Tribal societies with social stratification under a single (or dual) leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age.
The most common types are the chairman of a council (usually of "elders") and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief (may be an alternative or additional post in war time), the hereditary chief, and the politically dominant medicineman (in "theocratic" cultures).
The term is usually distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief (geographically defined) or clan chief (an essentially genealogical notion). The descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity (racial, linguistic, religious etc.) as well as some political (representative, legislative, executive and/or judicial) expression. In certain situations, and especially in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief. This term has largely fallen out of use, however, and such personages are now often called kings.
A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or, especially in the case of the former, a chief.
Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, and more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings (chiefdoms). Historically, tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies.
Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government.
Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are largely organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is also sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism.
In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are legally empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs. In addition to this, they also serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed.
The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada (formerly called "Indians"). Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act. As well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, who are usually not part of the Indian Act-sanctioned formal government. There were 614 bands in Canada in 2012. There is also a national organization, the Assembly of First Nations, which elects a "national chief" to act as spokesperson of all First Nations bands in Canada.
The offices and traditional realms of the chiefs of Ghana are constitutionally protected by the republican constitution of the country. The chiefs serve as custodians of all traditional lands and the cultures of the traditional areas. They also serve as members of the Ghanaian National House of Chiefs.
Although the Nigerian traditional rulers aren't mentioned in Nigeria's current constitution, they derive their powers from various so-called Chiefs laws and are therefore legally recognized. They usually serve as members of each federating state's State Council of Traditional Rulers and Chiefs.
The Solomon Islands have a Local Court Act which empowers chiefs to deal with crimes in their communities, thus assuring them of considerable effective authority.
Apo Rodolfo Aguilar (Kudol I) serves as the chieftain of the Tagbanwa tribes people living in Banuang Daan and Cabugao settlements in Coron Island, Palawan, Philippines. His position is recognized by the Filipino government.
Such figures as the king of the Zulu Nation and the Rain Queen are politically recognized in South Africa because they derive their status, not only from tribal custom, but also from the Traditional Leadership Clause of the country's current constitution.
The pre-colonial states that existed in what is today Uganda were summarily abolished following independence from Great Britain. However, following constitutional reforms in 1993, a number of them were restored as politically neutral constituencies of the state by the government of Yoweri Museveni. Such figures as the Kabaka of Buganda and the Omukama of Toro typify the Ugandan chieftaincy class.
Generally, a tribe or nation is considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values. For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains-dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles. Thus, the tribes of the Great Plains might typically dwell in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee. The Pueblo people, meanwhile, built their dwellings of stone and earth.
A chief might be considered to hold all political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration. The Mingos, for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century. Two Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois, Hiawatha and the Great Peacemaker, formulated a constitution for the Iroquois Confederation.
The tribes were pacified by units of the United States Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward. Thus, it is uncommon for today's tribes to have a purely Native American cultural background, and today Native Americans are in many ways simply another ethnicity of the secular American people. Because formal education is now respected, some like Peter MacDonald, a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream U.S. economy to become chairpeople of their tribal councils or similar self-government institutions.
Not all tribal leaders need be men; Wilma Mankiller was a well-known Chief of the Cherokee Nation. Also, though the fount of power might be the chief, he or she is typically not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders of some kind. For example: Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women.
Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States, as it is in a number of countries around the world.
Historically, the U.S. government treated tribes as seats of political power, and made treaties with the tribes as legal entities. Be that as it may, the territory of these tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs as reservations held in trust for the tribes. Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter. For example, it was not until 1924 that the Pueblo people were granted U.S. citizenship, and it was not until 1948 that the Puebloans were granted the right to vote in state elections in New Mexico. In Wisconsin, the Menominee Nation has its own county Menominee County, Wisconsin with special car license plates; 87% of the county's population is Native American.
Mainstream Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural. Thus, there is some political power in one's ability to claim a Native American connection (as in the Black Seminole).
Because the Nations were sovereign, with treaty rights and obligations, the Wisconsin tribes innovated Indian gaming in 1988, that is, on-reservation gambling casinos, which have since become a US$14 billion industry nationwide. This has been imitated in many of the respective states that still have Native American tribes. The money that this generates has engendered some political scandal. For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas, has paid for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity.
Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus, the Mescalero Apache renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn.
