Treaty of Paris (1763)

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

The signing of the treaty formally ended the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre,[1] and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.[2] Great Britain and France each returned much of the territory that they had captured during the war, but Great Britain gained much of France's possessions in North America. Additionally, Great Britain agreed to protect Roman Catholicism in the New World. The treaty did not involve Prussia and Austria as they signed a separate agreement, the Treaty of Hubertusburg, five days later.

Treaty of Paris (1763)
SevenYearsWar
The combatants of the Seven Years' War as shown before the outbreak of war in the mid-1750s.
  Great Britain, Prussia, Portugal, with allies
  France, Spain, Austria, Russia, with allies
ContextEnd of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the United States)
Signed10 February 1763
LocationKingdom of France Paris, Kingdom of France
Negotiators
Signatories
Parties
Treaty of Paris (1763) at Wikisource
See also: Treaty of Hubertusburg (1763), Treaty of Paris (1783).

Exchange of territories

During the war, Great Britain had conquered the French colonies of Canada, Guadeloupe, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago, the French "factories" (trading posts) in India, the slave-trading station at Gorée, the Sénégal River and its settlements, and the Spanish colonies of Manila (in the Philippines) and Havana (in Cuba). France had captured Minorca and British trading posts in Sumatra, while Spain had captured the border fortress of Almeida in Portugal, and Colonia del Sacramento in South America.

New Map of North America (1763)
"A new map of North America" – produced following the Treaty of Paris

In the treaty, most of these territories were restored to their original owners, but not all: Britain made considerable gains.[3] France and Spain restored all their conquests to Britain and Portugal. Britain restored Manila and Havana to Spain, and Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Gorée, and the Indian factories to France.[4] In return, France recognized the sovereignty of Britain over Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Tobago.[5] France also ceded the eastern half of French Louisiana to Britain; that is, the area from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mountains.[6]

Spain ceded Florida to Britain.[4] France had already secretly given Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). In addition, while France regained its factories in India, France recognized British clients as the rulers of key Indian native states, and pledged not to send troops to Bengal. Britain agreed to demolish its fortifications in British Honduras (now Belize), but retained a logwood-cutting colony there. Britain confirmed the right of its new subjects to practise Catholicism.[7]

France lost all of its territory in mainland North America, but had retained fishing rights off Newfoundland and the two small islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, where its fishermen could dry their catch. In turn France gained the return of its sugar colony, Guadeloupe, which it considered more valuable than Canada.[8] Voltaire had notoriously dismissed Canada as "Quelques arpents de neige", "A few acres of snow".[9]

Louisiana question

The Treaty of Paris is frequently noted as the point at which France gave Louisiana to Spain.[10][11] The transfer, however, occurred with the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) but was not publicly announced until 1764. The Treaty of Paris gave Britain the east side of the Mississippi (including Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was to be part of the British territory of West Florida). New Orleans on the east side remained in French hands (albeit temporarily). The Mississippi River corridor in what is modern day Louisiana was later reunited following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1819.

The 1763 treaty states in Article VII:[12]

VII. In order to reestablish peace on solid and durable foundations, and to remove for ever all subject of dispute with regard to the limits of the British and French territories on the continent of America; it is agreed, that, for the future, the confines between the dominions of his Britannick Majesty and those of his Most Christian Majesty, in that part of the world, shall be fixed irrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of the River Mississippi, from its source to the river Iberville, and from thence, by a line drawn along the middle of this river, and the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the sea; and for this purpose, the Most Christian King cedes in full right, and guaranties to his Britannick Majesty the river and port of the Mobile, and every thing which he possesses, or ought to possess, on the left side of the river Mississippi, except the town of New Orleans and the island in which it is situated, which shall remain to France, provided that the navigation of the river Mississippi shall be equally free, as well to the subjects of Great Britain as to those of France, in its whole breadth and length, from its source to the sea, and expressly that part which is between the said island of New Orleans and the right bank of that river, as well as the passage both in and out of its mouth: It is farther stipulated, that the vessels belonging to the subjects of either nation shall not be stopped, visited, or subjected to the payment of any duty whatsoever. The stipulations inserted in the IVth article, in favour of the inhabitants of Canada shall also take place with regard to the inhabitants of the countries ceded by this article.

