Treaty of San Francisco

The Treaty of San Francisco (サンフランシスコ講和条約 San-Furanshisuko kōwa-Jōyaku), also called the Treaty of Peace with Japan (日本国との平和条約 Nihon-koku to no Heiwa-Jōyaku), re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers after World War II. It was officially signed by 49 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco, California. It came into force on April 28, 1952, and officially ended the American-led Allied occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan.[1]

This treaty served to officially end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, and to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return full sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter[2] and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[3] to enunciate the Allies' goals.

This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history.

This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined.

Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of Peace with Japan
Japanese サンフランシスコ講和条約
English Treaty of Peace with Japan
French Traité de paix avec le Japon
Spanish Tratado de Paz con Japón
Italian Trattato di pace con il Giappone
German Friedensvertrag mit dem Staat Japan
Chinese 舊金山和約
Russian Сан-Францисский мирный договор


ජපානය සමග සාම ගිවිසුම
Treaty of San Francisco
Peace Treaty with Japan
SignedSeptember 8, 1951
EffectiveApril 28, 1952



Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon (currently Sri Lanka), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the Soviet Union, Syria, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Vietnam attended the Conference.[4]


China was not invited due to disagreements on whether the established but defeated Republic of China (in Taiwan) or the newly formed People's Republic of China (in mainland China) represented the Chinese people. Burma, India, and Yugoslavia were invited, but did not participate;[5] India considered certain provisions of the Treaty to constitute limitations on Japanese sovereignty and national independence.[6] India signed a separate peace treaty, the Treaty of Peace Between Japan and India, for the purpose of giving Japan a proper position of honor and equality among the community of free nations, on June 9, 1952.[7] As a consequence of U.K.–U.S. disagreement over Chinese participation, neither North nor South Korea was invited.[8] Italy was not invited either, notwithstanding the fact that the government had issued a formal declaration of war to Japan on July 14, 1945, just a few weeks before the end of the war.[9] Pakistan as a state had not existed at the time of the war but was invited anyway since it was a successor state to British India, a major combatant against Japan. Portugal was also not invited—even though its territory of East Timor had been invaded by Japan, disregarding Portugal's status as neutral country in the war.


Soviet Union's opposition to the treaty

The Soviet Union took part in the San Francisco conference, and the Soviet delegation was led by the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. From the start of the conference the Soviet Union expressed vigorous and vocal opposition to the draft treaty text prepared by the United States and the United Kingdom. The Soviet delegation made several unsuccessful procedural attempts to stall the proceedings.[10] The Soviet Union's objections were detailed in a lengthy September 8, 1951, statement by Gromyko.[11] The statement contained a number of the Soviet Union's claims and assertions: that the treaty did not provide any guarantees against the rise of Japanese militarism; that China was not invited to participate despite being one of the main victims of the Japanese aggression; that the Soviet Union was not properly consulted when the treaty was being prepared; that the treaty sets up Japan as an American military base and draws Japan into a military coalition directed against the Soviet Union; that the treaty was in effect a separate peace treaty; that the draft treaty violated the rights of China to Taiwan and several other islands; that the draft treaty, in violation of the Yalta agreement, did not recognize the Soviet Union's sovereignty over South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands; and other objections. It was not until October 19, 1956, that Japan and the Soviet Union signed a Joint Declaration ending the war and reestablishing diplomatic relations.[12]

People's Republic of China's objections to the treaty

The ongoing Chinese Civil War and thus the question of which Chinese government was legitimate presented a dilemma to conference organizers. The United States wanted to invite the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan to represent China, while the United Kingdom wished to invite the People's Republic of China (PRC) on mainland China as China's representative. As a compromise, neither government was invited.

On August 15, 1951, and September 18, 1951, the PRC published statements denouncing the treaty, stating that it was illegal and should not be recognized. Besides their general exclusion from the negotiation process, the PRC claimed that Xisha (Paracel Islands), Nansha (Spratly Islands) and Dongsha (Pratas Islands) in the South China Sea were actually part of China.[13] The treaty either did not address these islands, or in the case of the Pratas Islands turned them over to the United Nations.

