Treaty of Greenville

The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc., was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Indians of the Northwest Territory including the Wyandot and Delaware, which redefined the boundary between Indian lands and Whiteman's lands in the Northwest Territory.

It was signed at Fort Greenville,[1] now Greenville, Ohio, on August 3, 1795, following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier. It ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country, limited Indian Country to northwestern Ohio, and began the practice of annual payments following land concessions. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of Native American tribes known as the Western Confederacy, and the United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne and local frontiersmen.

The treaty became synonymous with the end of the frontier in the Northwest Territory.

Map of the northern parts of the United States of America (1804)
1805 map showing western "Indian Boundary" between Port William and Fort Recovery, as well as the northern "Gen Wayne Treaty 1795" boundary between Fort Recovery and the Muskingum River 40mi. west of Salem. Much of the land east and south of these boundaries was open to settlement after the Treaty of Greenville.
Treaty of Greenville page1
First page of the Treaty of Greenville.
Treaty of Greenville
One of Anthony Wayne's officers may have painted the treaty negotiations, c. 1795.

Participants

General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, who led the victory at Fallen Timbers, led the American delegation. Other members included William Wells, William Henry Harrison, William Clark, Caleb Swan, and Meriwether Lewis.

Native American leaders who signed the treaty included leaders of these bands and tribes: Wyandot (chiefs Roundhead (Wyandot), Tarhe and Leatherlips), Delaware (several bands). Shawnee (Chief Blue Jacket), Ottawa (several bands), Chippewa, Potawatomi (23 signatories, including Gomo, Siggenauk, Black Partridge, Topinabee and Five Medals), Miami (several bands, including Chief Little Turtle of the Miami-Illinois band), Wea, Kickapoo, and Kaskaskia.

Terms of the Treaty

The Treaty consisted of 10 articles that provided:

Land for annuity

The treaty established what became known as the Greenville Treaty Line delineated below. For several years it distinguished Native American territory from lands open to European-American settlers, although settlers continued to encroach. In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000 (such as blankets, utensils, and domestic animals), the Native American tribes ceded to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio.

The treaty also established the "annuity" system of payment in return for Native American cessions of land east of the treaty line: yearly grants of federal money and supplies of calico cloth to Native American tribes. This institutionalized continuing government influence in tribal affairs and gave outsiders considerable control over Native American life.[2]

Treaty line

Greenville Treaty Line Map
The Greenville Treaty line in Ohio and Indiana

The treaty redefined with slight modifications the boundaries in Ohio established previously by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and reasserted in the Treaty of Fort Harmar in 1789. In particular, the western boundary, which formerly ran northwesterly to the Maumee River, now ran southerly to the Ohio River.

Ohio had developed settlements and defined tracts of land prior to 1795, including the Western Reserve, Seven Ranges survey area, Virginia Military District, Symmes Purchase, and two Ohio Company purchases, all in eastern and southern Ohio, as well as the line of western forts built by Wayne through Fort Recovery along the Great Miami River valley. The boundary line would need to encompass all these, covering about 2/3 of Ohio Country, within Whiteman's land.

The treaty line began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in present-day Cleveland and ran south along the river to the portage between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas rivers, in what is now known as the Portage Lakes area between Akron and Canton. The line continued down the Tuscarawas to Fort Laurens near present-day Bolivar. From there, the line ran west-southwest to near present-day Fort Loramie on a branch of the Great Miami River. From there, the line ran west-northwest to Fort Recovery, on the Wabash River near the present-day boundary between Ohio and Indiana. From Fort Recovery, the line ran south-southwest to the Ohio River at a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River in present-day Carrollton, Kentucky.

Others parcels of land

There were also other forts along the Great Lakes nominally under U.S. sovereignty but occupied by the British, including Fort Miamis, and other outpost forts in Ohio and Indiana. In Indiana, there was the Vincennes Tract, Clark's Grant and the settlement at Ouiatenon to protect.

