The Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (Italian for "Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts"), best known as Treccani for its developer Giovanni Treccani or Enciclopedia Italiana, is an Italian-language encyclopaedia. The publication Encyclopaedias: Their History Throughout The Ages regards it as one of the greatest encyclopaedias, along with the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition and the Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana.
|Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti|
(English: Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts)
|First published serially between 1929 and 1936|
The first edition was published serially between 1929 and 1936. In all, 35 volumes were published, plus one index volume. The set contained 60,000 articles and 50 million words. Each volume is approximately 1,015 pages, and 37 supplementary volumes were published between 1938 and 2015. The director was Giovanni Gentile and redactor in chief Antonino Pagliaro.
Most of the articles are signed with the initials of the author. An essay credited to Benito Mussolini entitled "The Doctrine of Fascism" was included in the 1932 edition of the encyclopedia, although it was ghost-written by Gentile.
Many editors, like Roberto Almagià, Ugo Amaldi, Guido Calogero, Federico Chabod, Gaetano De Sanctis, Luigi Einaudi, Federigo Enriques, Enrico Fermi, Henry Furst, Ugo La Malfa, Giorgio Levi Della Vida, Walter Maturi, Bruno Migliorini, Rodolfo Mondolfo and Nello Rosselli were Jewish or opponents of Fascism. The Fascist regime attached such great importance to the encyclopedia that authors otherwise blacklisted were permitted to contribute.
The Accademia Pontaniana was the first academy in the modern sense, as a learned society for scholars and humanists and guided by a formal statute. Patronized by Alfonso V of Aragon, it was founded by the poet Antonio Beccadelli in Naples during the revival of classical learning and later led by Giovanni Pontano who gave it a more official character to the meetings.Braciola
Braciola (pronounced [braˈtʃɔːla]; plural braciole [braˈtʃɔːle]) may refer to several distinct dishes in Italian cuisine.Camillo Caetani
Camillo Caetani (Gaetano) (Sermoneta (?) 1552 – Rome 6 August 1603) was an Italian aristocrat and Papal diplomat in several European capitals during the early Counterreformation.Cosca
A cosca (pl. cosche in Italian and coschi in Sicilian), in Sicily, is a clan or Sicilian Mafia crime family led by a capo.
The equivalent in the 'Ndrangheta in Calabria is the 'ndrina.Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani
The Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (English: Biographical Dictionary of the Italians) is a biographical dictionary published by the Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, started in 1925 and not yet completed. It is planned to include about 40,000 biographies of distinguished Italians.
The entries are signed by their authors and provide a rich bibliography.Enrico Caetani
Enrico Caetani (6 August 1550 – 13 December 1599) was an Italian cardinal.Ernesto Treccani
Ernesto Treccani (1920 in Milan – 2009), Italian painter and intellectual. Born in Milan on August 26, 1920, he joined very early the art avant-garde groups and movements opposed to Fascist culture. Founder and director at the age of 18 of the magazine "Corrente" (cf. Corrente di Vita), he exhibited his first works at the "Bottega di Corrente" with Renato Birolli, Renato Guttuso, Giuseppe Migneco, Aligi Sassu and later with Bruno Cassinari and Ennio Morlotti at Galleria della Spiga and Corrente.His first personal exhibition, held at the Galleria Il Milione in Milan, where he exhibited many times during his artistic path, was in 1949. After the Resistance, he was leader of the "Pittura" group and editor of magazines such as Il 45 and Realismo, directed by Raffaele De Grada.
In the 1950s his works have been selected for the Venice Biennale, as well as for the exhibition of the Realists held at the Leicester Galleries in London and in New York, where he exhibited with a personal show at the Heller Gallery.
During this period the subjects of his paintings were influenced by his encounter with the rural situation in Calabria and by the urban industrial landscape of Milan and Paris, places where he returned repeatedly over the years.