Ceylon's defense of Japan

A major player in providing support for a post-war free Japan was the delegation from Ceylon (now known as Sri Lanka).[14] While many were reluctant to allow a free Japan capable of aggressive action and insisted that the terms of surrender should be rigidly enforced in an attempt to break the spirit of the Japanese nation, the Ceylonese Finance Minister J.R. Jayawardene spoke in defense of a free Japan and informed the conference of Ceylon's refusal to accept the payment of reparations that would harm Japan's economy. His reason was "We in Ceylon were fortunate that we were not invaded, but the damage caused by air raids, by the stationing of enormous armies under the South-East Asia Command, and by the slaughter-tapping of one of our main commodities, rubber, when we were the only producer of natural rubber for the Allies, entitles us to ask that the damage so caused should be repaired. We do not intend to do so for we believe in the words of the Great Teacher [Buddha] whose message has ennobled the lives of countless millions in Asia, that 'hatred ceases not by hatred but by love'." He ended the same speech by saying:

This treaty is as magnanimous as it is just to a defeated foe. We extend to Japan the hand of friendship and trust that with the closing of this chapter in the history of man, the last page of which we write today, and with the beginning of the new one, the first page of which we dictate tomorrow, her people and ours may march together to enjoy the full dignity of human life in peace and prosperity.[15][16]

Minister Jayewardene's speech was received with resounding applause.[17] Afterwards, the New York Times stated, "The voice of free Asia, eloquent, melancholy and still strong with the lilt of an Oxford accent, dominated the Japanese peace treaty conference today."[18]

Signatories and ratification

Of the 51 participating countries, 48 signed the treaty;[19] Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Soviet Union refused.[20]

The signatories to the treaty were: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon (currently Sri Lanka), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syria, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam and Japan.[4]

The Philippines ratified the San Francisco Treaty on July 16, 1956, after the signing of a reparations agreement between both countries in May of that year.[21] Indonesia did not ratify the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Instead, it signed with Japan a bilateral reparations agreement and peace treaty on January 20, 1958.[22] A separate treaty, the Treaty of Taipei, formally known as the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty, was signed in Taipei on April 28, 1952, between Japan and the ROC, just hours before the Treaty of San Francisco also went into effect on April 28.[23][24] The apparent illogical order of the two treaties is due to the difference between time zones.

Neither Korea nor its derivatives South Korea and North Korea was allowed to sign either the treaty or a separate peace arrangement with Japan.

Fate of Taiwan and other Japanese overseas territories

Yoshida signs San Francisco Peace Treaty
Yoshida and members of the Japanese delegation sign the Treaty.

According to the treaty's travaux préparatoires, a consensus existed among the states present at the San Francisco Peace Conference that, while the legal status of the island of Taiwan is temporarily undetermined, it would be resolved at a later time in accordance with the principles of peaceful settlement of disputes and self-determination, ideas that had been enshrined in the UN Charter.[25]

The document officially renounces Japan's treaty rights derived from the Boxer Protocol of 1901 and its rights to Korea, Formosa (Taiwan) and the Pescadores, Hong Kong (then a British colony), the Kuril Islands, the Spratly Islands, Antarctica and South Sakhalin.

Article 3 of the treaty left the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands, which included Okinawa and the Amami, Miyako and Yaeyama Islands groups, under a potential U.S. trusteeship. While the treaty suggested that these territories would become U.S. trusteeship, at the end that option was not pursued. The Amami Islands were eventually restored to Japan on December 25, 1953, as well as the Bonin Islands on April 5, 1968.[26] In 1969 U.S.-Japan negotiations authorized the transfer of authority over the Ryūkyūs to Japan to be implemented in 1972. In 1972, the United States' "reversion" of the Ryūkyūs occurred along with the ceding of control over the nearby Senkaku Islands.[27] Both the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) argue that this agreement did not determine the ultimate sovereignty of the Senkaku Islands.

The Treaty of Taipei between Japan and the ROC recognized the terms of the San Francisco Treaty but added that all residents of Taiwan and the Pescadores were deemed as nationals of the ROC.

Some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that the language in the San Francisco Peace Treaty proves the notion that Taiwan is not a part of the Republic of China, for it does not explicitly state the sovereignty status of Taiwan after Japanese renunciation.[28] In 1955, U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, co-author of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, affirmed that the treaty ceded Taiwan to no one; that Japan "merely renounced sovereignty over Taiwan".[29] Dulles said that America "cannot, therefore, admit that the disposition of Taiwan is merely an internal problem of China."[29] This legal justification is rejected by both the PRC and ROC governments, both of which base their legal claims on Taiwan on the Instrument of Surrender of Japan which accepts the Potsdam Declaration and the Cairo Declaration. In addition, in more recent years supporters of Taiwan independence have more often relied on arguments based on self-determination as implied in the San Francisco Peace Treaty and popular sovereignty.