Canada question

British perspective

While the war was fought all over the world, the British began the war over French possessions in North America.[13] After a long debate of the relative merits of Guadeloupe, which produced £6 million a year in sugar, versus Canada which was expensive to keep, Great Britain decided to keep Canada for strategic reasons and return Guadeloupe to France.[14] While the war had weakened France, it was still a European power. British Prime Minister Lord Bute wanted a peace that would not aggravate France towards a second war.[15]

Although the Protestant British worried about having so many Roman Catholic subjects, Great Britain did not want to antagonize France through expulsion or forced conversion. Also, it did not want French settlers to leave Canada to strengthen other French settlements in North America.[16]

French perspective

Unlike Lord Bute, the French Foreign Minister the Duke of Choiseul expected a return to war. However, France needed peace to rebuild.[17] French diplomats believed that without France to keep the Americans in check, the colonists might attempt to revolt.[18]:114 In Canada, France wanted open emigration for those, such as nobility, who would not swear allegiance to the British Crown.[19] Lastly, France required protection for Roman Catholics in North America.

Canada in the Treaty of Paris

The article states:[12]

IV. His Most Christian Majesty renounces all pretensions which he has heretofore formed or might have formed to Nova Scotia or Acadia in all its parts, and guaranties the whole of it, and with all its dependencies, to the King of Great Britain: Moreover, his Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts, with the sovereignty, property, possession, and all rights acquired by treaty, or otherwise, which the Most Christian King and the Crown of France have had till now over the said countries, lands, islands, places, coasts, and their inhabitants, so that the Most Christian King cedes and makes over the whole to the said King, and to the Crown of Great Britain, and that in the most ample manner and form, without restriction, and without any liberty to depart from the said cession and guaranty under any pretence, or to disturb Great Britain in the possessions above mentioned. His Britannick Majesty, on his side, agrees to grant the liberty of the Catholick religion to the inhabitants of Canada: he will, in consequence, give the most precise and most effectual orders, that his new Roman Catholic subjects may profess the worship of their religion according to the rites of the Romish church, as far as the laws of Great Britain permit. His Britannick Majesty farther agrees, that the French inhabitants, or others who had been subjects of the Most Christian King in Canada, may retire with all safety and freedom wherever they shall think proper, and may sell their estates, provided it be to the subjects of his Britannick Majesty, and bring away their effects as well as their persons, without being restrained in their emigration, under any pretence whatsoever, except that of debts or of criminal prosecutions: The term limited for this emigration shall be fixed to the space of eighteen months, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratification of the present treaty.

Dunkirk question

During the negotiations that led to the treaty, a major issue of dispute between Britain and France had been over the status of the fortifications of the French coastal settlement of Dunkirk. The British had long feared that it would be used as a staging post to launch a French invasion of Britain. Under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 they had forced France to concede extreme limits on the fortifications there. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle had allowed more generous terms,[20] and France had constructed greater defences for the town.

By the Treaty, Britain forced France to accept the earlier 1713 conditions and demolish the fortifications they had constructed since then.[21] This would be a continuing source of resentment to France, who would eventually have this clause overturned in the 1783 Treaty of Paris which brought an end to the American Revolutionary War.

