Transnistrian ruble

The ruble is the currency of Transnistria and is divided into 100 kopecks. Since Transnistria is a state with limited international recognition and considered as part of Moldova, its currency has no ISO 4217 code. However, unofficially some Transnistrian organisations such as Agroprombank and Gazprombank used the code PRB, a code that would otherwise be reserved for Puerto Rico (ISO 3166-1 country code PR). The Trans-Dniester Republican Bank sometimes uses the code RUP.[1]

Transnistrian ruble
rublă transnistreană (in Romanian)
приднестровский рубль (in Russian)
придністровський рубль (in Ukrainian)
Transnistrian ruble notes
2007 issue Transnistrian ruble banknotes
Denominations
Subunit
 1/100kopeck
копейка  (Russian)
copeică  (Romanian)
Pluralrubles
ruble  (Romanian)
The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
 kopeck
копейка  (Russian)
copeică  (Romanian)
kopecks
copeici  (Romanian)
SymbolPridnestrovie ruble sign.svg (commonly руб/р, with occasionally ПМР after it)
Banknotes1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 rubles
Coins1, 5, 10, 25, 50 kopecks and 1, 3, 5 and 10 rubles
Demographics
User(s) Transnistria
Issuance
Central bankTrans-Dniester Republican Bank
 Websitehttp://www.cbpmr.net/
Valuation
Inflation10.83%
 Source"Inflation", Pridnestrovie, 2006

First ruble (1994)

Soviet banknotes were used in the Trans-Dniester Moldavian Republic after its formation in 1990. When the former Soviet republics began issuing their own currencies, Transnistria was flooded with Soviet rubles. In an attempt to protect its financial system, in July 1993 the Transnistrian government bought used Goznak-printed Soviet and Russian notes dated 1961–1992 which it modified by applying adhesive stamps bearing the image of General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, founder of Tiraspol and its corresponding denomination. These stamped notes replaced unstamped Soviet and Russian notes at par. It is thought that most uncirculated notes bearing these stickers were created after 1994 specifically for collectors.[2]

Second ruble (1994–2000)

The first, provisional issues were replaced in August 1994 by a new Transnistrian ruble, equal to 1000 old rubles. This currency consisted solely of banknotes and suffered from high inflation, necessitating the issue of notes overstamped with higher denominations. Although issued in 1994, some notes (50 to 5000 rubles) were issued dated 1993.

Banknotes

1994 Series
Value Dimensions Main Colour Images Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue
1 ruble 125 mm x 57 mm Green 1 Kupon ruble obverse 1 Kupon ruble reverse Alexander Suvorov Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1994
5 rubles Blue 5 Kupon ruble obverse 5 Kupon ruble reverse
10 rubles Red Transnistria 10 Obverse Transnistria 10 Reverse
50 rubles Dull Green 50 Kupon Ruble Obverse 50 Kupon Ruble Reverse Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol 1993 1993
100 rubles Brown 100 Kupon Ruble Obverse 100 Kupon Ruble Reverse
200 rubles Red violet Приднестровские 200 рублей 1993 года. Аверс Приднестровские 200 рублей 1994 года. Реверс Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1993 1994
500 rubles Blue Придн 500 1993 аверс Придн 500 1993 реверс Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1993 1994
1000 rubles Purple and red-violet Приднестровье тысяча рублей 1993 аверс Приднестровье тысяча рублей 1993 реверс Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1993 1994
1000 rubles Purple Приднестровье 1 тысяча рублей 1994 аверс Приднестровье 1 тысяча рублей 1994 реверс Alexander Suvorov Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1994
5000 rubles Black on deep olive-green Приднестровье 5 тысяч рублей 1993 аверс Приднестровье 5 тысяч рублей 1993 реверс Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1993 1995
10,000 rubles Green Приднестровье 10 тысяч рублей 1994 аверс Приднестровье 1 рубль 1994 реверс Alexander Suvorov overprinted on a 1 ruble note with "1oooo" only on front Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1996
10,000 rubles Green Приднестровье 10 тысяч рублей 1998 аверс Приднестровье 10 тысяч рублей 1998 реверс Alexander Suvorov overprinted on a 10 ruble note with "10ooo" on front and back Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1998
50,000 rubles Brown Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1995 аверс Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1995 реверс Bohdan Khmelnytsky Drama and Comedy theatre, Tiraspol 1995 1995
50,000 rubles Blue Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1994 аверс Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1994 реверс Alexander Suvorov overprinted on a 5 ruble note, with a holographic seal containing his equestrian statue in Tiraspol and the value "50000" on front Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1996
50,000 rubles Blue Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1996 аверс Приднестровье 50 тыс. 1996 реверс Alexander Suvorov overprinted on a 5 ruble note with "50ooo" on front and back Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1996
100,000 rubles Red Приднестровье 100 тыс. 1996 аверс Приднестровье 100 тыс. 1996 реверс Alexander Suvorov overprinted on a 10 ruble note with "100ooo" on front and back Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1994 1996
500,000 rubles Purple on yellow Приднестровье 500 тысяч рублей 1997 аверс Приднестровье 500 тысяч рублей 1997 реверс Equestrian Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol Transnistrian Supreme Soviet 1997 1997