The treaty also permitted established U.S. Army posts and allocated strategic reserved tracts within the Indian Country to the north and west of the ceded lands, the most important of which was the future site of Fort Dearborn (later, downtown Chicago) on Lake Michigan,[nb 1][4] Other American lands within Indian Country included Fort Detroit, Ouiatenon, Fort Wayne,[5] Fort Miami,[6] and Fort Sandusky.[7]

The treaty exempted from relinquishment established settlements at Vincennes, Clark's Grant, various French settlements, and Fort Massac.

Misc provisions

The United States renounced all claims to (Indian) lands not within the treaty line in Ohio or parcels exempted.

The Indians were to recognize the United States as the sole sovereign power in the entire territory but otherwise the Indians would have free use of Indian lands as long as they were kindly disposed to Whitemen.

The treaty also arranged for an exchange of prisoners, and specified which parties would be responsible for enforcing the boundary and punishing transgressions.

Aftermath

Continuing encroachments by settlers on Indian Country north and west of the treaty line (and future treaty lines, see Treaty of Vincennes, Treaty of Grouseland, Treaty of Fort Wayne of 1809), especially in Indiana, would lead a disgruntled Tecumseh, who had not signed the Treaty of Greenville, to reform the Confederacy at Prophetstown over the following decade. Unrest among the tribes culminated in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, a major defeat for the Indians that may have contributed to the Indians siding with the British in the looming War of 1812.

The Treaty of Greenville closed the frontier in the Northwest Territory. Thereafter began a series of purchases of Indian lands by treaty and Indian removals by law throughout the territory (later Indiana Territory, etc., which became several modern states) interrupted briefly by the War of 1812. Indians were moved west of the Mississippi River to Indian Country reservations in what later became the state of Oklahoma in a process that culminated with the dismantling of the Great Miami Reserve in Indiana by treaties in the 1830s. By 1840, the Old Northwest was essentially clear of Indians. Future Indian conflicts would all be west of the Mississippi.

The treaty line would become the southwestern boundary of the Northwest Territory at its division in 1800. Upon Ohio statehood in 1803, the western boundary of Ohio ran due north from a place on the Ohio River somewhat east of the south-southwesterly treaty line, leaving a sliver of land called "The Gore" in what is today southeastern Indiana remaining as part of the Northwest Territory. "The Gore" was ceded to Indiana Territory at that time, and became Dearborn County in March, 1803.

Among the signers were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, who met for the first time here, and would go on to launch the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804 to claim the Louisiana Purchase for the United States.

Historic Fort Greene Ville was abandoned in 1796; it would be another 12 years before the settlement of Greenville, Ohio, was founded on the site.

It was the last treaty signed by Gen. Wayne; he died just over a year later, in December 1796.

Depictions

A painting commemorating the treaty hangs in the Ohio Statehouse. It was completed by Ohio artist Howard Chandler Christy. At 23 feet (7.0 m) wide, it is the largest painting in the Ohio Statehouse.[8]

See also

Gallery

Gville Treaty Line marker
Gville Treaty Line sign
Gville Treaty Line
WabashTreaty

Notes

  1. ^ Six square miles centered at the mouth of the Chicago River. See Article 3 item 14 within the text of the treaty.[3]

References

  1. ^ for Nathanael Greene, a Major General in the Revolutionary War
  2. ^ Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty
  3. ^ Charles J. Kappler (1904). "TREATY WITH THE WYANDOT, ETC., 1795". U.S. Government treaties with American Indian tribes. Oklahoma State University Library. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  4. ^ "Fort Dearborn" in online Encyclopedia of Chicago accessed 2009-08-01
  5. ^ Ann Durkin Keating, Rising Up from Indian Country: the battle of Fort Dearborn and the Birth of Chicago (University of Chicago Press 2012) p. 40 ISBN 9780226428963
  6. ^ see Article 3 #8
  7. ^ see Article 3 #11
  8. ^ "Treaty of Greenville," Ohio Statehouse http://www.ohiostatehouse.org/galleries/media/capitol-ohio-the-treaty-of-greenville-art-walk-series-128488

