A travel class is a quality of accommodation on public transport. The accommodation could be a seat or a cabin for example. Higher travel classes are designed to be more comfortable and are typically more expensive.
Traditionally, an airliner is divided to, from the top, first, business, and economy cabins. In recent years, premium economy classes have been added by some airlines as an intermediate class between economy and business class.
Each cabin class is further divided into invisible booking classes, which although booked into the same cabin differ in conditions and benefits outside of the cabin class travelled such as frequent-flyer points, baggage limit, change or refund policy, etc.
In Mexico, bus services often have designated levels of service, the top of which is de lujo or clase lujo, followed by plus clase, primera clase, and segunda clase.
Before cruise ships dominated the passenger ship trade, ocean liners had classes of service, often categorized as First Class, Second Class, and Steerage. Companies such as Cunard Line continue this tradition, offering Queen's Grill, Princess Grill and Britannia cabins, each of which have their own allocated lounges and restaurants on board.
Trains often have first class (the higher class) and second class (known as standard class in the UK). For trains with sleeping accommodations, there may be more levels of luxury.
Traditional trains commonly offer the following classes: soft sleeper, hard sleeper, soft seat and hard seat, depending on the route.
CRH EMUs offer the following classes: soft sleeper (available only on few overnight routes), business seat, 1st class seat and 2nd class seat.
Prior to 1949, most railway bureaus (under the direction of the Transport Ministry) had a three-class structure. As with most contemporary cases, few people could afford first class or even second class, so at times there would be no first class or second class service available in some trains. Some went as far as offering a fourth class "service" with goods wagons.
In 1949, the first "Limited Express with Reserved Seating" (特快對號車) appeared with the Railway Bureau of Taiwan, and it offered a three-class service, inherited locally from Japanese colonial rule. This structure was the norm for all trains, normal or express, until 1953.
In 1953, the "Equality Express" was introduced with second class carriages only. Eventually, all expresses save for the sole Limited Express offered only second class service, and all other, slower trains, offered only third class. This resulted in the quality of service being associated with the speed of the train. The Diesel Limited Express was introduced in 1956 with one class only.
In 1960, with the reforming of Limited Expresses (the Limited Express with Reserved Seating and Diesel Limited Express merged into one fare), all passenger trains officially offered only one class. Therefore, all expresses had only second class carriages and other trains only third class. As time passes, more types of carriages were introduced, but these were thought as types instead of classes.
At the very beginning of the railway age in Europe, almost every railway operator offered three classes for passenger services: "First class" was the most luxurious and least demanded class, equipped with rich upholstered seats, while "second class" was also upholstered, but on a lower level and with fewer seating space. In contrast, "third class" only provided wooden benches. While most passenger trains carried just one or two "first class" and "second class" carriages, every other carriage was "third class" only.
Today there are generally two classes, known as "first class" and "second class", or the equivalent in the local language. The three-tier class structure was abolished on most European railways by the end of the 1950s in favor of a two-tier structure conceived by the UIC. In fact, the old "first class" from the pre-World War II-era was deleted without substitution because of low ridership in postwar times, therefor the old "second class" became the new "first class" and the "third class", with hardly any wooden seatings left, was declared the new "second class".
Trains in Great Britain provide a two-tier class structure, with the higher tier called "first class". The lower tier was re-branded from "third class" to "second class" by British Rail from 3 June 1956, and then to "standard class" from 11 May 1987.
A convention used by most European railway companies is that the first-class section of a train is marked in yellow, usually with a yellow band above the doors and/or windows. First-class areas may be complete carriages or at one end of a carriage, the other end being second class. Second-class compartments usually have "2+2" seating (2 seats each side of the aisle); first-class compartments are typically "2+1". In Britain and France, some short-distance Suburban trains use "2+3" for the lower class and "2+2" for first class.
Metro, suburban and local trains are sometimes second-class-only. First-class-only trains were common up to the 1980s (see Trans Europe Express) but are now rare. High-speed trains often charge more than slower-speed trains on the same route, but still have first- and second-class seats.
Trains in Ireland are primarily operated as standard-class only, with only some of the longest distance services having a higher class, called Premier on IE 22000 Class stock, CityGold on Mark 4 loco-hauled carriages and First Plus on the cross-border Enterprise service. No commuter services have premium classes. Premium benefits can be as limited as a reading light and waiter service; but reach to 2+1 recliner seating and enhanced catering options.