Third ruble (2000–present)

In 2000, a new ruble was introduced at a rate of 1 new ruble = 1,000,000 old rubles. This new currency consists of both coins and banknotes.

Coins

1 copeică RMN 2000 obverse

1 kopeck obverse

1 copeică RMN 2000 reverse

1 kopeck reverse

10 copeici RMN 2000 obverse

10 kopecks obverse

Monedas Rublo de Transnistria

all 2000 coins

5-kopejek-PMR

5 kopecks, 2005

10 kopejek PMR

10 kopecks, 2005

2015-2017-1-und-3-Rubel-Prednistrojen-Kursmuenzen

1 and 3 Rubles 2015/2017

Coins are of 1 to 50 kopecks and are made from aluminium or copper-zinc and are similar to Soviet-era coinage. The 1 kopeck coins were withdrawn from circulation in January 2009.

On August 22, 2014, the Transnistrian Republican Bank issued coins made of composite materials and come in denominations of 1-, 3-, 5- and 10 rubles.[3][4]

2014-1-Rubel-Prednistrojen-Kursmuenze-Avers

1 Ruble

3 Transnistrischer Rubel plastik vor

3 Rubles

5 Transnistrischer Rubel plastik vor

5 Rubles

10 Transnistrischer Rubel plastik vor

10 Rubles

Commemorative coins

Vershigora-coin
Commemorative coin depicting Pyotr Vershigora

Since 2000 the Transnistrian Republican Bank has issued a large number of commercial commemorative coins made from silver and gold. Their mintage numbers were very low, ranging between 500 and 5,000. Topics included for example "Ancient fortresses on the river Dniester", "The Outstanding people Transdniestria" and "Red book Transdniestria". A complete listing can be found on the website ([1]) of the Transnistrian Republican Bank.

Mint

When it was founded, Transnistria did not have its own mint. Thus a foreign mint had to be found to strike Transnistrian coins. The Mint of Poland (Mennica Polska) in Warsaw was selected.[5] Coins dated 2000 were struck in Warsaw and transported via Ukraine to Transnistria in trucks belonging to the Transnistrian Republican Bank.

The Moldovan government was not pleased with this situation, since they viewed it as a de facto recognition of Transnistria. In October 2001 Moldovan president Vladimir Voronin addressed the issue with his Polish counterpart.[6]

The Polska Mennica (Mint of Poland) responded to the criticism by stating that because the Transnistrian ruble is not internationally recognized as a currency, they were producing tokens and not coins, which is normal business for mints.[7]

The conflict came to a height when in December 2004 Ukrainian customs confiscated a truck with US$117,000 worth of Transnistrian coins near Lviv. The coins were handed over to Moldovan authorities, who in response again protested with the Polish government.

The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs en state property wrote another letter to Polska Mennica (Mint of Poland) in April 2005. They warned that continued production of Transnistrian coins would endanger relations with Ukraine and Moldova and damage the image of Poland abroad. The Polska Mennica (Mint of Poland) bowed to the pressure and cancelled its contract with Transnistria that same month.

For Transnistria there was then no other solution but to strike future coins themselves. Thus on 18 November 2005 the Tiraspol Mint (Тираспольский монетный двор) was opened in the presence of President Igor Smirnov.

Banknotes

Notes are issued by the Transnistrian Republican Bank (Приднестровский Республиканский Банк) in 2000 as part of a currency reform, with 1 ruble equal to 1 million (1,000,000) of the old rubles. The notes come in denominations of 1-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200 and 500 rubles.