Reaction

When Lord Bute became Prime Minister in 1762, he pushed for a resolution to the war with France and Spain, fearing that Great Britain could not govern all of its newly acquired territories. In what Winston Churchill would later term a policy of "appeasement," Bute returned some colonies to Spain and France in the negotiations.[22] Despite a desire for peace, many in the British parliament opposed the return of any gains made during the war. Notable among the opposition was former Prime Minister William Pitt, the Elder, who warned that the terms of the treaty would only lead to further conflicts once France and Spain had time to rebuild. "The peace was insecure," he would later say, "because it restored the enemy to her former greatness. The peace was inadequate, because the places gained were no equivalent for the places surrendered."[23] The treaty passed by 319 votes to 65 opposed.[24]

The Treaty of Paris took no consideration of Great Britain's battered continental ally, Frederick II of Prussia. Frederick was forced to negotiate peace terms separately in the Treaty of Hubertusburg. For decades after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, Frederick II decried it as a British betrayal.

The American colonists were disappointed by the protection of Roman Catholicism in the Treaty of Paris because of their own strong Protestant faith.[25] Some have pointed to this as one reason for the breakdown of American–British relations.[25]

Effects on French Canada

The article provided for unrestrained emigration for 18 months from Canada. However, passage on British ships was expensive.[19] A total of 1,600 people left New France through the Treaty clause, but only 270 French Canadians.[19] Some have claimed that this was part of British policy to limit emigration.[19]

Article IV of the treaty allowed Roman Catholicism to be practised in Canada.[26] George III agreed to allow Catholicism within the laws of Great Britain. In this period, British laws included various Test Acts to prevent governmental, judicial, and bureaucratic appointments from going to Roman Catholics. Roman Catholics were believed to be agents of the Jacobite Pretenders to the throne, who normally resided in France supported by the French regime.[27] This was relaxed in Quebec to some degree, but top positions like governorships were still held by Anglicans.[26]

Article IV has also been cited as the basis for Quebec often having its unique set of laws that are different from the rest of Canada. There was a general constitutional principle in the United Kingdom to allow colonies taken through conquest to continue their own laws.[28] This was limited by royal prerogative, and the monarch could still choose to change the accepted laws in a conquered colony.[28] However, the treaty eliminated this power because by a different constitutional principle, terms of a treaty were considered paramount.[28] In practice, Roman Catholics could become jurors in inferior courts in Quebec and argue based on principles of French law.[29] However, the judge was British and his opinion on French law could be limited or hostile.[29] If the case was appealed to a superior court, neither French law nor Roman Catholic jurors were allowed.[30]

Many French residents of what are now Canada's Maritime provinces, called Acadians, were deported during the Great Expulsion (1755–63). After the signing of the peace treaty guaranteed some rights to Roman Catholics, some Acadians returned to Canada. However, they were no longer welcome in English Nova Scotia.[31] They were forced into New Brunswick, which is a bilingual province today as a result of that relocation.[32]