From the 1960s on, the prolific works and multiple initiatives demonstrate the continuous commitment of Treccani, characterized by a relentless action for the spread of culture and artistic debate. Among the works of this period, the five large paintings inspired by Pavese’s La luna e i falò (1962–63), the cycle of works Da Melissa a Valenza (1964–65), the series of watercolors inspired by a trip to Cuba; later, in 1976, major exhibitions of his work were held in Volgograd, at Pushkin Museum in Moscow and at Hermitage in Saint Petersburg. He held also many personal exhibitions in art galleries and museums in Paris, Berlin, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Stuttgart and São Paulo.
Treccani then developed the various features of his artistic research along parallel lines, continuing to work and exhibit in towns and cities in Italy and abroad, and alternating this “wandering” activity with regular and creative stays in Macugnaga and Forte dei Marmi, places to which the artist was strongly attached in life and painting. In 1978 he founded the Fondazione Corrente, a center for cultural events, exhibitions and debates in the various fields of culture and art, as well as a center for the collection and study of documents related to the period between the birth of the movement and the years of Realism.Treccani was also writer and poet; among his texts, the books Arte per amore, Il segreto dell’arte and Un poco di fiele: poesie e disegni (1940–1970).In 1989 the City of Milan held a major retrospective exhibition on the artist at the Royal Palace, and another large retrospective of his works was held at Foundation Bandera in Busto Arsizio in 2003.
In 2004 he created the cycle of large windows Energia, luci e colori, shown in Lugano, Riga, Budapest and Prague. In 2006 the town of Forte dei Marmi organized the exhibition at the Fortino Le mutazioni del realismo - Opere inedite 2003-06, the result of a renewed search for forms that has its center in color.In 2008, again at Royal Palace, Treccani participated in the exhibition Corrente, le parole della vita. Opere 1930–1945, with a room set aside for his paintings of that period. A large retrospective exhibition inaugurated the renovated rooms of Palazzo Barberini in Montichiari in May 2009, just a few months before his death, which took place on November 27, 2009, in his beloved House of Swallows.
In December 2009, during the 40th anniversary of the Piazza Fontana bombing, the painting Un popolo di volti was exhibited at the Royal Palace in Milan.
In March 2011, again at the Royal Palace, the painting Le cinque giornate di Milano was exhibited on the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
Among the recent exhibitions, there are mentioned: in 2012 Le parole e la pittura. Ernesto Treccani incontra la poesia, l’epica, il romanzo at the Pinacoteca Civica of Savona and in 2013 La materia e la luce. Vetri, ceramiche e smalti di Ernesto Treccani at the Fondazione Corrente.Giovanni Ferrari
Giovanni Ferrari (6 December 1907 – 2 December 1982) was an Italian footballer who played as a midfielder and as an inside forward on the left. He is regarded as one of the best players of his generation, one of Italy's best ever players, and as one of the greatest players of all time, having won the Serie A a record 8 times, as well as two consecutive FIFA World Cup titles (in 1934 and 1938) with the Italy national football team. Along with Giuseppe Meazza and Eraldo Monzeglio, he is one of only three Italian players to have won two World Cups.A creative, advanced midfield playmaker, Ferrari was a strong, physically fit, hardworking, versatile, and well-rounded footballer, as well as being a generous team player. Due to his technical ability, vision, tactical intelligence, and passing ability, he excelled at building attacking plays and creating chances for teammates, although he was also capable of scoring himself due to his powerful and accurate shot.Giovanni Treccani
Giovanni Treccani (Italian pronunciation: [dʒoˈvanni trekˈkaːni]; 3 January 1877 – 6 July 1961) was an Italian textile industrialist, publisher and cultural patron. He sponsored the Giovanni Treccani Institute, established 18 February 1925 to publish the Enciclopedia Italiana (currently best known with his own name, Enciclopedia Treccani).