2000 Series

2000 Series
Value Dimensions Main Colour Images Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue
1 ruble 129 × 56 mm Orange Pmr-money-rouble-1-obv Pmr-money-rouble-1-rev Alexander Suvorov Chițcani monument 2000 2000
5 rubles Blue Pmr-money-rouble-5-obv Pmr-money-rouble-5-rev KVINT brandy factory
10 rubles Brown Pmr-money-rouble-10-obv Pmr-money-rouble-10-rev Novo-Nyametsky Monastery
25 rubles Red 25 PMR 2000 ruble obverse 25 PMR 2000 ruble reverse Bender Castle
50 rubles 129 × 60 mm Green 50 PMR 2000 ruble obverse 50 PMR 2000 ruble reverse Taras Shevchenko Presidential palace / government building in Tiraspol
100 rubles Purple 100 PMR 2000 ruble obverse 100 PMR 2000 ruble reverse Dimitrie Cantemir The Cathedral of Christmas, Tiraspol
200 rubles 135 × 64 mm Dark brown 200 PMR 2004 ruble obverse 200 PMR 2004 ruble reverse Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, July 21, 1757 2004 2004
2012
500 rubles 140 × 68 mm Dull green 500 PMR 2004 ruble obverse 500 PMR 2004 ruble reverse Catherine II The decree of the creation of Tiraspol by Catherine II, and the plan of a fortress

2007 Series

In 2007 a new series replaced the above banknotes of denominations 1 to 100 rubles. The new notes have the same themes but a new design.

2007 Series
Value Dimensions Main Colour Images Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue
1 ruble 129 × 55 mm Brown 1 PMR ruble obverse 1 PMR ruble reverse Alexander Suvorov Chiţcani monument 2007 2007
2012
5 rubles Blue 5 PMR ruble obverse 5 PMR ruble reverse KVINT brandy factory
10 rubles Green/Black 10 PMR ruble obverse 10 PMR ruble reverse Novo-Nyametsky Monastery
25 rubles Red 25 PMR ruble obverse 25 PMR ruble reverse Bender Castle
50 rubles 129 x 56 mm Cyan 50 PMR ruble obverse 50 PMR ruble reverse Taras Shevchenko Presidential palace / government building in Tiraspol
100 rubles Purple 100 PMR ruble obverse 100 PMR ruble reverse Dimitrie Cantemir The Cathedral of Christmas, Tiraspol

Exchange rates

The currency is de facto pegged to the United States dollar. The central bank determines each work day whether or not it is appropriate to devalue the currency against the U.S. dollar.

As of 20th of March 2019 [8] (Transnistrian rubles per foreign currency unit)

  • U.S. dollar: 16.1000 rubles
  • Euro: 18.2816 rubles
  • Russian ruble: 0.2503 rubles
  • Moldovan leu: 0.9169 rubles

On 11 February 2009 the exchange rate was set to 9 rubles per dollar. It was changed to 9.40 rubles on 5 March 2010, 9.80 on 24 September 2010, and 10.20 on 14 December 2010. By 2013, the value of the ruble had dropped to 11.10 rubles per dollar. This was further changed to 11.30 per dollar on 16 March 2016. On 17 June 2017, the currency was devalued to 15 rubles per dollar. It was set to 16 per dollar on 12 January 2018. The most recent change was made on 5 April 2018, when it was set to 16.10 rubles per dollar.

Acceptance outside Transnistria

The Transnistrian Ruble is generally not accepted as currency outside of Transnistria, though some bus companies with connections to Tiraspol accept Transnistrian rubles at the Chișinău bus station as well as local shops in Varnița. Also due to the Ukrainian crisis and lack of demand for Transnistrian rubles being accepted in the Kuchurgan market.

References

  1. ^ Условия проведения операций "валютный своп" USD/RUP (in Russian), Trans-Dniester Republican Bank, retrieved 2011-09-21
  2. ^ Trans-Dniester Republican Bank. Available at:http://www.cbpmr.net/?id=33&lang=en
  3. ^ Transnistria 2014 - New coin family in synthetic material World Coin News (worldcoinnews.blogspot.com). Retrieved on 2014-08-22.
  4. ^ Official poster of Transnistrian Republican Bank with images and description.
  5. ^ http://wyborcza.pl/1,75248,2490728.html
  6. ^ http://www.transnistria.info/independent-transnistria-news/tiraspol-designated-the-arrest-of-a-batch-of-the-transdniestrian-coins-as-a-provocation.html
  7. ^ http://www.mennica.com.pl/dla-inwestorow/sprawozdania-rn.html, sprawozdania Rady Nadzorczej Mennicy (2005).
  8. ^ https://www.cbpmr.net/?lang=en

External links

Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка); sign: KM; code: BAM) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 pfenigs or fenings (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: pfenig/fening; Cyrillic: пфениг/фенинг), and locally abbreviated KM.

