Italy has a well developed transport infrastructure. The Italian rail network is extensive, especially in the north, and it includes a high-speed rail network that joins the major cities of Italy from Naples through northern cities such as Milan and Turin. Italy has 2,507 people and 12.46 km2 per kilometer of rail track, giving Italy the world's 13th largest rail network.
Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a large number of harbors for the transportation of both goods and passengers. Transport networks in Italy are integrated into the Trans-European Transport Networks.
The Italian railway system has a length of 19,394 km (12,051 mi), of which 18,071 km (11,229 mi) standard gauge and 11,322 km (7,035 mi) electrified. The active lines are 16,723 km. The network is recently growing with the construction of the new high-speed rail network. The narrow gauge tracks are:
A major part of the Italian rail network is managed and operated by Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane, a state owned company. Other regional agencies, mostly owned by public entities such as regional governments, operate on the Italian network. The Italian railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €8.1 billion in 2009.
Travellers who often make use of the railway during their stay in Italy might use Rail Passes, such as the European Inter-Rail or Italy's national and regional passes. These rail passes allow travellers the freedom to use regional trains during the validity period, but all high-speed and intercity trains require a 10-euro reservation fee. Regional passes, such as "Io viaggio ovunque Lombardia", offer one-day, multiple-day and monthly period of validity. There are also saver passes for adults, who travel as a group, with savings up to 20%. Foreign travellers should purchase these passes in advance, so that the passes could be delivered by post prior to the trip. When using the rail passes, the date of travel needs to be filled in before boarding the trains.
Major works to increase the commercial speed of the trains already started in 1967: the Rome-Florence "super-direct" line was built for trains up to 230 km/h, and reduced the journey time to less than two hours. This is the first high-speed train line in Europe, as its operations started in 1977.
In 2009 a new high-speed line linking Milan and Turin, operating at 300 km/h, opened to passenger traffic, reducing the journey time from two hours to one hour. In the same year, the Milan-Bologna line was open, reducing the journey time to 55 minutes. Also the Bologna-Florence high-speed line was upgraded to 300 km/h for a journey time of 35 minutes.
Since then, it is possible to travel from Turin to Salerno (ca. 950 km) in less than 5 hours. More than 100 trains per day are operated.
The main public operator of high-speed trains (alta velocità AV, formerly Eurostar Italia) is Trenitalia, part of FSI. Trains are divided into three categories: Frecciarossa ("Red arrow") trains operate at a maximum of 300 km/h on dedicated high-speed tracks; Frecciargento (Silver arrow) trains operate at a maximum of 250 km/h on both high-speed and mainline tracks; Frecciabianca (White arrow) trains operate at a maximum of 200 km/h on mainline tracks only.
Since 2012, a new and Italy's first private train operator, NTV (branded as Italo), run high-speed services in competition with Trenitalia. Even nowadays, Italy is the only county in Europe with a private high-speed train operator.
Construction of the Milan-Venice high-speed line has begun in 2013 and in 2016 the Milan-Treviglio section has been opened to passenger traffic; the Milan-Genoa high-speed line (Terzo Valico dei Giovi) is also under construction.
Today it is possible to travel from Rome to Milan in less than 3 hours (2h 55') with the Frecciarossa 1000, the new high-speed train. To cover this route, there's a train every 30 minutes.
With the introduction of high-speed trains, intercity trains are limited to few services per day on mainline and regional tracks.
The daytime services (Intercity IC), while not freuquent and limited to one or two trains per route, are essential in providing access to cities and towns off the railway's mainline network. The main routes are Trieste to Rome (stopping at Venice, Bologna, Prato, Florence and Arezzo), Milan to Rome (stopping at Genoa, La Spezia, Pisa and Livorno / stopping at Parma, Modena, Bologna, Prato, Florence and Arezzo), Bologna to Lecce (stopping at Rimini, Ancona, Pescara, Bari and Brindisi) and Rome to Reggio di Calabria (stopping at Latina and Naples). In addition, the Intercity trains provide a more economical means of long-distance rail travel within Italy.