Much land previously owned by France was now owned by Britain, and the French people of Quebec felt great betrayal at the French concession. Commander-in-Chief of the British Jeffrey Amherst noted that, "Many of the Canadians consider their Colony to be of utmost consequence to France & cannot be convinced … that their Country has been conceded to Great Britain".[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Marston, Daniel (2002). The French–Indian War 1754–1760. Osprey Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 0-415-96838-0.
  2. ^ "Wars and Battles: Treaty of Paris (1763)". www.u-s-history.com. In a nutshell, Britain emerged as the world's leading colonial empire.
  3. ^ "The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War". www.thenagain.info.
  4. ^ a b "The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe". World Digital Library. 1778. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  5. ^ "His Most Christian Majesty cedes and guaranties to his said Britannick Majesty, in full right, Canada, with all its dependencies, as well as the island of Cape Breton, and all the other islands and coasts in the gulph and river of St. Lawrence, and in general, every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands, and coasts, with the sovereignty, property, possession, and all rights acquired by treaty, or otherwise, which the Most Christian King and the Crown of France have had till now over the said countries, lands, islands, places, coasts, and their inhabitants" – Article IV of the Treaty of Paris (1763) at Wikisource
  6. ^ " (…) it is agreed, that … the confines between the dominions of his Britannick Majesty and those of his Most Christian Majesty, in that part of the world, shall be fixed irrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of the River Mississippi, from its source to the river Iberville, and from hence, by a line drawn along the middle of this river, and the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain to the sea; and for this purpose, the Most Christian King cedes in full right, and guaranties to his Britannick Majesty the river and port of Mobile, and every thing which he possesses, or ought to possess, on the left side of the river Mississippi, except the town of New Orleans and the island in which it is situated, which shall remain to France, (…)"— Article VII of the Treaty of Paris (1763) at Wikisource
  7. ^ Extracts from the Treaty of Paris of 1763. A. Lovell & Co. 1892. p. 6. His Britannick Majesty, on his side, agrees to grant the liberty of the Roman Catholic religion to the inhabitants of Canada.
  8. ^ Dewar, Helen (December 2010). "Canada or Guadeloupe?: French and British Perceptions of Empire, 1760–1783". Canadian Historical Review. 91 (4): 637–660. doi:10.3138/chr.91.4.637.
  9. ^ "Quelques arpents de neige".
  10. ^ "The French and Indian War ends – Feb 10, 1763". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  11. ^ "The Stakes of the Treaty of Paris". France in America. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  12. ^ a b Treaty of Paris (1763)  – via Wikisource.
  13. ^ Monod p 197–98
  14. ^ Calloway, Colin G. (2006). The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford U.P. p. 8.
  15. ^ Gough p 95
  16. ^ Calloway p 113–14
  17. ^ Rashed, Zenab Esmat (1951). The Peace of Paris. Liverpool University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0853-23202-5.
  18. ^ Calloway, Colin Gordon (2006). The scratch of a pen: 1763 and the transformation of North America. New York: Oxford University Press.
  19. ^ a b c d Calloway p 114
  20. ^ Dull p.5
  21. ^ Dull p.194–243
  22. ^ Winston Churchill (2001). The Great Republic: A History of America. Modern Library. p. 52.
  23. ^ Simms, Brendan (2007). Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire, 1714–1783. Allan Lane. p. 496. ISBN 978-0713-99426-1.
  24. ^ Fowler, William M. (2004). Empires at War: the French and Indian War and the struggle for North America, 1754–1763. Walker & Company. p. 271. ISBN 978-0802-71411-4.
  25. ^ a b Monod p 201
  26. ^ a b Conklin p 34
  27. ^ Colley, Linda (1992). Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-300-15280-7.
  28. ^ a b c Conklin p 35
  29. ^ a b Calloway p 120
  30. ^ Calloway p 121
  31. ^ Price, p 136
  32. ^ Price p 136–137
  33. ^ Calloway p 113

Further reading

  • Churchill, Sir Winston (1956). The Great Republic: A History of America. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50320-X.
  • Conklin, William E. (1979). In Defence of Fundamental Rights. Springer.
  • Dull, Jonathan R. (2005). The French Navy and the Seven Years' War. University of Nebraska.
  • Gough, Barry M. (1992). British Mercantile Interests in the Making of the Peace of Paris, 1763. Edwin Meller Press.
  • Monod, Paul Kleber (2009). Imperial Island: A History of Britain and Its Empire, 1660–1837. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Price, Joseph Edward (2007). The status of French among youth in a bilingual American–Canadian border community: the case of Madawaska, Maine. Indiana University.

External links

85th Regiment of Foot (Royal Volunteers)

The 85th Regiment of Foot (Royal Volunteers) was a short-lived British Army regiment during the Seven Years' War. It was recruited at Shrewsbury in 1759 as the first full regiment of light infantry in the British Army and originally intended for service in the North American campaign.It instead formed part of the force that captured and occupied the island of Belle Ile off the French coast, before being sent to Portugal in 1762. The regiment returned home to be disbanded the following year after the Treaty of Paris (1763) as part of a general demobilisation.The Colonel of the Regiment throughout its life was Colonel John Craufurd, who was afterwards made Colonel of the Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment).