By Article 11 Japan accepted the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts both within and outside Japan and agreed to carry out the sentences imposed thereby upon Japanese nationals imprisoned in Japan.

The document further set guidelines for repatriation of Allied prisoners of war and renounces future military aggression under the guidelines set by the United Nations Charter. The document nullifies prior treaties and lays down the framework for Japan's current status of retaining a military that is purely defensive in nature.

There is also some ambiguity as to over which islands Japan has renounced sovereignty. This has led to both the Kuril Islands dispute and the Senkaku Islands dispute.

Compensation to Allied civilians and POWs

Transfer of Japanese overseas assets

In accordance with Article 14 of the Treaty, Allied forces confiscated all assets owned by the Japanese government, firms, organization and private citizens, in all colonized or occupied countries except China, which was dealt with under Article 21. China repossessed all Japanese assets in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, which included mineworks and railway infrastructure. Moreover, Article 4 of the treaty stated that "the disposition of property of Japan and of its nationals...and their claims...against the authorities presently administering such areas and the residents...shall be the subject of special arrangements between Japan and such authorities." Although Korea was not a signatory state of the treaty, it was also entitled to the benefits of Article 4 by the provisions of Article 21.

Japanese overseas assets in 1945 (¥15=1US$)
Country/region Value (Yen) Value (US Dollars)
Korea 70,256,000,000 4,683,700,000
Taiwan 42,542,000,000 2,846,100,000
North East China 146,532,000,000 9,768,800,000
North China 55,437,000,000 3,695,800,000
Central South China 36,718,000,000 2,447,900,000
Others 28,014,000,000 1,867,600,000
Total ¥379,499,000,000 $25,300,000,000

Total amount of Japanese overseas assets in China was US$18,758,600,000 in 1945 USD.

Compensation to Allied POWs

Article 16 of the San Francisco Treaty states:

As an expression of its desire to indemnify those members of the armed forces of the Allied Powers who suffered undue hardships while prisoners of war of Japan, Japan will transfer its assets and those of its nationals in countries which were neutral during the war, or which were at war with any of the Allied Powers, or, at its option, the equivalent of such assets, to the International Committee of the Red Cross which shall liquidate such assets and distribute the resultant fund to appropriate national agencies, for the benefit of former prisoners of war and their families on such basis as it may determine to be equitable. The categories of assets described in Article 14(a)2(II)(ii) through (v) of the present Treaty shall be excepted from transfer, as well as assets of Japanese natural persons not residents of Japan on the first coming into force of the Treaty. It is equally understood that the transfer provision of this Article has no application to the 19,770 shares in the Bank for International Settlements presently owned by Japanese financial institutions.

Accordingly, Japan paid £4,500,000 to the Red Cross.

Article 16 has served as a bar against subsequent lawsuits filed by former Allied prisoners of war against Japan. In 1998, a Tokyo court ruled against a suit brought by former Allied POW's, citing the San Francisco Treaty.[30]

Allied territories occupied by Japan

Kowa sakurano hi
Memorial for Treaty of San Francisco in Shimomaruko, Ōta ward, Tokyo

Article 14 of the treaty stated that

It is recognized that Japan should pay reparations to the Allied Powers for the damage and suffering caused by it during the war. Nevertheless it is also recognized that the resources of Japan are not presently sufficient, if it is to maintain a viable economy, to make complete reparation for all such damage and suffering and at the same time meet its other obligations.


Japan will promptly enter into negotiations with Allied Powers so desiring, whose present territories were occupied by Japanese forces and damaged by Japan, with a view to assisting to compensate those countries for the cost of repairing the damage done, by making available the services of the Japanese people in production, salvaging and other work for the Allied Powers in question.

Accordingly, the Philippines and South Vietnam received compensation in 1956 and 1959, respectively. Burma and Indonesia were not original signatories, but they later signed bilateral treaties in accordance with Article 14 of the San Francisco Treaty.

