The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac (Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац, German: Passarowitz), a town in the Ottoman Empire (modern Serbia), on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and Austria of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Republic of Venice on the other.
|Treaty of Passarowitz|
The central Balkans in 1718. Territories passed from the Turks to Austria were:
|Signed||21 July 1718|
|Location||Passarowitz, Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (now Požarevac, Serbia)|
Between 1714 and 1718, the Ottomans had been successful against Venice in Greece and Crete (Ottoman–Venetian War), but had been defeated at Petrovaradin (1716) by the Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy (Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718).
The treaty reflected the military situation. The Ottoman Empire lost the Banat and southeastern Syrmia, central part of present-day Serbia (from Belgrade to south of Kruševac), a tiny strip of northern Bosnia and Lesser Wallachia (Oltenia) to Austria.
Venice renounced the Peloponnese peninsula (known as the Morea at the time), gained by the Treaty of Karlowitz, as well as its last remaining outposts in Crete and islands of Aegina and Tinos, retaining only the Ionian Islands (with Ottoman-occupied Kythera added to them) and the cities of Preveza and Arta on the Epirote mainland. In Dalmatia, it made some small advances, taking the areas of Imotski and Vrgorac in the hinterland.
The result of the treaty was the restoration of Habsburg administration over much of the territory of present-day Serbia, which they had temporarily occupied during the Great Turkish War between 1688 and 1690, and the effective establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia as a crown land. Following Passarowitz, a Habsburg crown land known as the Banat of Temeswar was also established.
After another Austro-Turkish war, in the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar and Lesser Wallachia.
The Austro-Turkish War was fought between Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) was not an acceptable long-standing agreement for the Ottoman Empire. Twelve years after Karlowitz, the Turks began the long prospect of taking revenge for their defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. First, the Turkish Grand Vizier Baltacı Mehmet's army defeated Peter the Great's Russian Army in the Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711). Thereafter, in the Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718), the new Grand Vizier Damat Ali re-conquered Morea from the Venetians in 1715. As a reaction, Austria, as the guarantor of the Treaty of Karlowitz, threatened the Ottoman Empire, but in response the Ottoman Empire declared war against Austria.
In 1716, Prince Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at Petrovaradin. The Banat and its capital Timişoara was conquered in October 1716. The following year, after the Austrians captured Belgrade, the Turks wanted peace and in 1718 the Treaty of Passarowitz was signed. The Austrians maintained control over Belgrade and the Treaty of Passarowitz confirmed their gains in 1699, leaving the Turks with control over the south bank of the Danube river. The war led to the loss of Austrian holdings in Italy because of their support in the Balkans. It caused them to send more supplies to the Balkan front, ultimately reducing focus to their Italian territories which were facing aggression from Spain. Even though Eugene of Savoy asked for the troops to be diverted, focus was given to the Ottomans. This ultimately caused the War of the Quadruple Alliance against Spain.Bogda
Bogda (German: Neuhof; Hungarian: Rigósfürdő, until 1899 Bogda-Rigós) is a commune in Timiș County, Romania. It is composed of six villages: Altringen, Bogda, Buzad, Charlottenburg, Comeat, and Sintar.Donji Petrovci
Donji Petrovci (Serbian Cyrillic: Доњи Петровци) is a village in Serbia. It is situated in Ruma municipality, Srem District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority and a population of 991 people (2002 census). There is a significant ancient Roman archaeological site near the village - the remains of large city Bassianae, which in the 3rd century had the highest status of colonia.Giovanni II Cornaro
Giovanni II Cornaro, sometimes Corner (4 August 1647 – 12 August 1722) was a Venetian nobleman and statesman; he served as the 111th Doge of Venice from 22 May 1709 until his death.
Cornaro was born and died in Venice. He was a career statesman from a noble family. During his time as Doge, he led Venice in the last war against the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, whereby Venice lost the Morea and her last possessions in the Aegean Sea. He was succeeded as Doge by Sebastiano Mocenigo.