A Woman There Was is a 1919 American silent South Seas drama film directed by J. Gordon Edwards and starring Theda Bara. The film is based on the short story "Creation's Tears", by George James Hopkins (under the name "Neje Hopkins"). Bara portrays Zara, the daughter of a South Seas island tribal chief, who falls in love with a missionary and is killed after helping him escape.Albert Lutuli
Inkosi Albert John Lutuli (commonly spelled Luthuli; c. 1898 – 21 July 1967), also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi, was a South African teacher, activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner, and politician. Luthuli was elected president of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1952, at the time an umbrella organisation that led opposition to the white minority government in South Africa, and served until his accidental death. He was awarded the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the non-violent struggle against apartheid. He was the first person of African heritage to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Luthuli was a lay preacher of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA) based at its Groutville Congregational Church in Stanger, KwaZulu Natal, where Luthuli was laid to rest upon his passing in 1967.Colocolo (tribal chief)
Colocolo (from Mapudungun "colocolo", mountain cat) was a Mapuche leader ("cacique lonco") in the early period of the Arauco War. He was a major figure in Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga's epic poem La Araucana, about the early Arauco War. In the poem he was the one that proposed the contest between the rival candidates for Toqui that resulted in the choice of Caupolicán. As a historical figure there are some few contemporary details about him. Stories of his life were written long after his lifetime and display many points of dubious historical accuracy.Datu Daya
Datu Daya was a legendary tribal chief in Kandaya, the place that is now known as Daanbantayan, Cebu, in the Philippines. According to oral tradition, Datu Daya was the leader of the first Malayan settlers in northern Cebu. The new settlers cleared forests and in a few years were able to establish a progressive Indianized local polity. Moro pirates continually attacked the community and kidnapped women and children until a bantayan (watchtower) was constructed to defend the town. For his leadership of the community, Datu Daya was idolized.Deacon Blackfire
Deacon Blackfire is a fictional supervillain in DC Comics. Blackfire is stated as being over a hundred years old, and is often portrayed as a power-crazed charismatic con artist and cult leader skilled in manipulation and brainwashing. Blackfire claimed to be a Native American shaman who was entombed alive after being found guilty of killing a tribal chief and committing heresy.Dera Bugti District
Dera Bugti is a district within the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It was established as a separate district in 1983.El Capitan
El Capitan (Spanish: El Capitán; The Captain or The Chief) is a vertical rock formation in Yosemite National Park, located on the north side of Yosemite Valley, near its western end. The granite monolith is about 3,000 feet (900 m) from base to summit along its tallest face, and is a popular objective for rock climbers.
The formation was named "El Capitan" by the Mariposa Battalion when they explored the valley in 1851. El Capitan ("the captain", "the chief") was taken to be a loose Spanish translation of the local Native American name for the cliff, variously transcribed as "To-to-kon oo-lah" or "To-tock-ah-noo-lah" (Miwok language). It is unclear if the Native American name referred to a specific tribal chief or simply meant "the chief" or "rock chief".The top of El Capitan can be reached by hiking out of Yosemite Valley on the trail next to Yosemite Falls, then proceeding west. For climbers, the challenge is to climb up the sheer granite face. There are many named climbing routes, all of them arduous, including Iron Hawk and Sea of Dreams.Jalbani
The Jalbani ( جلباڻي )is a Baloch tribe that lives in Punjab Specially Dera Ghazi Khan Basti Meer Jalbani Sindh.Balochistan.List of Choctaw chiefs
List of Choctaw chiefs is a record of the political leaders who served the Choctaws in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma.List of people on the postage stamps of Ecuador
This is a list of people on stamps of Ecuador.
