Treta Yuga

Treta Yuga (Sanskrit: त्रेता युग) is the second out of the four yugas, or ages of mankind, in the religion of Hinduism. It follows the Satya Yuga and is followed by the Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. Treta means 'a collection of three arousing things' in Sanskrit, and is so called because during the Treta Yuga, there were two Avatars of Vishnu that were seen, the sixth and seventh incarnations as Parashurama and Rama respectively. The name could also be derived from the fact that the Treta Yuga lasted 3,600 divine years, or 1,296,000 human years.[1] The bull of Dharma symbolises that mortality stood on three legs during this period. It had all four legs in the Satya Yuga and two in the succeeding Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg.[2]

Characteristics

During the Treta Yuga, the power of humans diminishes slightly. Kings and Brahmins need to actively fulfill their desires instead of using mere fiat of will. People grow more materialistic and less inclined towards spirituality. Wars broke out frequently and climate changes became common place, giving rise to deserts and oceans.

Despite these seemingly negative effects, the Treta Yuga also brought knowledge of universal magnetism. This knowledge allowed humans to understand the forces of nature and the true nature of the universe. Agriculture and mining came into existence along with norms and rules to keep society under control.[3]

Avatars of Lord Vishnu during Treta Yuga

Parashurama

Vishnu incarnated as the Brahman Parashurama in this era because there were too many warlike Kshatriyas plaguing the Earth, and he therefore had to wipe out most of the world's warriors. However, some of the Kshatriyas survived or more were created, and their population grew again. Eventually, the avatara of Vishnu in Parashurama ended, though it is said that he continued to live on as a mighty warrior-hermit. He confronted Rama, angrily, years later, before acknowledging the latter's supremacy and retiring. He lived on in the Dvapara Yuga, having a great duel with Bhishma for the sake of Amba. However he failed to defeat him and stopped fighting after he was forbidden by the divine sage Narada and his ancestors and learning that Bhishma had surpassed him in art of warfare. He mentored Dronacharya, teacher of both the Kauravas and Pandavas. Parashurama also taught Karna how to use the Brahmastra but when he found out that Karna had lied about being a brahmana, he cursed Karna that his knowledge of the Brahmastra would fail him when he needed it the most. He is said to be still alive today, doing penance on the Mahendragiri mountain.

Rama

The hallmark of this era was the rise of evil in the form of the demon king of Sri Lanka, Ravana. He conquered the three worlds namely, Earth, Heaven and the Netherworld (Patala) and terrorized everyone. Even the Devas were subordinate to him - his son Meghanada had earned the title Indrajit by defeating Indra, the King of heaven in battle; and even the Sun had to obey the king. In this scenario, Lord Vishnu incarnated himself as the son of King Dasharatha of the Suryavamshis or Ikshvaku dynasty and was named Rama. Due to a stepmother's jealousy, Rama was sent away to a forest in exile for 14 years, during which time he confronted and killed Ravana for kidnapping his wife, and thus restored peace on earth. He is said to have afterwards established Rama-rajya or Rama's Kingdom over the entire earth from his throne at Ayodhya for 11,000 years, before eventually returning to his Mahavishnu form.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4]
Ambarisha

Ambarisha (Sanskrit: अम्बरीषः, Ambarīṣa), in Hindu mythology, was an Ikshvaku king and son of Mandhatri. He is believed to have conquered the whole world in a week. He lived in Treta Yuga.

Dvapara Yuga

The Dvapara Yuga, also spelled as Dwapara Yuga, is the third out of four Yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. Dvapara in Sanskrit literally means "two ahead", that is, something in the third place. The Dvapara Yuga follows the Treta Yuga and precedes the Kali Yuga. According to the Puranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to the Bhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.There are only two pillars of religion during the Dvapara Yuga: compassion and truthfulness. Vishnu assumes the colour yellow and the Vedas are categorized into four parts: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. During these times, the Brahmins are knowledgeable of two or three of these but rarely have studied all the four Vedas thoroughly. Accordingly, because of this categorization, different actions and activities come into existence.