Japanese military yen issued by force in Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other places for the economic advantage of Japan were not honoured by them after the war. This caused much suffering, but the claims of the Hong Kong Reparation Association in 1993, in a Tokyo district court, failed in 1999. The court acknowledged the suffering of the Hong Kong people, but reasoned that the Government of Japan did not have specific laws concerning military yen compensation and that the United Kingdom was a signatory to the Treaty of San Francisco.[31][32]

Regarding China, on September 29, 1972, the Government of the People's Republic of China declared "that in the interest of the friendship between the Chinese and the Japanese peoples, it renounces its demand for war reparation from Japan" in article 5 of the Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China.[33]

Japanese compensation to countries occupied during 1941–45
Country Amount in Yen Amount in US$ Date of treaty
Burma 72,000,000,000 200,000,000 November 5, 1955
Philippines 198,000,000,000 550,000,000 May 9, 1956
Indonesia 80,388,000,000 223,080,000 January 20, 1958
Vietnam 14,400,000,000 38,000,000 May 13, 1959
Total ¥364,348,800,000 US$1,012,080,000 N/A

The last payment was made to the Philippines on July 22, 1976.

See also



  1. ^ Treaty of Peace with Japan (with two declarations). Signed at San Francisco, on 8 September 1951
  2. ^ Preamble and Article 5
  3. ^ Preamble
  4. ^ a b "Treaty of Peace with Japan (including transcript with signatories: Source attributed : United Nations Treaty Series 1952 (reg. no. 1832), vol. 136, pp. 45–164.)". Taiwan Documents Project. Archived from the original on 2001-02-21. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
  5. ^ Social Studies: History for Middle School. 7–2. Japan's Path and World Events p.2, Teikoku Shoin [1] Archived 2005-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Nehru and Non-alignment". P.V. Narasimha Rao. Mainstream Weekly. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
  7. ^ Singh, Manmohan (April 29, 2005). Dr. Manmohan Singh's banquet speech in honour of Japanese Prime Minister (Speech). New Delhi: Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on December 12, 2005. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  8. ^ "50 Years from San Francisco: Re-examining the peace treaty and Japan's territorial problems." [2]
  9. ^ "The World at War - Diplomatic Timeline 1939-1945". Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  11. ^ Text of Gromyko's Statement on the Peace Treaty. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs website
  12. ^ "Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Compendium of Documents". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  13. ^ "Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai's statement on the US-British draft peace treaty with Japan and the San Francisco Conference".
  14. ^ "A visionary strategist". Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  15. ^ "ADDRESS BY HIS EXCELLENCY J.R. JAYEWARDENE". Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  16. ^ "Japan-Sri Lanka BilateralRelations". Embassy of Japan in Sri Lanka. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  17. ^ Kotelawala, Himal. "Forgotten Histories Of Lankan Leaders". Roar Reports. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  18. ^ "FOUR ASIAN NATIONS SUPPORT DRAFT OF JAPANESE TREATY, CHALLENGE SOVIET CHARGES; U.S. POLICY BACKED Ceylon, Pakistan, Laos and Cambodia Stress Need of Just Peace INDIAN STAND IS OPPOSED 14 Criticisms of Document Offered Despite General Indication of Approval". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  19. ^ Peace Treaties after World War II: Peace treaty signed in San Francisco, September 8, 1951. The History Channel [3]
  20. ^ Foreign Office Files for Japan and the Far East 1951: September, Adam Matthew Publications [4] Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Indai Lourdes Sajor, "Military Sexual Slavery: Crimes against humanity", in Gurcharan Singh Bhatia (ed), Peace, justice and freedom: human rights challenges for the new millennium Alberta University Press, 2000, p.177
  22. ^ Ken'ichi Goto, Paul H. Kratoska, Tensions of empire: Japan and Southeast Asia in the colonial and postcolonial world, NUS Press, 2003, p.260
  23. ^ Matsumura, Masahiro. "San Francisco Treaty and the South China Sea". The Japan Times. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  24. ^ "Treaty of Peace between the Republic of China and Japan (Treaty of Taipei) 1952". USC U.S.-China. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  25. ^ Chen, Lung-chu (2016). The U.S.-Taiwan-China Relationship in International Law and Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 0190601124.
  26. ^ Agreement between Japan and the United States of America Concerning Nanpo Shoto and Other Islands, April 5, 1968 [5]
  27. ^ Agreement between Japan and the United States of America Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands, June 17, 1971 [6]
  28. ^ 鄭裕文 (5 September 2011). "舊金山和約60年 台灣主權又起爭議". Washington, D.C. Voice of America.
  29. ^ a b United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States, 1955-1957. China, Volume II (1955-1957) [7]
  30. ^ CNN – Anger as court rejects Allied POWs compensation suit – November 26, 1998
  31. ^ "Court rejects H.K. residents' claims on military yen". Kyodo News. June 21, 1999. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  32. ^ Ng Yat Hing (3 January 2006). "Letter to Prime Minister of Japan on 3 January 2006". Hong Kong Reparation Association. Archived from the original on 2012-11-20. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  33. ^ "Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 16 January 2016.