In Germany, there existed a "fourth class" ("4. Klasse") on almost every local train from the second half of the 19th century to 1928. It provided just a very low travel comfort, the passengers had to sit on even wooden planks with rudimentary backrests. Much of the space in the compartments was left empty to allow country folks to carry their goods and livestock inside the carriage.
The Indian Railways offers six classes of train accommodation in general.
Some trains also have one of these classes:
Indonesian trains, operated by the state-owned PT Kereta Api Indonesia (the Indonesian Railways Co.), have now four classes for long-distance travel. All types of carriages are seating-only (no sleeper cars).
All classes are non-smoking and air conditioned. All passengers require a seat reservation, except for commuter trains. All seats can be reserved from 30–90 days before travel date until minutes before departure time when seats are still available. Medium and long distance trains have onboard cafeteria, flushing toilets (older passenger coaches have squatting toilets), onboard customer service representative (Train Manager), onboard security, and onboard cleaning services.
Executive class trains are the fastest and stop only on a few major stations (first priority). Business trains are somewhat slower, but generally do not stop too often as well there may be economy cars in these trains (second priority). Economy trains take significantly more time to reach the destination, as they stop on many smaller stations and have to pass all executive and business class traffic going in the same direction (third priority). Many less important routes lack either business or executive service, or both. Some services have more two or three classes mixed together (executive-business, executive-economy, executive-premium economy, or executive-business-economy).
For local or commuter trains, single class service is the most common type of service. But in some areas there may be other classes as well which have different seating arrangement and travel time in which the lower classes has more stops than the upper one. For example, Jogjakarta–Solo route there are Sriwedari train services which is air conditioned and has transverse seating and also Prambanan Express train which is non air conditioned, has longitudinal seating and more stops. Meanwhile, in Jakarta metropolitan area, there's only one class of service available since mid-2013 which is air conditioned and has longitudinal seating. Commuter trains in Jakarta are operated by Kereta Commuter Indonesia, a subsidiary of the Indonesian Railways Co.
From 1872, Japan had a three-class structure for both seating carriages and sleeping carriages. By 1960, as conditions improved on second and third class trains, there were few passengers travelling on first class; therefore, the few remaining first class carriages were rebranded "special" carriages available for hire, and consequently moved Japan's railway system to a two-class system, of which the original second class became the first, and the original third became second.
In 1969, the class structure was abolished altogether. The first class was renamed "Green" carriages and the second "Standard" carriages.
All members of the Japan Railways Group (JR) offer separated classes of travel, with varying levels of availability on any given train.
The Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyūshū), Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido), and East Japan Railway Company (JR East) all offer an enhanced service known as the Green Car on nearly all of their intercity trains. Additionally, the Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) and Shikoku Railway Company (JR Shikoku) offer a Green Car on some trains, and a few West Japan Railway Company (JR West) trains also have a Green Car. The alternative to Green Car is the Ordinary Car. Although Ordinary Car tickets may be purchased with or without reserved seating, all Green Car tickets are reserved seating. A ticket must be purchased in advance, and a special version of the Japan Rail Pass allowing travel in Green Cars is available.
Most JR Group Green Cars seats have increased width and pitch. In some stations, Green Cars are located nearer to the staircases and escalators leading to/from the train platform. Green Cars also frequently offer slippers and reading materials in Japanese.
Additionally, JR East offers a third category of service, the GranClass, available on its Hayabusa route. Features of GranClass cars include leather seats that recline to a 45 degree angle, raised footrests, adjustable dining tables and cocktail trays, and personal reading lights. Full-service meals, both Japanese and Western, are provided by specialized GranClass attendants, who also serve soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. Because the Hayabusa is a long-distance service to the Tōhoku region, overnight amenities such as slippers, blankets, and eye masks are provided.
During the Victorian era, most trains in the United Kingdom had three classes of accommodation: first class, second class and third class. From 1875, when the Midland Railway redesignated its second class accommodation as third class, second class (equivalent to either premium economy or business class) was gradually abolished, while first class and third class were retained. This was because the Railway Regulation Act 1844 required a third-class service to be offered. In addition to this, British third class was initially of a comparable standard to continental European third class and British first class with European first class (the continent having retained three classes). This meant that boat trains in Britain still often operated with three classes of accommodation after the abolition of second class in the rest of the country. From 3 June 1956 British Railways redesignated third class as "second class", finally (as British Rail) renaming it "standard class" from 11 May 1987, in view of the pejorative overtones of "second class".