His dogaressa was Laura Cornaro.Jimbolia
Jimbolia (Romanian pronunciation: [ʒimˈboli.a]) is a town in Timiș county, Romania.Kingdom of Serbia (1718–39)
The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija, German: Königreich Serbien, Latin: Regnum Serviae) was a province (crownland) of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1718 to 1739. It was formed from the territories to the south of the rivers Sava and Danube, corresponding to the Sanjak of Smederevo (or "Belgrade Pashalik"), conquered by the Habsburgs from the Ottoman Empire in 1717. It was abolished and returned to the Ottoman Empire in 1739.
During this Habsburg rule, Serbian majority did benefit from self-government, including an autonomous militia, and economic integration with the Habsburg monarchy — reforms that contributed to the growth of the Serb middle class and continued by the Ottomans "in the interest of law and order". Serbia's population increased rapidly from 270 000 to 400 000, but the decline of Habsburg power in the region provoked the second Great Migrations of the Serbs (1737–39).Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718)
The Seventh Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire between 1714 and 1718. It was the last conflict between the two powers, and ended with an Ottoman victory and the loss of Venice's major possession in the Greek peninsula, the Peloponnese (Morea). Venice was saved from a greater defeat by the intervention of Austria in 1716. The Austrian victories led to the signing of the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, which ended the war.
This war was also called the Second Morean War, the Small War or, in Croatia, the War of Sinj.Peace of Pressburg (1271)
The first Peace of Pressburg was a peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then known as Pozsony in Hungarian and now as Bratislava, Slovakia). It was signed on 2 July 1271 between King Ottokar II of Bohemia and King Stephen V of Hungary. Under this agreement, Hungary renounced its claims on parts of present-day Austria and Slovakia, and Bohemia renounced its claims on territories conquered in Hungary.Peace of Pressburg (1626)
The third Peace of Pressburg (also known as Treaty of Pressburg) was a peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then known as Pozsony in Hungarian and now as Bratislava, Slovakia). It was signed on 30 December 1626 between Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, the leader of an uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy from 1619–1626, and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. The agreement put an end to the revolt by confirming the Peace of Nikolsburg (31 December 1621). In return, Bethlen agreed not to fight against the emperor anymore, nor would he ally with the Ottoman Turks.Pentapolitana
Pentapolitana (or rarely Pentapolis) was a league of towns in the Middle Ages of the five most important Hungarian royal free cities (Latin: libera regiae civitas, Hungarian: szabad királyi város, German: Königliche Freistadt; Slovak: slobodné kráľovské mesto) of the Kingdom of Hungary; Kassa (today Košice), Bártfa (Bardejov), Lőcse (Levoča), Eperjes (Prešov), and Kisszeben (Sabinov) . The cities are currently in eastern Slovakia.
The first meeting of the representatives of the towns in question took place in 1412. The actual alliance arose between 1440 and 1445.
The main role of the Pentapolitana was to control and to develop trade as there were important ancient trade routes in the region of the north-eastern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, present-day eastern Slovakia. The leading town of the Pentapolitana was Košice.