External links

1951 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference

The 1951 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference was the fifth Meeting of the Heads of Government of the British Commonwealth. It was held in the United Kingdom in January 1951, and was hosted by that country's Prime Minister, Clement Attlee.

The principal topic of the conference was the Korean War with the summit issuing a declaration, proposed by Australian prime minister Robert Menzies, stating that the Commonwealth prime ministers "would welcome any feasible arrangement for a frank exchange of views with Stalin and Mao Tse-tung." The Commonwealth leaders also called for peace treaty negotiations with Japan to be concluded as soon as possible (see Treaty of San Francisco).

1952 in Japan

Events in the year 1952 in Japan.

1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement

The Okinawa Reversion Agreement (Japanese: 沖縄返還協定, Hepburn: Okinawahenkan kyōtei) was an agreement between the Japan and the United States in which the United States relinquished in favor of Japan all rights and interests under Article III of the Treaty of San Francisco obtained as a result of the Pacific War, thus returning the Okinawa Prefecture to Japanese sovereignty. The document was signed simultaneously in Washington, D.C. and Tokyo on June 17, 1971, by William P. Rogers on behalf of President Richard Nixon and Kiichi Aichi on behalf of Prime Minister Eisaku Satō. The document was not ratified in Japan until November 24, 1971, by the National Diet.

908 Taiwan Republic Campaign

The 908 Taiwan Republic Campaign is an umbrella organization of a small activist groups for the goal of Taiwan independence. It is led by Peter Wang (王獻極).

The group takes its name from the date, September 8, that they mark as the utopian Taiwanese Independence Day. It is the date that Japan signed the Treaty of San Francisco in 1951. The treaty officially ended World War II and also Japan's territorial claims over Taiwan.

The group has written a so-called Declaration of Independence for Taiwan, usually publicized at the group's events.

The groups stated goals before December 2008 were:

To work with politicians to create a constitution ready for public comment by 28 February 2007. (Not accomplished)

To have an endorsement by at least three million Taiwanese one year later.

To request the next president to ratify the constitution by 8 September 2008. (Not accomplished)

To send 8000 children to the United Nations building in New York City to display the new constitution and appeal for inclusion in the world governing body. (Not accomplished)Prototype drafts of the new constitution feature a three-branch government with clear delineation of power, and for checks and balances. The 908s believe the current political climate lacks jurisdictional clarity. It will also feature constitutional provisions for equality and against political corruption and vote buying. The 908s are critical of the current constitution of the Republic of China, calling it a "meaningless document that only cares about the 1.3 billion people who live in China and has nothing to do with the welfare of the 23 million people of Taiwan."

Many politicians from the Taiwan Solidarity Union and some from the Democratic Progressive Party openly participate in 908 rallies.

Civic Center, San Francisco

The Civic Center in San Francisco, California, is an area of a few blocks north of the intersection of Market Street and Van Ness Avenue that contains many of the city's largest government and cultural institutions. It has two large plazas (Civic Center Plaza and United Nations Plaza) and a number of buildings in classical architectural style. The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium (formerly the Exposition Auditorium), the United Nations Charter was signed in the War Memorial Veterans Building's Herbst Theatre in 1945, leading to the creation of the United Nations. It is also where the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco (the peace treaty that officially ended the Pacific War with the Empire of Japan, which had surrendered in 1945) was signed. The San Francisco Civic Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987 and listed in the National Register of Historic Places on October 10, 1978.

John Moore Allison

John Moore Allison (April 7, 1905 – October 28, 1978) was a US diplomat most commonly known for being US Ambassador to Japan from 1953 to 1957. From 1957 to 1958 he was Ambassador to Indonesia and from 1958 to 1960 to Czechoslovakia. In the 1960s and 1970s he was Professor at the University of Hawaii. In 1973 he published his memoir, Ambassador from the Prairie.Allison first visited Japan in 1927, following his graduation from the University of Nebraska. He worked for two years as an English teacher in Odawara and Atsugi before joining the State Department in 1930. He studied Japanese in Tokyo and then worked in the foreign service in Japan and China, serving as consul in Dalian (1935–36), Jinan (1936–37), Nanjing (1937–38), Shanghai (1938), and Osaka (1939–41).