A coach with accommodation for more than one class is called a "composite coach".
In the United States and Canada, train classes emulate the airlines, although airlines probably took the class levels from trains of the time when they were coming of age (e.g. first, business, coach). Amtrak Acela Express trains have two classes: First Class and Business Class. Amtrak Northeast Regional trains have Business Class and Coach class. Canada's Via Rail has the same classes as Amtrak. Trains with sleeper cars have additional levels. Most commuter trains in USA and Canada generally have a business class and economy class or standard fare. Although business class is offered it typically is just more spacious seats in a more modern sleek cabin. WiFi is available on commuter trains in the southern Ontario corridor, as well as southern Quebec (Via Rail). Full services, such as food and beverage, may not always be a given.
An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel. At cruising altitudes of modern commercial aircraft, the surrounding atmosphere is too thin for passengers and crew to breathe without an oxygen mask, so cabins are pressurized at a higher pressure than ambient pressure at altitude.In commercial air travel, particularly in airliners, cabins may be divided into several parts. These can include travel class sections in medium and large aircraft, areas for flight attendants, the galley and storage for in-flight service. Seats are mostly arranged in rows and alleys. The higher the travel class, the more space is provided. Cabins of the different travel classes are often divided by curtains, sometimes called class dividers, but not on all airlines. Passengers are not usually allowed to visit higher travel class cabins in commercial flights.Some aircraft cabins contain passenger entertainment systems. Short and medium haul cabins tend to have no or shared screens whereas long and ultra-long haul flights often contain personal screens which allow passengers to choose what to watch on their personal screen.Airlines for Europe
Airlines for Europe (A4E) is a trade association of European airlines created in January 2016. It handles political lobbying operations for the benefit of its 14 members.Asiana Airlines
Asiana Airlines Inc. (Korean: 아시아나항공; RR: Asiana Hanggong KRX: 020560; formerly Seoul Airlines) is South Korea's second-largest major airline, behind Korean Air. Asiana has its headquarters in Asiana Town building in Seoul. In 2018, it accounted for a 19% share of the domestic market and a 16% share of the international market. The airline has its domestic hub at Gimpo International Airport and its international hub at Incheon International Airport (70 kilometres (43 mi) from central Seoul).
As a member of Star Alliance, it operates 14 domestic and 90 international passenger routes, and 27 cargo routes throughout Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania. As of December 2014, the company employs 10,183 people. The majority of Asiana's pilots, ground staff and flight attendants are based in Seoul. Asiana Airlines is the largest shareholder in Air Busan, a low-cost regional carrier joint venture with Busan Metropolitan City. The airline also holds 100% share of Air Seoul, a subsidiary and its own low-cost carrier.Basic economy
Basic economy is a travel class offered by a number of airlines in the United States. Basic economy fares were introduced as a way for full-service airlines in the United States to compete more effectively with ultra-low-cost carriers, and to encourage passengers to upgrade to standard economy fares.Basic economy fares generally come with significant restrictions. Passengers traveling in basic economy are typically not allowed to change or cancel tickets or select seats for free, and are the last to board and leave the aircraft.Business class
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary, by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class, but many airlines now offer business class as the highest level of service, having eliminated first class seating. Business class is distinguished from other travel classes by the quality of seating, food, drinks, ground service and other amenities. In commercial aviation, full business class is usually denoted 'J' or 'C' with schedule flexibility, but can be many other letters depending on circumstances.Economy class
Economy class, also called coach class, steerage, or to distinguish it from the slightly more expensive premium economy class, standard economy class or budget economy class, is the lowest travel class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel. Historically, this travel class has been called tourist class on ocean liners and third class, or if premium economy class is counted as third class, then standard economy class is called fourth class, on railways or scum class on the TG railway.Fare basis code
A fare basis code (often just referred to as a fare basis) is an alphabetic or alpha-numeric code used by airlines to identify a fare type and allow airline staff and travel agents to find the rules applicable to that fare. Although airlines now set their own fare basis codes, there are some patterns that have evolved over the years and may still be in use.
Fare codes start with a letter called a booking class (indicating travel class among other things) which almost always matches the letter code that the reservation is booked in. Other letters or numbers may follow. Typically a fare basis will be 3 to 7 characters long, but can be up to 8.First class (aviation)
First class is a travel class on some passenger airliners intended to be more luxurious than business class, premium economy, and economy class. Originally all planes offered only one class of service, with a second class appearing first in 1955, when TWA introduced two different types of service on its Super Constellations.