Treccani was the son of a pharmacist. At the age of 17, he emigrated to Germany to work as a textile worker. In 1924, he became a Senator of Italy. In 1925 work started on the Italian Encyclopedia Institute. In 1937 he was awarded the title of Count, and in 1939 received a degree honoris causa in literature from the University of Milan.Historical Right
The Right group (Italian: Destra), later called Historical Right (Italian: Destra storica) by historians to distinguish it from the right-wing groups of the 20th century, was an Italian parliamentary group during the second half of the 19th century. Since 1876, the Historical Right constituted the Constitutional opposition toward the left governments. Since 1882, its members were usually labeled as Constitutionals or Liberal-Conservatives, especially during the leadership of Rudinì and Sonnino. Few prime ministers after 1852 were party men; instead they accepted support where they could find it, and even the governments of the Historical Right during the 1860s included leftists.The Right was represented the interests of the Northern bourgeoisie and the Southern aristocracy. Its members were mostly large landowners, industrialists and people related to the military. On economy, the Right supported free trade and laissez-faire while on social issues it favoured a strong central government, obligatory conscription and during the Cavour's era the secular Law of Guarantees, causing Pope Pius IX's Non Expedit. In foreign relations, their goal was the unification of Italy, primarily searching an alliance with the British Empire and the French Empire, but sometimes also with the German Empire against Austria-Hungary.House of Ordelaffi
The House of Ordelaffi was a noble family that ruled the lower Romagna from the 13th century to 1504, with some interregnums.Italian unification
Italian unification (Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), or the Risorgimento ([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.The term, which also designates the cultural, political and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic, nationalist and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt [or loss] of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the West Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War (1915–1918), until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, which is considered the completion of unification. This view is followed, for example, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Historians continue to debate many of the key features and personalities of the movement.Montichiari
Montichiari (Brescian: Munticiàr) is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. It received the honorary title of city with a presidential decree on December 27, 1991.
On its territory there are the Gabriele D'Annunzio airport (Italian: Aeroporto Gabriele D'Annunzio), the fair center Centro Fiera del Garda and the Bonoris castle (Italian: Castello Bonoris).
Giovanni Treccani, publisher of the eponymous encyclopedia, was born in Montichiari.Proletarian Democracy
Proletarian Democracy (Italian: Democrazia Proletaria, DP) was a far-left political party in Italy.Rigatoni con la pajata
Rigatoni con la pajata (Romanesco dialect; standard Italian rigatoni con la pagliata [riɡaˈtoːni kon la paʎˈʎaːta]) is a classic dish of the Roman cuisine. The dish can be found in some traditional trattorias in Rome. Pajata is the term for the intestines of an unweaned calf, i.e., only fed on its mother's milk. The intestines are cleaned and skinned, but the chyme is left inside. Then the intestine is cut in pieces 20–25 cm long, which are bound together with white thread, forming rings. When cooked, the combination of heat and the enzyme rennet in the intestines coagulates the chyme and creates a sort of thick, creamy, cheese-like sauce. These rings can be served simply seasoned and grilled (pajata arrosto) or in the traditional Roman dish in which pajata is stewed in a typical tomato sauce and served with rigatoni.Romanesco dialect
Romanesco (Italian pronunciation: [romaˈnesko]) is one of the central Italian dialects spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city. It is linguistically close to Tuscan and Standard Italian, with some notable differences from these two. Rich in vivid expressions and sayings, Romanesco is used in a typical diglossic setting, mainly for informal/colloquial communication, with code-switching and translanguaging with the standard language.Seraglio
A seraglio ( sə-RAL-yoh or sə-RAHL-yoh) or serail is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in an Ottoman household. The term harem is a generic term for domestic spaces reserved for women in a Muslim family, which can also refer to the women themselves. The Ottoman imperial harem was known in Ottoman Turkish as Harem-i Hümâyûn.Severino Gazzelloni
Severino Gazzelloni (January 5, 1919 – November 21, 1992), was an Italian flute player.Viareggio Prize
The Viareggio Prize (Italian: Premio Viareggio or Premio Letterario Viareggio-Rèpaci) is an Italian literary prize, first awarded in 1930. Named after the Tuscan city of Viareggio, it was conceived by three friends, Alberto Colantuoni, Carlo Salsa and Leonida Rèpaci, to rival the Milanese Bagutta Prize.