On January 26, 1938, during the period of the Nanking Massacre, John M. Allison, at the time consul at the American embassy in Nanjing, was struck in the face by a Japanese soldier. This incident is commonly known as the Allison incident. Japanese Consul-General Katsuo Okazaki apologized formally on January 30 (after the Americans demanded they do so). This incident, together with the looting of American property in Nanking that took place at the same time, further strained relations between Japan and the United States, which had already been damaged by the Panay incident less than two months earlier.

Allison served as a consul in London during World War II. After Japan's surrender, he served in various State Department leadership positions covering Japan and the Far East from 1946 to 1952. Allison participated in the drafting of the Treaty of San Francisco that formally ended the war, serving as John Foster Dulles's aide during the latter's negotiation of the treaty.Allison was named United States Ambassador to Japan in 1953. In 1954, 16 years after the "Allison Incident," Allison and the man who had apologized to him in Nanjing, Japanese Foreign Minister Okazaki, signed the U.S. and Japan Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement on behalf of their respective countries.In 1957, during his ambassadorship to Indonesia, he recommended the U.S. government mediate on the Western New Guinea issue.

Kuril Islands dispute

The Kuril Islands dispute, also known in Japan as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands. The Kuril Islands is a chain of islands that stretch between the Japanese island of Hokkaido at the southern end and the Russian Kamchatka Peninsula at the northern end. The islands separate the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. The four disputed islands, like other islands in the Kuril chain that are not in dispute, were annexed by the Soviet Union following the Kuril Islands landing operation at the end of World War II. The disputed islands are under Russian administration as the South Kuril District of the Sakhalin Oblast (Сахалинская область, Sakhalinskaya oblast). They are claimed by Japan, which refers to them as its Northern Territories or Southern Chishima, and considers them part of the Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaido Prefecture.

The islands in dispute are:

Iturup (Russian: Итуруп)—Etorofu Island (Japanese: 択捉島, Etorofu-tō)

Kunashir (Russian: Кунашир)—Kunashiri Island (Japanese: 国後島, Kunashiri-tō)

Shikotan (Russian: Шикотан)—Shikotan Island (Japanese: 色丹島, Shikotan-tō)

Habomai Islands (Russian: острова Хабомаи ostrova Habomai)—Habomai Islands (Japanese: 歯舞群島, Habomai-guntō)The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed between the Allies and Japan in 1951, states that Japan must give up "all right, title and claim to the Kuril Islands", but it also does not recognize the Soviet Union's sovereignty over them. Japan claims that at least some of the disputed islands are not a part of the Kuril Islands, and thus are not covered by the treaty. Russia maintains that the Soviet Union's sovereignty over the islands was recognized in post-war agreements. Japan and the Soviet Union ended their formal state of war with the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, but did not resolve the territorial dispute. During talks leading to the joint declaration, the Soviet Union offered Japan the two smaller islands of Shikotan and the Habomai Islands in exchange for Japan renouncing all claims to the two bigger islands of Iturup and Kunashir, but Japan refused the offer after pressure from the US.

List of territories occupied by Imperial Japan

This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and some 6,000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Unconditional Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 were returned to Japan, but there are still a number of disputed territories, with Russia (the Kuril Islands dispute), South Korea and North Korea (the Liancourt Rocks dispute), the People's Republic of China and Taiwan (the Senkaku Islands dispute).

Rusk documents

The Rusk documents (also known as the Rusk–Yang correspondence) are the official diplomatic correspondence sent by Dean Rusk, the United States Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, to Yang You Chan (양유찬, 梁裕燦), the South Korean ambassador to the U.S at the August 10, 1951.

The Rusk documents show the negotiating position of the U.S. State Department.The correspondence states the negotiating position as:

Japan's acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration did not constitute a formal or final renunciation of sovereignty by Japan.

The Japanese claim to the Liancourt Rocks would not be renounced in the peace treaty.

The MacArthur line stands until the conclusion of the Treaty of San Francisco.

Japan has no obligation to compensate for damage to private property owned by Koreans that was damaged in Japan during the war.

Japanese property in Korea is pursuant to directives of United States Military Government and Korea Government.

Ryuichi Shimoda v. The State

Ryuichi Shimoda et al. v. The State was an unsuccessful case brought before the District Court of Tokyo by a group of five survivors of the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who claimed the action was illegal under the laws of war and demanded reparations from the Japanese government on the ground that it waived the right for reparations from the U.S. government under the Treaty of San Francisco.