The night trains (Intercity Notte ICN) have sleeper compartments and washrooms, but no showers on board. Main routes are Rome to Bolzano/Bozen (calling at Florence, Bologna, Verona, Rovereto and Trento), Milan to Lecce (calling at Bologna, Rimini, Ancona, Pescara, Bari and Brindisi), Turin to Lecce (calling at Alessandria, Voghera, Piacenza, Parma, Bologna, Rimini, Pescara, Bari and Brindisi) and Reggio di Calabria to Turin (calling Naples, Rome, Livorno, La Spezia and Genova). Most portions of these ICN services run during the night; since most services take 10 to 15 hours to complete a one-way journey, their day-time portion provide extra train connections to complement with the Intercity services.
There are a total of 86 intercity trains running within Italy per day.
Trenitalia operates regional services (both fast veloce RGV and stopping REG) throughout Italy.
Regional train agencies exist: their train schedules are largely connected to and shown on Trenitalia, and tickets for such train services can be purchased through Trenitalia's national network. Other regional agencies have separate ticket systems which are not mutually exchangeable with that of Trenitalia. These "regional" tickets could be purchased at local newsagents or tobacco stores instead.
In addition to these agencies, there's a great deal of other little operators, such as AMT Genova for the Genova-Casella railway.
Cities with metro systems:
Cities with commuter rail systems:
Italy has 11 rail border crossings over the Alpine mountains with her neighbouring countries: six are designated as mainline tracks and two are metre-gauge tracks. The six mainline border crossings are: two with France (one for Nice and Marseille; the other for Lyon and Dijon), two with Switzerland (one for Brig, Bern and Geneva; the other for Chiasso, Lugano, Lucerne and Zürich), and two with Austria (one for Innsbruck; the other for Villach, Graz and Vienna). The two metre-gauge track crossings are located at the border town of Tirano (enters Switzerland's Canton Graubünden/Grisons) and Domodossola (enters Switzerland's Locarno).
There is a railway line connecting Italy's northeastern port of Trieste to Slovenia, but no passenger or freight services operate on this track. Consequently, there is no direct connections between Trieste and Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, despite the proximity of both cities.
The Vatican City is also linked to Italy with a railway line serving a single railway station, the Vatican City railway station. This line is used only for special occasions. San Marino used to have a narrow gauge rail connection with Italy; this was dismantled in 1944.
Italy's top ten railway stations by annual passengers are:
|Station||passengers per year|
|Firenze Santa Maria Novella||59|
|Genova Piazza Principe||24|
|Torino Porta Nuova||70|
|Venezia Santa Lucia||30|
|Verona Porta Nuova||25|
Stations with darker background are also served by High-speed trains
Italy is one of the countries with the most vehicles per capita, with 690 per 1000 people in 2010. Italy has a total of 487,700 km of paved roads, of which 6,758 km are motorways with a general speed limit of 130 km/h (81 mph), which since 2009 was provisioned for extension up to 150 km/h (93 mph). The speed limit in towns is usually 50 km/h (31 mph) and less commonly 30 km/h (19 mph).
Italy has 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of navigable waterways for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value.
In the northern regions of Lombardy and Venetia, commuter ferry boats operate on Lake Garda and Lake Como to connect towns and villages at both sides of the lakes. The waterways in Venice, including the Grand Canal, serve as the vital transportation network for local residents and tourists. Frequent shuttle ferries (vaporetta) connect different points on the main island of Venice and other outlying islands of the lagoon. In addition, there are direct shuttle boats between Venice and the Venice Marco Polo Airport.
|Busiest ports by cargo tonnage in Italy (2008)||Busiest ports by passengers in Italy (2008)|
Italy's largest airline is Alitalia, which was privatised in 2008. Its main hub is Rome Fiumicino Airport. Alitalia also operates a regional subsidiary under the Alitalia CityLiner brand. Italy's second largest airline is Air Italy, which operates a network of domestic, European and long-haul destinations from its main hub at Milan Malpensa Airport.
An important regional airline is Air Dolomiti, owned by the German Lufthansa Group. Low-cost carriers include Ernest Airlines, while Charter and leisure carriers include Neos, Blue Panorama Airlines and Mistral Air. Major Italian cargo operators are Alitalia Cargo and Cargolux Italia.
Italy is the fifth in Europe by number of passengers by air transport, with about 148 million passengers or about 10% of the European total in 2011. Most of passengers in Italy are on international flights (57%). A big share of domestic flights connect the major islands (Sardinia and Sicily) to the mainland. Domestic flights between major Italian cities as Rome and Milan still play a relevant role but are declining since the opening of the Italian high-speed rail network in recent years.