Itihasa

Itihasa, meaning history in Sanskrit, consists of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana (sometimes the Puranas too, are included). The Mahabharata includes the story of the Kurukshetra War and also preserves the traditions of the Lunar dynasty in the form of embedded tales. The Puranas narrate the universal history as perceived by the Hindus – cosmogony, myth, legend and history. The Ramayana contains the story of Rama and incidentally relates the legends of the Solar dynasty. A story is considered to be 'Itihasa' only when the writer of the story has himself witnessed the story. Dvaipayana Veda Vyas, who wrote the Mahabharata, is himself a character in the story. Similarly, Ratnakkardah Valmiki, who wrote the Ramayana, was also a character in the story. The classical Indian poets usually derive the story of their poetry and drama from the Itihasas. In our time, these traditions have been most carefully reconstructed from the available texts and arranged in chronological order by F. E. Pargiter in his compendium Ancient Indian Historical Tradition.

Kanva

Kanva (Karnesh) (Sanskrit: कण्व káṇva) was an ancient Hindu rishi of the Treta yuga, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages (the Saptarishis).

Kanva (Karnesh) is also the name of a founder of a Vedic shakha,

Kanva (Karnesh) is also the name of several princes and founders of dynasties and several authors.

The Kanvas(Karnesh) are the descendants of king Vasudeva Kanva (1st century BCE).

The Kanvas are also a class of spirit, against whom hymn 2.25 of the Atharva Veda is used as a charm.

They are also referred by the surname Karnesh as according to the predecessors of Pahasour village (where only Brahmans live) of district Jhajjar in Haryana. The evidence can be found in this village.

Kekaya

Kekayas or Kaikeyas (Sanskrit: केक‍य) were an ancient people attested to have been living in north-western Punjab—between Gandhara and the Beas river since remote antiquity. They were the descendants of the Kshatriyas of the Kekaya Janapada hence called Kekayas or Kaikeyas. The Kekayas were often associated with the Madras, the Usinaras, and the Sibis, and their territory had formed a part of the Vahika country, according to the evidence furnished by Pāṇini. The Kingdom of Kekaya was founded by Kekaya who was the son of Shibi in Treta Yuga whose descendant was Kaikeyi.

Khecchar Vasu

Khecchar Vasu was also known as Uparichara Vasu or Vasu was the son of King Kusha of Amavasu Dynasty. He is described in Ramayana and Harivamsa Purana. He was the disciple of Sage Brhaspati. He lived in Treta Yuga. He was the founder of the Kingdom of Cheena Kingdom (China) in the Northern side of Kailasa Mountain. He was also Known as Uparichara Vasu as his chariot was always flying which made him Uparicharavasu ("The Upwards flying one"). His history is mostly related to many Holy places of Dravidadesha (South India). He was the disciple of Sage Brhaspati and was also the great devotee of Lord Vishnu. He was most favorable to Sages (Rishis). In his times Saptarishis wrote Dharmasastra contemporary to the current Era. When a settlement was to be made between Devas and Sages (Rishis). The Saptarishis made him the arbitrator of this settlement. In this settlement, He supported the Devas (his friends) by saying that the flesh is edible in the judgement. By hearing this judgement, the Sages became angry and cursed him that his flying chariot will land on the earth. So, his chariot fell on earth. The place where his chariot fell was known as Rathamagnapuram (Therazhundur). He became free from the curse by the Blessings of the Lords (Shiva) and (Vishnu) in Therazhundur. His capital was Girivraja (Gaizhou) of China. Then, He attained mukti in Kaliyuga after a long reign in Cheena Kingdom (China).

Kishkindha

Kishkindha (Kannada: ಕಿಷ್ಕಿಂಧೆ Kishkindhe; IAST: Kiṣkindhā, Devanagari: किष्किन्‍धा) is the monkey (Vanara) kingdom of the Vanara King Sugriva, the younger brother of Vali, in the Indian theology of Ramayana times. This was the kingdom where he ruled with the assistance of his friend, Hanuman.