Shōwa (1926–1989)

The Shōwa era (Japanese: 昭和, Hepburn: Shōwa) refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989. It was preceded by the Taishō period.

The pre-1945 and post-war Shōwa periods are almost completely different states: the pre-1945 Shōwa era (1926–1945) concerns the Empire of Japan, while post-1945 Shōwa era (1945–1989) is the State of Japan.

During the pre-1945 period, Japan moved into political totalitarianism, ultranationalism and fascism culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937. This was part of a global period of social upheavals and conflicts such as the Great Depression and World War II.

Defeat in the Second World War brought about radical change in Japan. For the first and only time in its history, Japan was occupied by foreign powers; this occupation lasted seven years. Allied occupation brought forth sweeping democratic reforms. It led to the formal end of the emperor's status as a demigod and the transformation of Japan from a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy to a Constitutional monarchy with a liberal democracy. In 1952, with the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan became a sovereign nation again. The post-war Shōwa period is characterized by the Japanese economic miracle.

The Shōwa era was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor. Emperor Shōwa was both the longest-lived and longest-reigning historical Japanese emperor, as well as the longest-reigning monarch in the world at that time. On 7 January 1989, Crown Prince Akihito succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father Emperor Shōwa. This marked the start of the Heisei period.

Special Permanent Resident (Japan)

A Special Permanent Resident (特別永住者, tokubetsueijūsha) is a resident of Japan with ancestry usually related to its former colonies, Korea or Taiwan when those countries were under Japanese colonial rule. They had been subjects of the empire of Japan, but had lost that status after the war when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect in 1952. Korean residents of Japan, known as Zainichi Koreans, were permitted to naturalise and become Japanese citizens, but many hesitated to do so given anti-Korean prejudice in Japan. Following the 1965 treaty between Japan and South Korea, Zainichi Koreans gained Special Permanent Resident Status.As of 2018,321419,、Nationality is Korea and North Korea people is 332447。

Taiwan independence movement

The Taiwan independence movement is a political and social movement which aims to establish an independent sovereign state on the archipelagic territory of "Taiwan", preferably being officially known as the "Republic of Taiwan", with a unique "Taiwanese national identity".

Currently, Taiwan's political status is highly ambiguous and heavily disputed. All of the island territories (aside from the Japan-controlled Senkaku/Diaoyutai islands) which are generally considered to collectively constitute a single "Taiwan region" are currently under the control of the Republic of China, a polity which is only recognized as a sovereign state by seventeen United Nations-recognized countries.

The primary obstacle to Taiwan independence is, in fact, the regime that controls the People's Republic of China (PRC or China), the polity which is widely recognized (including by the United Nations) as the sole government of both China and Taiwan. The PRC does not have any real authority within Taiwan itself but claims to represent the territory, which it usually refers to as "Taiwan Province", in international organizations.

Territorial disputes of Japan

Japan is currently engaged in several territorial disputes with nearby countries, including Russia, South Korea, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China.

The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail

The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail (虎の尾を踏む男達, Tora no O o Fumu Otokotachi, alternatively They Who Step on the Tiger's Tail) is a 1945 Japanese period drama film, written and directed by Akira Kurosawa. It is based on the kabuki play Kanjinchō, which is in turn based on the Noh play Ataka.

The film was initially banned by the occupying Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) due to its portrayal of feudal values. It was later released after the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952.

Theory of the Undetermined Status of Taiwan

The Theory of the Undetermined Status of Taiwan (Chinese: 台灣地位未定論), also called the Theory of the Undetermined Sovereignty of Taiwan (Chinese: 台灣主權未定論), is one of the theories which describe the island of Taiwan's present legal status.

The theory originated from United States President Harry S. Truman's statement on 27 June 1950, regarding the Korean War, which had broken out two days earlier. In his statement, Truman said that it would be a direct threat to the United States' security in the western Pacific area if the communist forces occupied Taiwan, so he ordered the 7th Fleet to enter the Taiwan Strait to prevent any attack on the island. Truman stated: "The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations." Because of the statement, the Theory of the Undetermined Status of Taiwan came into existence.