External links

Coordinates: 40°06′28″N 84°37′54″W / 40.1078°N 84.6316°W

1795 in the United States

Events from the year 1795 in the United States.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and a British company, against the United States for control of the Northwest Territory. The battle took place amid trees toppled by a tornado just north of the Maumee River in northwestern Ohio at the site of the present-day city of Maumee. Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne's Legion of the United States along with Gen. Charles Scott's Kentucky Militia were victorious against a combined Native American force of Shawnee under Blue Jacket, Miami under Little Turtle, and numerous others. The battle ended major hostilities in the region. This resulted in British and Indian withdrawal from the southern Great Lakes, western Ohio and northeastern Indiana following the Treaty of Greenville and Jay's Treaty.

Dunquat

Dunquat (Petawontakas, Dunquad, Daunghquat; Delaware name, Pomoacan), known as the Half-King of the Wyandot people, sided with the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War. He and his people moved to the Ohio country to fight the Americans in the west. He led a mixed band of about 200 Indians (predominantly Wyandot and Mingo, although there were also some Shawnee and Delaware) at the Siege of Fort Henry (1777). During the war, he protected Christian Delaware people from other members of their tribe prejudiced against their beliefs.

Half King "was particularly attentive to prevent all drunkenness, knowing that bloodshed and murder would immediately follow." He insisted on the removal of the Christian Indians from the vicinity of Sandusky, believing it to be unsafe for them to remain there; he also protected the Moravians and their converts from maltreatment when the missionaries were sent to Detroit ...

Dunquat besieged Fort Randolph, West Virginia in 1778.Warriors from Half-King's village captured a young Pennsylvanian man, George Foulkes (1769-1840), in 1780. After more than ten years with the Wyandots, Foulkes escaped, becoming a member of the Spies from Washington County, and Captain Sam Brady's Rangers.After the American Revolutionary War, Half Chief allied with Little Turtle and resisted the US expansion westwards, but agreed to the Treaty of Greenville.

Fort Recovery

Fort Recovery was a United States Army fort ordered built by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne during what is now termed the Northwest Indian War. Constructed from late 1793 and completed in March 1794, the fort was built along the Wabash River, within two miles of what became the Ohio state border with Indiana. A detachment of Wayne's Legion of the United States held off an attack from combined Indian forces on June 30, 1794. The fort was used as a reference in drawing treaty lines for the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, and for later settlement. The fort was abandoned in 1796.

The present-day village of Fort Recovery, Ohio, developed around the fort and along the river. It includes sites and monuments to commemorate the fort and battles in the area.

Jean Baptiste Richardville

Jean Baptiste de Richardville (c. 1761 – 13 August 1841), known as Pinšiwa in Miami (meaning Wildcat, also spelled Peshewa) and John Richardville, was the last akima (civil chief) of the Miami people. He was a signatory to the Treaty of Greenville (1795) and later treaties with the United States through the Treaty of Mississinewas (1826). A fur trader who controlled an important portage connecting the Maumee River to the Little River, by his death in 1841 he was considered the wealthiest man in Indiana. He had acquired more than 20 square miles of property along the rivers.

In 1827 he completed construction of a treaty house partially funded by the United States. The Richardville House is the first in northeastern Indiana to be built in the Greek Revival style, the oldest Native American house in the state, and one of the few surviving treaty houses in the United States. It was designated in 2012 as a National Historic Landmark.

John Askin Jr.