This kingdom is identified to be the regions around the Tungabhadra river (then known as Pampa Saras) near Hampi and belongs to Koppal district, Karnataka. The mountain near the river with the name Rishimukha where Sugriva lived with Hanuman, during the period of his exile also is found with the same name.

During the time of Ramayana, i.e., Treta Yuga, the whole region was within the dense forest called Dandaka Forest extending from Vindhya range to the South Indian peninsula. Hence this kingdom was considered to be the kingdom of Vanaras which in Sanskrit means "apes" or "forest-humans"(Van+Nar). During Dwapara Yuga, the Pandava Sahadeva was said to visit this kingdom, as per the epic Mahabharata, during his southern military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhishthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

Kosala Kingdom

Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kingdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. Ayodhya was its capital, presently in Ayodhya district, Uttar Pradesh. Rama's sons Lava and Kusha inherited parts of this kingdom. Lava ruled from the city called Faizabad and Kusa from the city called Kushavati. A colony of Kosala kings existed in Madhya Pradesh. It was called Dakshina Kosala. Rama's mother Kausalya was from this kingdom. King Rama extended his influence up to the island-kingdom of Lanka situated in the southern ocean. He had friendly relations with the southern kingdom of forest dwellers (Vanaras) called Kishkindha.

Rama's brother Bharata, colonized the Gandhara kingdom and founded the city of Takshasila there. Gandhara lies close to Kekeya Kingdom, the native kingdom of Bharata's mother, Kaikeyi. Rama's second brother Lakshmana founded the city of Lakshmanapura near river Ganges which is now known as Lucknow. He colonized the Vanga kingdom and founded the city of Chandrakanta there. Rama's youngest brother Satrughna destroyed the forest called Madhu and founded the city of Mathura which later became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom.

Nishadha king Nala's friend Rituparna was a ruler of Kosala. Brihadbala another ruler of Kosala during Dwapara Yuga, took part in Mahabharata war and was killed by Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna.

Lauhitya Kingdom

In Indian mythology, Lauhitya (Lohity, Lohitya etc. as variations) was the eastern-most country (it is also the name of a river) known to the people of the epic-age (Treta Yuga or Dwapara Yuga). This kingdom existed on the banks of river Brahmaputra known by the name Lauhitya during the epic-age. Bhargava Rama is believed to have visited this place. The Pandava Bhima also visited this kingdom during his eastern military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhishthira's Rajasuya sacrifice. There is a place in Arunachal Pradesh by the name Lohit which is the remnant of the Lauhitya kingdom. A Naga king Lohita also ruled a territory close to Kashmira. It is not known if the Nagas in Kashmir and the Kiratas in Arunachal Pradesh had any cultural link.

List of numbers in Hindu scriptures

The Hindu scriptures contain many numerical descriptions concerning distances, durations and numbers of items in the universe as seen from the perspective of Hindu cosmology.

Madra

Madra (IAST: Mādra; [maːdɽɐ]) is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of the ancient Indian sub-continent. The Madra Kingdom's capital is believed to have been ancient Sialkot, in modern-day Pakistan. The kingdom's boundaries are believed to have extended from portions of the Hindu Kush (possibly as far as North Eastern Iran) to the present day Punjab and Haryana province of India. Some support for this belief lies within the ancient epic, the Mahabharata that describes the armies of the Madra Kingdom led by King Shalya, marching from ancient Northwest Punjab to what would be known today as Haryana. The Madra are numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature and some scholarly work references them as being part of the Kshatriya group during the time of the Mahabharata (the Vedic Period). Recent scholarly work references the Madra kingdom existing for at least two thousand years and places its home between the Ravi and Chenab. The Kingdom of Madra was founded by Madra who was the son of Shibi in Treta Yuga.

Mamaidev

The Mamaidev was a philosopher born in India in the 12th century. He was the son of Mataidev, who was the son of Lurangdev, who was the son of Dhani Matang Dev. He preached religion to the Maheshwari meghwar community of Saurashtra, Kutch of Gujarat and Sindh, Pakistan. During his preaching he spoke of past events and made prophecies regarding the future. He also preached to the poor Sinbhariya Meghwar for Dharma. He described and formulated ancient Barmati Panth. His tomb is located in Makali Graveyard in the Tattha district of Sindh in India.