The date(s) their effigy appeared on a stamp follows their name.Lonko
A lonco, or lonko (from Mapudungun longko, literally "head"), is a tribal chief of the Mapuches. These were often ulmen, the wealthier men in the lof. In wartime, loncos of the various local rehue or the larger aillarehue would gather in a koyag or parliament and would elect a toqui to lead the warriors in battle. Lonco sometimes forms part of geographical names such as the city of Loncoche (English: "head of an important person").Mana Ahmadani
Mana Ahmadani (Urdu: مانہ احمدانی), is a town and union council of Dera Ghazi Khan District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is located at 29°47'58N 70°35'3E and has an altitude of 111 metres (367 feet).Mana Ahmadani has been named for Sardar Mana Khan Ahmadani Baloch, who was tribal chief of Ahmadani Baloch tribe. The prominent tribe of the town is Ahmadani Baloch.Mirwais Hotak
Mīrwais Khān Hotak (Pashto: مير ويس خان هوتک), also known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī (Pashto: شاه ميرويس غلجي) (1673 – November 1715), was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738. After revolting and killing the Safavid Persian governor over the region, Gurgin Khan in April 1709, he declared the Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") region in what is now southern Afghanistan independent. He is widely known as Mīrwais Nīkə (ميرويس نيکه) or Mīrwais Bābā (ميرويس بابا, "Mirwais the father") in the Pashto language.Mmankgodi
Mmankgodi is a village in Kweneng District of Botswana. It is located 35 km from Gaborone and around 30 km from the border with South Africa. The population of Mmankgodi was 4,997 in 2001 census.The people of Mmankgodi are called the Bahurutshe, a group also found in the village of Manyana. They arrived in the region from South Africa throughout the eighteenth century because of Boer oppression, which led to the Battle of Dimawe in 1852. The tribal chief of Mmankgodi is Kgosi, and, as is customary in Botswana, the salutation 'kgosi' is the title used before the chief's name.Noohani
The Noohani is one of the Baloch tribe. They are subnation of Rind Baloch. Noohani mostly live in Sindh province, Pakistan. Their Tribal Chief is Sardar Hakim khan Noohani who is from Kai, a little village near Sehwan Sharif. Noohani speak the Sindhi and Balochi languages.
Sardar Mohammad Khan Noohani was the chief Sardar of Noohani tribe. He died on 16 August 2015.Opperhoofd
Opperhoofd is a Dutch word (plural opperhoofden) that literally translates to "upper-head", meaning 'supreme headman'. The Danish equivalent Overhoved, which is derived from a Danish pronunciation of the Dutch word, is also treated here.
In modern Dutch, Opperhoofd remains in use for a native tribal chief, such as a Sachem of Native Americans. Despite the superlative etymology, it can be applied to several chiefs in a single native community.
However this article is devoted to its more former, historical use as a gubernatorial title, comparable to the English chief factor, for the chief executive officer of a Dutch factorij in the sense of trading post, as led by a factor, i.e. agent.
The etymologically cognate title of Danish Opperhoved (singular) had a similar gubernatorial use (sometimes rendered in English as Station Chief), notably in the Danish Gold Coast (in present Ghana), see Colonial Heads of Danish Gold Coast. The German cognate is Oberhaupt.Raghubar Das
Raghubar Das (born 3 May 1955) is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand state of India. He was sworn in as the 6th chief minister of Jharkhand on 28 December 2014. He is an Indian politician and belongs to Bharatiya Janata Party. A former employee of Tata Steel, he served as the member of legislative assembly for five times, representing Jamshedpur East since 1995. He also served as the Deputy Chief Minister and the Urban Development Minister during the BJP-led government in the state. During the period of emergency (25 June 1975), he was sent behind the bars.Siege of Samarkand (1501)
The Siege of Samarkand was the third and last campaign against the city by both belligerents. Four years after its recapture by the forces of Babur, there was a rebellion that lost the King of Ferghana his kingdom and his capital. In 1501, Babur and his army felt ready to besiege the city again. However, his invasion attempt was beaten off by Shaybani, an Uzbek tribal chief whose conquests were known across Central Asia.Vilankulo
Vilankulo (or Vilanculos) is a coastal town in Mozambique, lying in the Vilanculos District of Inhambane Province. Vilankulo is named after local tribal chief Gamela Vilankulo Mukoke, and some of the "bairros" (suburbs) are named after his sons. Known as Vilanculos during colonial times, the name was changed to Vilankulo at independence. Today the district is called Vilanculos and the town Vilankulo.
Vilankulo has been growing extensively over the last decade, and has been the recipient of considerable inward investment into its tourism infrastructure. The town of Vilankulo is the gateway to the archipelago. Dhows and helicopters travel between the town and the Bazaruto Archipelago. The town itself is only about 5 km long. The airport is based on the outside of the town with flights arriving and departing on a daily basis.
It is home to a new international airport, which serves daily flights to several regional destinations, including Johannesburg and Maputo.