On a passenger jetliner, first class usually refers to a limited number (rarely more than 20) of seats or cabins toward the front of the aircraft which have more space, comfort, service, and privacy. In general, first class is the highest class offered, although some airlines have branded their new products as above first class. Propeller airliners often had first class in the rear, away from the noise of the rotating propeller, while first class on jet aircraft is normally positioned near the front of the aircraft, normally in front of the business class section, or on the top deck for aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380.First class travel
First class is the most luxurious travel class of seats and service on a train, passenger ship, airplane, bus, or other system of transport. It is usually more expensive than business class and economy class, and offers the best service and luxurious accommodation.Frequent-flyer program
A frequent-flyer program (FFP) is a loyalty program offered by an airline.
Many airlines have frequent-flyer programs designed to encourage airline customers enrolled in the program to accumulate points (also called miles, kilometers, or segments) which may then be redeemed for air travel or other rewards. Points earned under FFPs may be based on the class of fare, distance flown on that airline or its partners, or the amount paid. There are other ways to earn points. For example, in recent years, more points have been earned by using co-branded credit and debit cards than by air travel. Another way to earn points is spending money at associated retail outlets, car hire companies, hotels, or other associated businesses. Points can be redeemed for air travel, other goods or services, or for increased benefits, such as travel class upgrades, airport lounge access, fast track access, or priority bookings.
Frequent-flyer programs can be seen as a certain type of virtual currency, one with unidirectional flow of money to purchase points, but no exchange back into money.Indian Railways coaching stock
Indian Railways offers various travel classes on their coaches. Depending upon their travel class, the passenger cars feature different seating arrangements or berths subject to availability.Network length (transport)
In transport terminology, network length (or, less often, system length) refers to the total length of a transport network, and commonly also refers to the length of any fixed infrastructure associated with the network.
A measurement can be made of the network length of various different modes of transport, including rail, bus, road and air. The measurement may focus on one of a number of specific characteristics, such as route length, line length or track length.Non-revenue track
Non-revenue track (or trackage), or a non-revenue route, is a section of track or transport route that is not used to carry passengers or revenue-earning freight or goods. The term is used to refer mainly to sections of track or routes in public transport systems, such as rapid transit and tramway networks, but non-revenue track or routes can also be found in other transport systems. Non-revenue tracks may be used for revenue service during temporary reroutings.Premium economy
Premium economy class, also known as elite economy class or economy plus class, is a travel class offered on some airlines. This travel class is positioned as a middleground between standard economy class and business class in terms of price, comfort, and amenities. In 1991, EVA Air was the first to introduce Evergreen Class (later renamed to Elite Class, and later renamed to Premium Economy Class) and had since become the first airline to offer this class of service in the world. In some ways, Premium Economy class has become a standard reflecting what Economy class was like 40 years ago (or more); as an example the seat pitch of United Airlines' Economy Class was 36 inches back in the 1970s, the same seat pitch as most airlines' Premium Economy these days.Ralph Friedman
Ralph Friedman (June 3, 1916 – June 3, 1995) was an American author best known for his books about Oregon.
Ralph Friedman was born and raised in Chicago. He hitchhiked to Oregon in 1933 at the age of 16. He wrote 10 books, and contributed to many other books, magazines, and newspapers. For ten years, he led the travel class "Oregon for the Curious", offered by Portland Community College (PCC). He also taught writing and folklore for PCC and for Portland State University. He died in Portland, Oregon on June 3, 1995, his 79th birthday.Second class
Second class generally indicates a secondary level of service or importance. More specific, it may refer to:
Economy class, in transport
Travel class, in transport
Second Class Rank, a rank in Boy Scouts of America
2.-class torpedo boat, Scandinavian ships
Second class honours, ranking second in a hierarchy of honours
Second class, a subdivision of military ranksSecond officer (aeronautics)
A Second Officer usually refers to the third in line of command for a flight crew on a commercial or non-military aircraft. Usually a Second Officer is used on international or long haul flights where more than two crew are required to allow for adequate crew rest periods.
In some airlines, the Second Officer acts as a First Officer, but still undergoes training and supervision from a training Captain (Swiss International Air Lines, Lufthansa, Volotea among others use this denomination).Transport network
A transport network, or transportation network is a realisation of a spatial network, describing a structure which permits either vehicular movement or flow of some commodity.
Examples include but are not limited to road networks, railways, air routes, pipelines, aqueducts, and power lines.
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