, is a person, or group of persons, who determines facts in a legal proceeding, usually a trial. To determine a fact is to decide, from the evidence, whether something existed or some event occurred. Various aspects of a case that are not in controversy may be the "facts of the case" and are determined by the agreement of the separate parties; the trier of fact need not decide such issues.

University of Trier

The University of Trier (German: Universität Trier), in the German city of Trier, was founded in 1473. Closed in 1798 by order of the then French administration in Trier, the university was re-established in 1970 after a hiatus of some 172 years. The new university campus is located on top of the Tarforst heights, an urban district on the outskirts of the city. The university has six faculties with around 470 faculty members. In 2006 around 14,000 students were matriculated, with 43.5% of the student body male and 56.5% female; the percentage of foreign students was approximately 15.5%.

Climate data for Trier (Petrisberg), elevation: 265 m, 1971-2000 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
5.3
(41.5)
9.8
(49.6)
13.7
(56.7)
18.6
(65.5)
21.3
(70.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
19.5
(67.1)
13.7
(56.7)
7.4
(45.3)
4.7
(40.5)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.1
(35.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.5
(47.3)
13.1
(55.6)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
17.8
(64.0)
14.0
(57.2)
9.6
(49.3)
4.7
(40.5)
2.5
(36.5)
9.4
(49.0)
Average low °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
2.0
(35.6)
4.0
(39.2)
8.2
(46.8)
11.1
(52.0)
13.0
(55.4)
12.8
(55.0)
9.8
(49.6)
6.3
(43.3)
2.3
(36.1)
0.4
(32.7)
5.7
(42.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.3
(2.45)
52.0
(2.05)
60.8
(2.39)
52.0
(2.05)
67.0
(2.64)
68.0
(2.68)
72.3
(2.85)
59.6
(2.35)
62.2
(2.45)
70.5
(2.78)
70.7
(2.78)
76.8
(3.02)
774.2
(30.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.2 9.7 11.6 9.4 11.3 11.2 10.2 8.4 9.1 10.5 11.6 12.3 127.5
Source: DWD
Climate data for Trier (Petrisberg), elevation: 273 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
18.1
(64.6)
23.7
(74.7)
28.5
(83.3)
30.7
(87.3)
34.6
(94.3)
37.1
(98.8)
35.8
(96.4)
33.1
(91.6)
26.3
(79.3)
19.4
(66.9)
17.0
(62.6)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
5.1
(41.2)
9.1
(48.4)
13.4
(56.1)
18.1
(64.6)
21.2
(70.2)
23.3
(73.9)
22.9
(73.2)
19.5
(67.1)
14.1
(57.4)
7.4
(45.3)
4.0
(39.2)
13.4
(56.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
1.9
(35.4)
4.9
(40.8)
8.4
(47.1)
12.6
(54.7)
15.7
(60.3)
17.6
(63.7)
17.1
(62.8)
14.0
(57.2)
9.8
(49.6)
4.6
(40.3)
1.8
(35.2)
9.1
(48.4)
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.9
(30.4)
1.4
(34.5)
4.0
(39.2)
7.8
(46.0)
10.9
(51.6)
12.5
(54.5)
12.3
(54.1)
9.7
(49.5)
6.4
(43.5)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−14.6
(5.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
1.7
(35.1)
4.4
(39.9)
4.2
(39.6)
1.2
(34.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
−10.2
(13.6)
−14.4
(6.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.0
(2.36)
55.0
(2.17)
64.0
(2.52)
53.0
(2.09)
68.0
(2.68)
73.0
(2.87)
70.0
(2.76)
71.0
(2.80)
59.0
(2.32)
65.0
(2.56)
74.0
(2.91)
72.0
(2.83)
784
(30.87)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.0 10.0 12.0 10.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 12.0 129
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43.6 76.9 114.3 156.9 203.4 206.3 225.5 200.5 152.4 103.3 49.4 40.1 1,572.6
Source: NOAA[17]
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate in GermanyFlag of Germany
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