John Askin Jr. (c1765–1820) was a fur trader, merchant, and official in Upper Canada and Michigan. He and his wife, Madelaine, are remembered as being instrumental in the invention of the Mackinaw jacket in 1811.Born in the 1760s, he was the son of fur trader John Askin and a Native American/First Nations woman whose name is given as "Manette" or "Monette". Like his father, John Askin Jr. was loyal to the British crown during a twenty-year period, from 1794 until 1815, as the allegiance of the Upper Great Lakes was being strongly contested between Great Britain and the young United States. Many Native Americans/First Nations people were allied with the English, and the junior Askin joined them and fought against the U.S. Army at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Askin tried to rally and advise the beaten Native Americans, but was subjected by the victorious American commander, Anthony Wayne, to administrative detention. While Askin was detained, General Wayne and the defeated Native Americans signed the Treaty of Greenville, relinquishing to the Euro-Americans much of the future state of Ohio.In line with the diminished status of the British on the Upper Great Lakes after the Treaty of Greenville and Jay's Treaty, young Askin retired to the Canadian side of what was becoming an international boundary. He accepted the King's appointment as collector of customs in Amherstburg, Upper Canada in 1801, and accepted further appointment as storekeeper for the Indian Department at Fort St. Joseph on St. Joseph Island in 1807. In the latter post, he took the substantial career risk of issuing more than forty heavyweight point blankets in November 1811 to the fort's impecunious commander, Charles Roberts, accepting a scrip warrant in payment. John's wife, Madelaine, and the other women of the fort sewed the blankets into the first Mackinaw jackets, which the British soldiers used as greatcoats for winter fatigue duty.John Askin Jr. redoubled his connection to Roberts and the British cause in the following year upon the outbreak of the War of 1812. As a key fur trader at Fort St. Joseph with kinship connections to local First Nations peoples, he led the recruitment of approximately 300 tribal warriors to join the much smaller Fort St. Joseph British garrison in its expedition against a United States strong point, Fort Mackinac. As a civilian interpreter, Askin accompanied Roberts' expedition to British Landing. The warriors recruited by Askin helped to sharply outnumber the 61 Americans present for duty, who were forced to surrender the fort without a shot.To Askin's disappointment, the British home country did not follow up on this victory. Its government signed a treaty in 1814 to restore the pre-1812 border. John Askin Jr. died in British Canada on January 1, 1820. His son, John Baptist Askin, born in 1788, became a prominent resident and community leader in London, Ontario.

Northwest Indian War

The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, and then with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers of France and Great Britain, and their colonials.

Under the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded to the U.S. "control" of what were known as the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, which were occupied by numerous Native American peoples. Despite the treaty, the British kept forts there and continued policies that supported the Native Americans. With the encroachment of European settlers west of the Appalachians after the War, a Huron-led confederacy formed in 1785 to resist usurpation of Indian lands, declaring that lands north and west of the Ohio River were Indian territory. President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U.S. sovereignty over the territory. The U.S. Army, consisting mostly of untrained recruits and volunteer militiamen, suffered a series of major defeats, including the Harmar Campaign (1790) and St. Clair's Defeat (1791). About 1,000 soldiers and militiamen were killed and the United States forces suffered many more casualties than their opponents.

After St. Clair's disaster, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General "Mad" Anthony Wayne to organize and train a proper fighting force. Wayne took command of the new Legion of the United States late in 1792. After a methodical campaign up the Great Miami and Maumee River Valleys in western Ohio Country, he led his men to a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near southwestern Lake Erie in 1794. Afterward he went on to establish Fort Wayne at the Miami capital of Kekionga, the symbol of U.S. sovereignty in the heart of Indian Country. The defeated tribes were forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. The Jay Treaty in the same year arranged for cessions of British Great Lakes outposts on the great U.S. territory.

Treaty of Fort Harmar

The Treaty of Fort Harmar was an agreement between the United States government and numerous Native American tribes with claims to the Northwest Territory. It was signed at Fort Harmar, near present-day Marietta, Ohio, on January 9, 1789. Representatives of the Iroquois Six Nations and other groups, including the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomi and Sauk met with Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, and other American leaders such as Josiah Harmar and Richard Butler.