Although Japan concluded the Treaty of San Francisco with the Allied Powers after World War II in 1951, in the treaty it merely "renounced" all right, title and claim to Taiwan and the Pescadores without explicitly stating the sovereignty status of the two territories. Therefore, the Theory of the Undetermined Status of Taiwan is still supported by some politicians and jurists to this day.Supporters of the theory include, but are not limited to, supporters of the Taiwan independence movement. They believe that Taiwan's status should be determined by Taiwanese people through self-determination.

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between the United States and Japan

The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (日本国とアメリカ合衆国との間の相互協力及び安全保障条約, Nihon-koku to Amerika-gasshūkoku to no Aida no Sōgo Kyōryoku oyobi Anzen Hoshō Jōyaku), also known in Japan as Anpo jōyaku (安保条約) or just Anpo (安保) for short, was first signed in 1951 at the San Francisco Presidio following the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco (commonly known as the Peace Treaty of San Francisco) at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House. Then, the Security Treaty was later amended further on January 1960 between the US and Japan in Washington.

When the Treaty was first signed, it contained provisions that permitted the United States to act for the sake of maintaining peace in East Asia and even exert its power on Japanese domestic quarrels. The latter part mentioned has been deleted in the revised version of the treaty. In the amended treaty, articles that delineate mutual defense obligations, the US obligations to pre-inform Japan in times of the US army mobilization were included to alleviate unequal status suggested in the treaty signed in 1952. The treaty established that any attack against Japan or the United States perpetrated within Japanese territorial administration would be dangerous to the respective countries' own peace and safety. It requires both countries to act to meet the common danger. To support that requirement, it provided for the continued presence of US military bases in Japan.

The treaty also included general provisions on the further development of international cooperation and on improved future economic cooperation.The treaty has lasted longer than any other alliance between two great powers since the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. The treaty had a minimum term of 10 years. However, it provided that it would remain in force permanently unless one party gives one year's notice that it wishes to terminate it.

Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875)

The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (樺太・千島交換条約, Karafuto-Chishima Kōkan Jōyaku) (Russian:Петербургский договор) between the Empire of Japan and Empire of Russia was signed on 7 May 1875, and its ratifications exchanged at Tokyo on 22 August 1875.

Its terms stipulated that Japan cedes to Russia the part of Sakhalin island it then owned in exchange for the group of the Kuril Islands owned by Russia (between Iturup island and the Kamchatka Peninsula). Consequently, Sakhalin island as a whole became Russian territory, and the entire Kuril archipelago Japanese territory.

The authentic text of the Treaty is written in French. Differences with its Japanese translation contributed to the controversy on what constitutes the Kuril islands, to which Japan renounced in 1951 by the Treaty of San Francisco.

The Treaty of Shimoda of 1855 had defined the border between Japan and Russia to be the strait between Iturup (Etorofu) and Urup (Uruppu) islands in the Kurile chain, but had left the status of Sakhalin (Karafuto) open. Without well-defined borders, incidents between Russian and Japanese settlers began to occur. In order to remedy this situation, the Japanese government sent an ambassador, Enomoto Takeaki, to Saint Petersburg to clearly define the border in this area. After a year of negotiations, Japan agreed to renounce its claims to Sakhalin, with compensation for Japanese residents, access by the fishing fleet to the Sea of Okhotsk, ten-years free use of Russian ports in the area and ownership of all of the Kuril Islands.

Treaty of Taipei

The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (Chinese: 中日和平條約; Japanese: 日華平和条約), commonly known as the Treaty of Taipei (Chinese: 台北和約), was a peace treaty between Japan and the Republic of China (ROC) signed in Taipei, Taiwan on 28 April 1952, and took effect on August 5 the same year, marking the formal end of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). This treaty was necessary, because neither the Republic of China nor the People's Republic of China was invited to sign the Treaty of San Francisco due to disagreements by other countries as to which government was the legitimate government of China during and after the Chinese Civil War. Under pressure from the United States, Japan signed a separate peace treaty with the Republic of China to bring the war between the two states to a formal end with a victory for the ROC. Although the ROC itself was not a participant in the San Francisco Peace Conference due to the resumption of the Chinese Civil War after 1945, this treaty largely corresponds to that of San Francisco. In particular, the ROC waived service compensation to Japan in this treaty with respect to Article 14(a).1 of the San Francisco Treaty.

The Treaty of Taipei was abrogated unilaterally by the Japanese government on Sept. 29, 1972 as a result of the Japan-China Joint Communiqué.

Treaties of Japan
Bakumatsu period
Meiji period
World War III
During the Cold War


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