In 1549, i.e. during the Reformation period, the Pentapolitana created its own Lutheran confession, the Confessio Pentapolitana.Pećinci
Pećinci (Serbian Cyrillic: Пећинци, pronounced [pětɕiːntsi]) is a town and municipality located in the Srem District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The village has a population of 2,571 (2011), while Pećinci municipality has 19,675 inhabitants.Pomorišje
Pomorišje (Serbian Cyrillic: Поморишје) is a historical geographical region on the banks of the river Mureş that in the past has had a sizable ethnic Serb population. The region is mostly divided between Romania and Hungary, with small part of it in northern Serbia. Today, a Serb minority is present in parts of the region that are part of Romania and Hungary.Sanjak of Syrmia
Sanjak of Syrmia (Turkish: Sirem sancağı, Serbian: Sremski sandžak/Сремски санџак, Croatian: Srijemski sandžak) was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire formed in 1541. It was located in the Syrmia region and was part of the Budin Province. Administrative center of the Sanjak of Syrmia was from 1542 Uyluk (Croatian: Ilok) and in the second half of the 17th century it was Dimitrofça (Serbian: Dmitrovica, today Sremska Mitrovica). Most of the sanjak was ceded to Austria according to Treaty of Karlovitz in 1699. Remainder of the territory of sanjak was transferred to Sanjak of Semendire and was later also ceded to Austria according to Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.Sinjska alka
The Sinjska alka [siɲska alka] is an equestrian competition held in the Croatian town of Sinj every first Sunday in August since 1715. It commemorates a Croatian-Venetian victory over Ottomans on August 14, 1715 in which the local Christian population of around 700 Croats in cooperation with a smaller number of Venetians managed to defend Sinj against 60,000 Ottoman soldiers led by Mehmed-paša Ćelić. Because of this victory, the Venetians retained control over Sinj and integrated it into the Venetian Dalmatia, according to the terms of the Treaty of Passarowitz signed in 1718. The people of Sinj believe that the Lady of Sinj miraculously drove away Ottomans, thus helping them to defend their town. On the national holiday of the Assumption of Mary (Velika Gospa) on August 15, in honor of Lady of Sinj, a procession is organised, during which horsemen in full regalia ("Alkari") parade a painting of Our Lady of Sinj throughout the town streets.
The Alka itself is an equestrian competition in which various horsemen riding at full gallop aim their lances at a hanging metal ring (alka), and are awarded points according to which sector of the ring they are able to pierce. In 2010, the Alka was inscribed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.Treaty of Karlowitz
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.Treaty of Lubowla
Treaty of Lubowla of 1412 was a treaty between Władysław II, King of Poland, and Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary. Negotiated in the town of Stará Ľubovňa in modern Slovakia, it was confirmed later that year in Buda.Treaty of Speyer (1570)
The Treaty of Speyer, signed at the Diet of Speyer in 1570, was a peace agreement between the two Hungarian Kingdoms, Royal Hungary led by Maximiliam II, and the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, ruled by John Sigismund Zápolya. John Sigismund abdicated as King of Hungary, however Maximiliam II recognized John Sigismund's authority as "Prince of Transylvania" and in return John Sigismund accepted Maximiliam II as King of Hungary with vassalage over his principality.
John Sigismund became princeps Transsylvaniae et partium regni Hungariae dominus – Prince of Transylvania and of a part of the Kingdom of Hungary. According to the treaty Principality of Transylvania continued to be part of the Kingdom of Hungary in the sense of public law.Truce of Adrianople (1547)
The Truce of Adrianople in 1547, named after the Ottoman city of Adrianople (present-day Edirne), was signed between Charles V and Suleiman the Magnificent. Through this treaty, Ferdinand I of Austria and Charles V recognized total Ottoman control of Hungary, and even agreed to pay to the Ottomans a yearly tribute of 30,000 gold florins for their Habsburg possessions in northern and western Hungary. The Treaty followed important Ottoman victories in Hungary, such as the Siege of Esztergom (1543).Tulip period
The Tulip Period or Tulip Era (21 July 1718 – 28 September 1730) (Ottoman Turkish: لاله دورى, Turkish: Lâle Devri) is a period in Ottoman history from the Treaty of Passarowitz on 21 July 1718 to the Patrona Halil Revolt on 28 September 1730. This was a relatively peaceful period, during which the Ottoman Empire began to orient itself towards Europe.
The name of the period derives from the tulip craze among the Ottoman court society. Cultivating this culturally ambiguous emblem had become a celebrated practice. The Tulip Period illustrated the conflicts brought by early modern consumer culture and was a shared material symbolism. During this period the elite and high-class society of the Ottoman period had established an immense fondness for the tulip, which were utilized in various occasions. Tulips defined nobility and privilege, both in terms of goods and leisure time.
|Classical Age (1453–1566)|
|Old Regime (1703–1789)|