The treaty was supposed to address issues remaining since the 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the 1785 Treaty of Fort McIntosh; but, the new agreement did little more than reiterate the terms of those two previous documents with a few minor changes. The negotiations and document failed to address the most important grievances of the tribes, namely, the settlement of New Englanders in the Firelands portions of the Western Reserve, an area that extended into the territory set aside for the tribes.

Governor Arthur St. Clair had been authorized by Congress and Secretary of War Henry Knox to offer back some lands reserved for American settlement in exchange for the disputed Firelands of the Western Reserve. St. Clair refused to give up these lands and instead, through threats and bribery, negotiated a treaty that simply reiterated the terms of previous treaties. Several regional tribes, such as the Shawnee, were excluded from the negotiations. As a result, the Shawnee refused to abide by the treaty.

The new treaty did almost nothing to stop the rash of violence along the frontier from confrontations between settlers and Indians. The failure of the treaty led to an escalation of the Northwest Indian War as the tribes tried to expel the pioneers; it continued for six years until the United States defeated the tribal alliance at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.

In 1795, with the Treaty of Greenville, the tribes were forced to give up claims to most of what is now the state of Ohio. This treaty divided the Northwest Territory into two parts; one for the Native Americans and one for the United States settlers.

Treaty of Fort Industry

The Treaty of Fort Industry was a successor treaty to the Treaty of Greenville, which moved the eastern boundary of Indian lands in northern Ohio from the Tuscarawas River and Cuyahoga River westward to a line 120 miles west of the Pennsylvania boundary, which coincided with the western boundary of the Firelands of the Connecticut Western Reserve. In return, the United States agreed "every year forever hereafter, at Detroit, or some other convenient place" to pay $825 for the ceded lands south of the 41st degree of north latitude, and an additional $175 for the Firelands, which lie north of 41 degrees north, which the President would secure from the Connecticut Land Company, for a total of annuity $1000.00, to be "divided between said nations, from time to time, in such proportions as said nations, with the approbation of the President, shall agree."The treaty was signed on July 4, 1805 by Charles Jouett, a federal Indian agent, for the United States, and representatives of the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Wyandot, Munsee, Delaware and Shawnee.

Treaty of Fort Wayne (1803)

The Treaty of Fort Wayne was a treaty between the United States and several groups of Native Americans. The treaty was signed on June 7, 1803 and proclaimed December 26, 1803. It more precisely defined the boundaries of the Vincennes tract ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville, 1795.

Treaty of Greenville (1814)

The Treaty of Greenville (1814) was called A treaty of peace and friendship between the United States of America and the tribes of Native Americans called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, Senacas and Miamies. It was concluded at Greenville, Ohio on July 22, 1814, to provide peace among the tribes, and with the U.S., as well as an alliance between these Tribes and the U.S. against Great Britain during the War of 1812.

Treaty of Grouseland

The Treaty of Grouseland was an agreement negotiated by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory on behalf of the government of the United States of America with Native American leaders, including Little Turtle and Buckongahelas, for lands in Southern Indiana, northeast Indiana, and northwestern Ohio. The treaty was negotiated and signed on Aug 21, 1805, at Harrison's home in Vincennes, Indiana, called Grouseland. Negotiated a year after the second Treaty of Vincennes, it was the second major land purchase in Indiana since the close of the Northwest Indian War and the signing of the 1795 Treaty of Greenville.

Treaty of Springwells

The Treaty of Springwells was an agreement between the United States and the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawnee, Miami, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians, ending the conflict between the U.S. and these Indians that was part of the War of 1812. It was signed on September 8, 1815, at the present site of the Fort Wayne historical site in Detroit, Michigan.