Acadian Driftwood

"Acadian Driftwood" is a song by The Band. It was the fourth track on their sixth studio album Northern Lights – Southern Cross (1975), written by member Robbie Robertson. Richard Manuel, Levon Helm and Rick Danko trade off lead vocals and harmonize on the chorus.

Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63)

The Anglo–Spanish War (Spanish: Guerra Anglo-Española) was a military conflict fought between Britain and Spain as part of the Seven Years' War. It lasted from January 1762 until February 1763 when the Treaty of Paris brought it to an end.

For most of the Seven Years' War Spain remained neutral, turning down both the French and British, but during the war's latter stages, the Spanish became alarmed at the threat posed by the British to their colonies as French losses mounted. In anticipation of the Spanish entering the war on the French side, the British attacked Spanish colonies. In August 1762 a British expedition against Cuba took Havana and western Cuba, then a month later the British seized Manila. The loss of both the capitals of the Spanish West Indies and the Spanish East Indies represented a blow to Spanish prestige. Between May and November three major Franco-Spanish invasions of Portugal were defeated and they were forced to withdraw with heavy losses inflicted by the Portuguese with British assistance. In South America the Spanish succeeded in taking a strategically important port town but otherwise the skirmishes with the Portuguese there changed little.

By the Treaty of Paris (1763) Spain handed over Florida and Menorca to Britain and returned territories in Portugal and Brazil to Portugal in exchange for British withdrawal from Cuba. As compensation for their ally's losses, the French ceded Louisiana to Spain by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762).

Baron de Longueuil

The title Baron de Longueuil is the only currently-extant French colonial title that is recognized by Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada. The title was granted originally by King Louis XIV of France to a Norman military officer, Charles le Moyne de Longueuil, and its continuing recognition since the cession of Canada to Britain is based on the Treaty of Paris (1763), which reserved to those of French descent all rights which they had enjoyed before the cession.The title descends to the heirs general of the first grantee, and as such survives today in the person of Michael Grant, the 12th Baron de Longueuil, a cognatic descendant of Charles le Moyne de Longueuil, the 1st Baron.

British America

British America included the British Empire's colonial territories in North America from 1607 to 1783. These colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before the Thirteen Colonies declared their independence in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and formed the United States of America. After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Great Britain's continental American possessions. That term was used informally in 1783 by the end of the American Revolution, but it was uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report.

British America gained large amounts of new territory following the Treaty of Paris (1763) which ended the French and Indian War in America, and ended British involvement in the Seven Years' War in Europe. At the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, the British Empire included 20 colonies north and east of New Spain, including areas of Mexico and the Western United States. East and West Florida were ceded to the Kingdom of Spain in the Treaty of Paris (1783) which ended the American Revolution, and then ceded by Spain to the United States in 1819 after treaty negotiations to settle the old southwest border with Spanish Florida (eastern Louisiana, southern Alabama, Mississippi, and western Georgia). The remaining continental colonies of British North America to the northeast formed Canada by uniting provinces between 1867 and 1873. The Dominion of Newfoundland to the east joined Canada in 1949.

Canadian Human Rights Act

The Canadian Human Rights Act (the Act) is a statute passed by the Parliament of Canada in 1977 with the express goal of extending the law to ensure equal opportunity to individuals who may be victims of discriminatory practices based on a set of prohibited grounds such as sex, sexual orientation, race, marital status, gender identity or expression, creed, age, colour, disability, political or religious belief.

Conquest of 1760

The Conquest (French La Conquête) was the British military conquest of New France during the Seven Years' War. The conquest was undertaken by the British as a campaign in 1758, with the acquisition of Canada made official in the Treaty of Paris that concluded the Seven Years' War. The term is usually used when discussing the impact of the British conquest on the 70,000 French inhabitants, as well as the First Nations. At issue in popular and scholarly debate ever since is the treatment Britain provided the French population, and the long-term historical impact for good or ill.