Satya Yuga

The Satya Yuga (Sanskrit: सत्य युग), also called Satyug, or Kṛta Yuga (Sanskrit: कृत युग) in Hinduism, is the first of the four Yugas, the "Yuga (Age or Era) of Truth", when humanity is governed by gods, and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and humanity will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. It is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age". The Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years. The goddess Dharma (depicted in the form of a cow), which symbolises morality, stood on all four legs during this period. Later on in the Treta Yuga, it would become three, followed by two in the Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg.

Shri Dattatreya Akhara

Shri Dattatreya Akhara (Hindi: श्री दत्तात्रेय अखाड़ा) or Datta Akhara is a Hindu Monastery, located in Ujjain on the very place where Lord Dattatreya taught his disciples in Treta Yuga.

Sitanagaram

Sitanagaram is a small town and an ancient site located in the District of Guntur in East-Coast part of India. It is 18 miles north of Guntur City on the bank of River Krishna near Vijayawada. The place is related to the ancient history of Ramayana during the last Treta Yuga (Traditional time scale: 1.6 million years ago).

Statue of Parashurama

The tallest Statue of Parashurama is located at Mangomeadows Agricultural Theme Park, Kaduthuruthy, Kerala, India. The height of the statue is about 30 feet. Parashurama is the sixth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism. He is one of the chiranjeevis (immortal) of Hinduism and is believed to have lived during the Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. He is also known as the father of Kalarippayattu.

As per the Hindu mythology, Kerala was created by Parasurama, by throwing his axe from GOKARN, near Karwar, Karnataka. The sea on the direction of the axe moved out and a strip of land was formed. It was 160 katam (an old measure) of land lying between Gokarnam and Kanyakumari.

Vaikom Temple

The Vaikom Mahadeva Temple is a temple for the Hindu god Shiva in Vaikom, Kerala.

The temple, along with Ettumanoor Siva Temple, Kaduthuruthy Thaliyil Mahadeva Temple is considered a powerful trisome. The belief is that if a devotee worships at these three temples before 'Ucha pooja', all the wishes are fulfilled.

The Vaikom Mahadeva temple is one of the few temples which is held in reverence by both Shaivaites and the Vaishnavaites. Vaikom's Shiva is fondly called Vaikkathappan. The Shiva Linga here is believed to be from the ‘Treta yuga’ and considered as one of the oldest temples in Kerala where pooja has not been broken since inception.

The temple is one of the major Shiva temples in Kerala counted along with the Ettumanoor Mahadevar Temple, Kaduthruthy Mahadeva Temple, Vazhappally Maha Siva Temple, Chengannur Mahadeva Temple, Ernakulam Shiva Temple, Vadakkunathan temple and Thirunakkara Sree Mahadevar Temple.

Vali (Ramayana)

In the Hindu epic Ramayana, vanara Vali (Bali) was king of Kishkindha, husband of Taara, son of Indra, biological son of Vriksharaja and Elder brother of Sugriva and father of Angada. He was killed by Lord Rama, an Avatar of Lord Vishnu. Vali was invincible during Treta Yuga. Vali defeated some of the greatest warriors like Ravana and Meghanada. Even Lord Rama & Lord Hanuman couldn't fight against Vali because Vali was blessed that when he will fight with someone he would take 50% of the opponent's strength thus any body would lose their half of strength & Vali goes upper hand with opponent's half strength & his own power & could defeat any one.

In Hare Krishna belief-system, Vali was reincarnated as Jara (the hunter) who killed Krishna with an arrow tipped with a shard of iron from a club borne by Samba(Krishna's son by Jambavati).

Vali (Sanskrit: वाली, nominative singular of the root वालिन् (Valin) is also known as Bali in several Indian languages. His other names include:

Indonesian: Subali

Malay: Balya

Northern Thai: Bari

Thai: Phali

Lao: Palichan.

Yuga

Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle. A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga.

Time

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