Italy has a total as of 130 airports in 2012, of which 99 have paved runways:
Airports - with unpaved runways in 2012:
This is a list of the top ten busiest airports in Italy in 2017.
|Bergamo Orio al Serio||86,113||3,270,761||9,060,022||12,336,137||125,948|
|Venice Marco Polo||92,263||1,358,618||8,988,759||10,371,380||60,852.8|
|Bologna Guglielmo Marconi||71,878||1,935,193||6,246,461||8,198,156||56,132.1|
|Palermo Punta Raisi||46,627||4,399,601||1,353,444||5,775,274||324|
There are long-distance intercity buses run by local companies, but the services are infrequent during the week and usually provide a secondary link to railway services.
This makes a daily total of 12 services in each direction between Rome and Bologna.
Flixbus, a company founded in the course of the opening of the German intercity bus market also serves routes in Italy both domestic and international.
Airport shuttle buses, however, are highly developed and convenient for rail travellers. Most airports in Italy are not connected to the railway network, except for Rome Fiumicino Airport, Milan Malpensa Airport and Turin Caselle Airport. In Bologna, a light-rail track is under construction to connect Bologna Airport to the main railway station.
Local buses are usually divided into urban (urbano) and suburban (interurbano or extraurbano) lines.
Media related to Transport in Italy at Wikimedia CommonsAutostrade of Italy
The Autostrade (Italian: [autoˈstraːde]; singular autostrada [autoˈstraːda]) are roads forming the Italian national system of motorways. The total length of the system is about 6,758 kilometres (4,199 mi). In North and Central Italy, the Autostrade mainly consists of tollways managed by Atlantia S.p.A. (formerly Autostrade S.p.A.), a holding company controlled by the Benetton family. Other operators include ASTM, ATP, and Autostrade Lombarde in the north-west; Autostrada del Brennero, A4 Holding, Concessioni Autostradali Venete, and Autovie Venete in the north-east; Strada dei Parchi, SALT, SAT, and Autocisa in the center; and CAS in the south all under the supervision of the state-owned ANAS.Azienda Trasporti Milanesi
Azienda Trasporti Milanesi (ATM) is a public company responsible for public transportation in Milan city and some surrounding municipalities, in Italy.
It operates 4 metro lines (Milan Metro), 18 tram lines, 69 urban bus lines, 4 trolleybus lines, and 53 interurban bus lines, carrying over 734 million passengers in 2010.ATM offers also other minor services mainly related to transportation around the city.
These services include Radiobus, an on-call minibus service; the light railway linking the San Raffaele Hospital with the metro network; the Como–Brunate funicular railway; GuidaMi car sharing and BikeMi bike sharing services.Bologna metropolitan railway service
The Bologna metropolitan railway service (Italian: servizio ferroviario metropolitano di Bologna, acronym: SFMBO) is a commuter railway service around the Italian city of Bologna. It is currently under construction.Genoa urban railway service
The Genoa urban railway service is operated by Trenitalia on the lines around the city of Genoa.History of rail transport in Italy
The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km (15,054 mi).Lambretta
Lambretta is the brand name of a line of motor scooters initially manufactured in Milan, Italy, by Innocenti.
The name is derived from the word Lambrate, the suburb of Milan named after the river which flows through the area, and where the factory was located. Lambretta was the name of a mythical water-sprite associated with the river which runs adjacent to the former production site.In 1972, the Indian government bought the machinery of the Milanese factory, creating Scooters India Limited (SIL) in order to produce the Lambro three-wheeler under the name Vikram for the domestic market. Lambretta scooters were also manufactured under licence by Fenwick in France, NSU in Germany, Serveta in Spain, API in India, Yulon in Taiwan, Pasco in Brazil, Auteco in Colombia and Siambretta in Argentina.