Constitutional debate in Canada

The Constitutional debate of Canada is an ongoing debate covering various political issues regarding the fundamental law of the country. The debate can be traced back to the Royal Proclamation, issued on October 7, 1763, following the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763) wherein France ceded most of New France to Great Britain in favour of keeping Guadeloupe.

Since the enactment of the Constitution Act, 1867, which brought the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia together as Canada, the debate has focused on these issues:

The interpretation of the Constitution

The division of powers between the federal and provincial governments

The type of federalism to be applied within the federation

The way the constitution should be amended

The inclusion of specific civil rights in the constitution

Constitutional history of Canada

The constitutional history of Canada begins with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which France ceded most of New France to Great Britain. Canada was the colony along the St Lawrence River, part of present-day Ontario and Quebec. Its government underwent many structural changes over the following century. In 1867 Canada became the name of the new federal Dominion extending ultimately from the Atlantic to the Pacific and the Arctic coasts. Canada obtained legislative autonomy from the United Kingdom in 1931, and had its constitution (including a new rights charter) patriated in 1982. Canada's constitution includes the amalgam of constitutional law spanning this history.

First Cevallos expedition

The First Cevallos expedition was a military action between September 1762 and April 1763, by Spanish colonial forces led by Don Pedro Antonio de Cevallos, Governor of Buenos Aires, against Portuguese colonial forces in the Banda Oriental area on the aftermath of a massively defeated Spanish Invasion of Portugal (1762), as part of the Seven Years' War.

The Portuguese territories of Colonia do Sacramento and Rio Grande do Sul were conquered by the Spaniards. The Anglo-Portuguese forces were defeated and forced to surrender and retreat. The Colonia do Sacramento and the near territories were under Spanish control until the Treaty of Paris (1763), while Rio Grande do Sul would be reconquered by Portugal a few years later.

This expedition was one of only two significant Spanish successes (the other was the defense of the Philippines) in a short war marked by defeats. As admitted by the king of Spain Carlos III when the news arrived:

" … [This victory] fills me with joy for the honor of my troops, since for everything else it is not that way. "

French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians.

The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, and some view the French and Indian War as being merely the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; however, the French and Indian War is viewed in the United States as a singular conflict which was not associated with any European war. The name French and Indian War is used mainly in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it Guerre de la Conquête ("War of the Conquest") or (rarely) the Fourth Intercolonial War.

The British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois, Catawba, and Cherokee tribes, and the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, and the Algonquin, Lenape, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes. Fighting took place primarily along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, and the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol.

In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, and the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster; he lost the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, 1755 and died a few days later. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, and Indian warrior allies. In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, and they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians (1755–64) soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain. The Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians likewise were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England.The British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry; this last was followed by Indians torturing and massacring their colonial victims. William Pitt came to power and significantly increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada. They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and ultimately the city of Quebec (1759). The British later lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec (1760), but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763).

France also ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. (Spain had ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for the return of Havana, Cuba.) France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America.

Indian Reserve (1763)

The Indian Reserve is a historical term for the largely uncolonized area in North America acquired by Great Britain from France through the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the end of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre), and set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by Native Americans, who already inhabited it. The British government had contemplated establishing an Indian barrier state in the portion of the reserve west of the Appalachian Mountains, and bounded by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and the Great Lakes. British officials aspired to establish such a state even after the region was assigned to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783) ending the American Revolutionary War, but abandoned their efforts in 1814 after losing military control of the region during the War of 1812.In present-day United States, it consisted of all the territory north of Florida and New Orleans that was east of the Mississippi River and west of the Eastern Continental Divide in the Appalachian Mountains that formerly comprised the eastern half of Louisiana (New France). In modern Canada, it consisted of all the land immediately north of the Great Lakes but south of Rupert's Land belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, as well as a buffer between the Province of Canada and Rupert's Land stretching from Lake Nipissing to Newfoundland.