The object of the treaty was to absolve the Indians for supporting Great Britain in the War of 1812 and secure their future allegiance to the United States. The treaty officially ended all hostilities between the U.S. and the Indians, and reaffirmed the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, "and all subsubsequent treaties to which they were, respectively, parties." The U.S. agreed to restore to the Indians all of their possessions, rights, and privileges as of 1811. In return, the Indians agreed to place themselves under the protection of the U.S. government only, and repudiate any association with Britain.

The U.S. also "agree[d] to pardon such of the chiefs and warriors of said tribes as may have continued hostilities against them until the close of the war with Great Britain."

Treaty of St. Mary's (1818)

The Treaty of St. Mary's may refer to one of six treaties concluded in fall of 1818 between the United States and Indians of central Indiana regarding purchase of Indian land. The treaties were

Treaty with the Wyandot, etc.

Treaty with the Wyandot

Treaty with the Potawatomi

Treaty with the Wea

Treaty with the Delaware

Treaty with the MiamiThe main treaty was with the Miamis, who were the preeminent tribe in Indiana. Unqualified references to the Treaty usually refer to this one. The treaties acquired a substantial portion of the land area (dubbed the New Purchase) of the state of Indiana from the Miami, Delaware, Potawatomi, and others in exchange for cash, salt, sawmills, and other goods, effectively moving the northern boundary of the state from near the Ohio River to the Wabash River in the northwest and north. They also resulted in creation of Indian reservations and continued the process of Indian removals in Indiana begun by the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.

Trenton, Michigan

Trenton is a small city in Wayne County in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of Michigan. At the 2010 census, the city population was 18,853. The city is part of Downriver, a collection of mostly blue-collar communities south of Detroit on the west bank of the Detroit River. Trenton is known for its waterfront and growing boating community.

Many residents are employed in the city's factories such as the Chrysler Trenton Engine Plant, Solutia, and the Trenton Channel Power Plant. Beaumont Hospital - Trenton is located within city limits and has 203 beds. The former McLouth Steel plant is also located in the city. There is rail service in the city. The city operates the 21,000-square-foot (2,000 m2) Trenton Veterans Memorial Library and a historical museum. Trenton has 15 churches of 10 denominations.

A Native American Shawnee village founded by war chief Blue Jacket after the 1795 Treaty of Greenville was located in Trenton on what is now Elizabeth Park. Elizabeth Park is part of the Wayne County park system and was the first county park in Michigan, designated in 1919.

The August 9, 1812 Battle of Monguagon between Americans and a British-Indian coalition took place just north of Trenton in Riverview, though the Michigan state historical marker memorializing it was placed in Trenton, about a mile south of where the fighting actually took place.

Turnpike Lands

Turnpike Lands were a group of land tracts granted by the United States Congress to the state of Ohio in 1827 along the path of a proposed road in the northwest corner of the state.

Twelve Mile Square Reservation

The Twelve Mile Square Reservation, also called the Twelve Mile Square Reserve, was a tract of land in Ohio ceded by Indians to the United States of America in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. This particular area of land immediately surrounding Fort Miami was considered to be of strategic importance by the United States government representatives. It was subsequently surveyed in a manner different from surrounding land, and lots sold, or granted, to settlers.

Two Mile Square Reservation

The Two Mile Square Reservation or Two Mile Square Reserve was a tract of land in Ohio ceded by Native Americans to the United States of America in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. It was subsequently surveyed in a manner different from surrounding land, and lots sold to settlers.

West Charleston, Ohio

West Charleston is an unincorporated community in western Bethel Township, Miami County, Ohio, United States.

West Charleston was originally called Friendtown, and under the latter name was platted in 1807 by Charles Friend, and named for him. The present name is also derived from the name of the proprietor. A post office called West Charleston was established in 1829, and remained in operation until 1899.West Charleston lies astride State Route 202, earlier known as the North Miami Pike. The road was formed along the route cut through the area by George Rogers Clark in 1782 during his campaigns against the natives at Lower Piqua and Upper Piqua. It is also the route taken southward to Cincinnati by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne after the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the completion of the Treaty of Greenville.

The community is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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