Innocenti S.A. (also known as Lambretta Consortium) based in Lugano, Switzerland is the owner of the international trademark Lambretta and has licensed the brand throughout the world.Lancia Esatau
Lancia Esatau is a series of truck and bus chassis produced by Italian manufacturer Lancia Industrial Vehicles from 1947 to 1980. In total Lancia Industrial Vehicles produced 13,362 examples.Lancia Omicron
Lancia Omicron is a bus chassis produced by the Italian manufacturer Lancia. Production of the Omicron started in 1927 and ended in 1936 after 601 total models were built.Potenza metropolitan railway service
The Potenza metropolitan railway service is a commuter rail system operated by Ferrovie Appulo Lucane. It serves the city of Potenza in the region of Basilicata, Italy.Rail transport in Italy
The Italian railway system is one of the most important parts of the infrastructure of Italy, with a total length of 24,227 km (15,054 mi) of which active lines are 16,723 km. The network has recently grown with the construction of the new high-speed rail network.
Italy is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC Country Code for Italy is 83.Thello
Thello is an open-access train operator running international services between France and Italy. Founded in 2011, the company is owned by the Italian state owned railway company Trenitalia.Initially set up as a joint venture between Trenitalia and Transdev, the latter sold 33% holding in Thello to their Italian partner in 2016 giving Trenitalia full control.There is also a restaurant car operated by LSG Sky Chefs, where it is possible to have dinner and breakfast on board.Trams in Florence
The Florence tramway network (Italian: Rete tranviaria di Firenze) is an important part of the public transport network of Florence, Italy. It consists of two operational light rail lines.
Florence, like many other Italian cities, closed down its old tramway network at the end of the 1950s, but has come back to trams in recent years to find a solution to the rising car traffic in the city. The first line in the present network was opened in 2010 to link the city center with the neighboring comune of Scandicci; the second line opened on February 11, 2019, linking the city center with Florence Airport.
The current network operator is GEST (Gestione Servizio tramviario), a public company owned by ATAF (49%) and RATPdev (51%), subsidiary of the French RATP.Trams in Messina
The Messina tramway (Italian: Tranvia di Messina) is a tramway forming part of the public transport system in Messina, a city and comune in the region of Sicily, Italy.
In operation since 2003, the tramway is 7.7 km (4.8 mi) long, and comprises one line, linking Gazzi with Annunziata.Trams in Mestre
The Venice Tramway (Italian: Tranvia di Venezia) is a rubber-tired tramway (or guided bus) system forming part of the public transport system in Venice, Favaro Veneto, Mestre and Marghera, three boroughs of the city and comune of Venice, northeast Italy.
Since 2015, the tramway is connected to Piazzale Roma (the main bus station) in Venice.
The tramway uses Translohr rubber-tyred trams.Trams in Milan
The Milan tramway network (Italian: Rete tranviaria di Milano) is an important part of the public transport network of Milan, Italy.
In operation since 1881, the network is now 181.8 kilometers (113.0 mi) long. It has the unusual track gauge of 1,445 mm (4 ft 8 7⁄8 in) (Italian gauge), and comprises 17 urban lines and one interurban line. As opposed to Milan's Metro system, where no more than two lines ever cross each other at any of the interchange stations, the Milan tram system is substantially centralized, with around half of the tram lines passing by, or terminating by the side or nearby, the Piazza del Duomo at the center of Milan.Trolleybuses in Ancona
The Ancona trolleybus system (Italian: Rete filoviaria di Ancona) forms part of the public transport network of the city and comune of Ancona, in the Marche region, central Italy. In operation since 1949, the system presently comprises only one urban route.Trolleybuses in Milan
The Milan trolleybus system (Italian: Rete filoviaria di Milano) is part of the public transport network of Milan, Italy. In operation since 1933, the system presently comprises four routes.Trolleybuses in Rome
The Rome trolleybus system (Italian: Rete filoviaria di Roma) forms part of the public transport network of the city and comune of Rome, Italy. In operation since 2005, the current system comprises a single route, with both a normal and an express service.
From 1937 to 1972, Rome was served by a much more extensive trolleybus system, which was then the largest in Italy and one of the largest in Europe.Turin metropolitan railway service
The Turin metropolitan railway service (Italian: Servizio Ferroviario Metropolitano) is a commuter rail system serving the metropolitan area of Turin, Italy. The system comprises 8 lines operated by Gruppo Torinese Trasporti and Trenitalia, serving 93 stations.
The core of the system, serving most sfm lines, is the passante ferroviario, an underground tunnel running 8 km through the city from north to south, at a maximum depth of 18 meters. The tunnel permits passengers to travel from Torino Stura station to Torino Lingotto station in 15 minutes.
|List of ports in Italy|
|States with limited|