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 organized on paper much of the new territorial gains in three colonies in North America—East Florida, West Florida, and Quebec. The rest of the expanded British territory was left to Native Americans. The delineation of the Eastern Divide, following the Allegheny Ridge of the Appalachians, confirmed the limit to British settlement established at the 1758 Treaty of Easton, before Pontiac's War. Additionally, all European settlers in the territory (who were mostly French) were supposed to leave the territory or get official permission to stay. Many of the settlers moved to New Orleans and the French land on the west side of the Mississippi (particularly St. Louis), which in turn had been ceded secretly to Spain to become Louisiana (New Spain). However, many of the settlers remained and the British did not actively attempt to evict them.In 1768, lands west of the Alleghenies and south of the Ohio were ceded to the colonies by the Cherokee at the Treaty of Hard Labour and by the Six Nations at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. However, several other aboriginal nations, particularly Shawnee and Mingo, continued to inhabit and claim their lands that had been sold to the British by other tribes. This conflict led to Dunmore's War in 1774, ended by the Treaty of Camp Charlotte where these nations agreed to accept the Ohio River as the new boundary.

Restrictions on settlement were to become a flash point in the American Revolutionary War, following the Henderson Purchase of much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in 1775. The renegade Cherokee chief Dragging Canoe did not agree to the sale, nor did the Royal Government in London, which forbade settlement in this region. As an act of revolution in defiance of the crown, white pioneer settlers began pouring into Kentucky in 1776, opposed by Dragging Canoe in the Cherokee–American wars, which continued until 1794.

List of treaty titles for monarchs

Several monarchs had titles used in diplomatic settings which were not part of their official national Royal Style, but which signified their nationality. The Treaty of Paris (1763) is an example of the use of these "treaty titles".

Britannic Majesty - Kingdom of Great Britain, United Kingdom

Prussian Majesty - PrussiaVarious other European monarchs used styles that uniquely identified their nationality, but which are not true treaty titles in that the title was officially granted to them by the Papacy:

Apostolic Majesty - Kingdom of Hungary

(Most) Catholic Majesty - Kingdom of Spain

(Most) Christian Majesty - Kingdom of France

(Most) Faithful Majesty - Kingdom of Portugal

Old Fort Erie

Old Fort Erie, also known as Fort Erie, or the Fort Erie National Historic Site of Canada, was the first British fort to be constructed as part of a network developed after the Seven Years' War (often referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States) was concluded by the Treaty of Paris (1763) at which time all of New France had been ceded to Great Britain. It is located on the southern edge of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, directly across the Niagara River from Buffalo, New York.The fort and surrounding battlefield are owned and operated by the Niagara Parks Commission, a self-funded agency of the Ontario provincial government.

Samuel Musgrave

Samuel Musgrave, FRS (29 September 1732 – 5 July 1780) was an English classical scholar and physician.

Musgrave was born at Washfield in Devon, and was educated at the University of Oxford. There he was elected to a Radcliffe travelling fellowship, and he spent several years abroad. In 1766 he settled at Exeter, but moved to Plymouth to improve his career prospects.

Everything went wrong when he published a pamphlet in the form of an address to the people of Devon, accusing certain members of the British government of having been bribed by the French government to conclude the Treaty of Paris (1763), and declaring that Chevalier Charles d'Eon de Beaumont, the French minister plenipotentiary to England, had in his possession documents which would prove the truth of his assertion.

Eon de Beaumont denied all knowledge of any such transaction and of Musgrave himself, and the House of Commons in 1770 decided that the charge was unsubstantiated. The discredited Musgrave was obliged to earn a meagre living in London by writing until his death, in reduced circumstances. He wrote several medical works, now forgotten; and his edition of Euripides (1778) was a considerable advance on that of Joshua Barnes.

Second Treaty of Paris

The Second Treaty of Paris may refer to:

Treaty of Paris (1783), with the Treaty of Paris (1763) being the first.

Treaty of Paris (1815), with the Treaty of Paris (1814) being the first.

Sir Baldwin Leighton, 6th Baronet

General Sir Baldwin Leighton, 6th Baronet (15 January 1747 – November 1828) was a senior English officer in the British Army .

He was the son of Baldwin Leighton, the 2nd son of Sir Edward Leighton, 2nd Baronet. He joined the army in 1760 by purchasing a lieutenancy (at the age of 13) in Captain Jenning's company, which in that same year became part of the 96th Regiment and was posted to India. There Leighton undertook garrison duties at Fort St George before taking to the field. After the Treaty of Paris (1763) the regiment returned to England and was disbanded.

In 1768 he purchased a promotion in the 46th Regiment. In 1775, as a captain of grenadiers, he was posted to North America, where he saw action in the New York and New Jersey campaign at Brooklyn, Long Island, the taking of New York, at York Island, White Plains, the storming of Fort Washington and the actions at Rhode Island and Brandywine. He was severely wounded at the action near Monmouth Court House. In 1778, suffering from the effects of campaigning, he returned to England to take command of a recruitment company.

In 1787 he purchased a Majority in the regiment and left for Gibraltar in 1792, where he was promoted lieutenant-colonel. The following year he sailed to the West Indies as the regiment's Lieutenant-Colonel, where in numerous actions against the French, the regiment lost 400 of its 520 men. He returned again to England and was sent to Portugal as a Brigadier-General. Returning home in 1802 he was placed on the Home Staff in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland and served as Mayor of Shrewsbury for 1806–07. In 1809 he was sent to Jersey, where he acted as Lieutenant-Governor during the temporary absence of General Sir George Don.

In 1819 he succeeded his cousin Sir Robert Leighton, son of his uncle Sir Charlton Leighton, 4th Baronet, to the Leighton baronetcy of Wattlesborough and to the family seat at Loton Park in Shropshire. He was promoted full General in the Army in August of the same year. Made Governor of Carrickfergus in 1817, he died there in 1828.

He had married twice; firstly Anne, the daughter of the Revd William Pigott and secondly in 1802 Louisa Margaret Anne, sister of Sir John Thomas Stanley of Alderley Park, Cheshire. With her he had a son and heir, Sir Baldwin Leighton, 7th Baronet.

Wyndham Knatchbull-Wyndham

Sir Wyndham Knatchbull-Wyndham, 6th Baronet (16 February 1737 – 26 September 1763) was a British baronet and Whig politician.

Born in Golden Square in Middlesex, he was the only son of Sir Wyndham Knatchbull-Wyndham, 5th Baronet and his wife Catharine, daughter of James Harris. In 1749, aged only twelve, Knatchbull-Wyndham succeeded his father as baronet. He was educated at Wadham College, Oxford until 1757 and began then his Grand Tour. After his return in 1760, he entered the British House of Commons, sitting as a Member of Parliament (MP) for Kent in the following three years. In Parliament he voted against the Treaty of Paris (1763). Knatchbull-Wyndham died, aged 26, unmarried and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his uncle Edward Knatchbull.

Île d'Orléans, Louisiana

Île d'Orléans (French for "Isle of Orleans") was the historic name for the New Orleans area, in present-day Louisiana, U.S.A..

In 1762, France, anticipating that Great Britain would take Louisiana at the end of the French and Indian War, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau transferred to Spain all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, as well as a newly-defined area east of the Mississippi which included New Orleans, called the Isle of Orleans.

As the French had expected, in the Treaty of Paris (1763) the British took all of Louisiana east of the Mississippi, except for the Isle of Orleans, and incorporated it into their colony of West Florida, with the capital at Pensacola. Spanish possession of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, and of the Isle of Orleans, was also confirmed in the Treaty of Paris. (Pugliese 2002)

The Isle of Orleans was bounded by the Mississippi River, the Gulf of Mexico, Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas as well as Bayou Manchac, previously known as Iberville River, and the Amite River.

The Isle of Orleans was included in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. It formed the southern border of the short-lived Republic of West Florida, a few years later.

Treaties of the Seven Years' War (1754/56–1763)

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