Coinage metals

The coinage metals comprise, at a minimum, those metallic chemical elements which have historically been used as components in alloys used to mint coins. The term is not perfectly defined, however, since a number of metals have been used to make "demonstration coins" which have never been used to make monetized coins for any nation-state, but could be. Some of these elements would make excellent coins in theory (for example, zirconium), but their status as coin metals is not clear. In general, because of problems caused when coin metals are intrinsically valuable as commodities, there has been a trend in the 21st century toward use of coinage metals of only the least exotic and expensive types.

Convertibility

Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value. Convertibility is an important factor in international trade, where instruments valued in different currencies must be exchanged.

Croatian kuna

The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (sign: kn; code: HRK). It is subdivided into 100 lipa. The kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute.

The word "kuna" means "marten" in Croatian, referring to the historical use of marten pelts as units of value in medieval trading. The word lipa means "linden (lime) tree", a species that was traditionally planted around marketplaces in Croatia and elsewhere in the Austro-Hungarian Empire during the early modern period.

Dimitrie Cantemir

Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (Romanian pronunciation: [diˈmitri.e kanteˈmir] (listen); 1673–1723), also known by other spellings, was a Moldavian soldier, statesman, and man of letters. He was twice voivode of Moldavia (March–April 1693 and 1710–1711). During his second term, he allied his state with Russia in their war against Moldavia's Ottoman overlords; Russia's defeat forced Cantemir's family into exile and the replacement of the native voivodes by the Greek phanariots. Cantemir was also a prolific writer, variously a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. His son Antioch, Russia's ambassador to Great Britain and France and a friend of Montesquieu and Voltaire, would go on to be known as "the father of Russian poetry".

ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables:

Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list

Table A.2 – Current funds codes

Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies & fundsThe tables, history and ongoing discussion are maintained by SIX Interbank Clearing on behalf of ISO and the Swiss Association for Standardization.The ISO 4217 code list is used in banking and business globally. In many countries the ISO codes for the more common currencies are so well known publicly that exchange rates published in newspapers or posted in banks use only these to delineate the currencies, instead of translated currency names or ambiguous currency symbols. ISO 4217 codes are used on airline tickets and international train tickets to remove any ambiguity about the price.

KVINT

KVINT (acronym for Kon’iaki, vina i napitki Tiraspol’ia ("divins, wines, and beverages of Tiraspol")) is a winery and distillery based in Tiraspol, the administrative center of Transnistria. Founded in 1897, the company produced only vodka until 1938, when it began producing brandies. It is the oldest still-operating commercial enterprise in the region. Locals consider KVINT a national treasure and a symbol of their country. Its factory is shown on the 5 Transnistrian ruble banknote.

KVINT is one of Transnistria's largest exporters, to Italy and China as well as Russia and Ukraine; its brandy has gone to the Vatican and into space.Transnistria lies east of the Dniester River, in the heart of the Bessarabian wine country. The grapes grown here are Cognac variety. KVINT's award-winning Prince Wittgenstein brandy incorporates "Bianca, Aligoté, Pervenets of Magarach [Pervenet Magaracea], Riesling, Riton, Suruchensky White, Ugni Blanc, [and] Colombard" grapes. The company also grows traditionally European red grapes, such as "Malbec, Ancelotti, Saperavi, Viognier, [and] Syrah (Shiraz)."The company was privatized in 2006 and is owned by the conglomerate Sheriff Ltd. Bottles are labeled "Made in Moldova" because Transnistria, landlocked inside Moldova, is not recognized as a sovereign country and bottles must be printed with the name of a country of origin. Its annual production is approximately ten million litres of alcoholic drinks. In 2014 its annual revenues were about $50 million, about 5% of Transnistria's GDP.KVINT obtained ISO 9001-94 certification in 2000 and ISO 9001-2000 in 2003. The factory is one of only a few enterprises in the former Soviet Union which can assure a kosher production process. Daily tours on weekdays at 15:00 local time (conducted in English and Russian) are undertaken, and end with a sampling of six kinds of brandy.

Kopek

Kopek or Köpek may refer to:

Kopek (band), an Irish rock band

Sa'd al-Din Köpek (died 1240), court administrator under Seljuq Sultans of Rum

Islak Köpek, a Turkish free improvisation band

Kopek, also spelled kopeck or copeck in English, 1/100 of the following currencies:

Russian ruble (kopeyka, plural kopeyki)

Belarusian ruble (kapeyka, plural kapeyki)

Ukrainian hryvnia (kopiyka, plural kopiyki)

Transnistrian ruble (kopiyka, plural kopiyki)

Köpek (film), a 2015 Swiss-Kurdish film by Esen Işık

List of circulating currencies

This list contains the 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations (UN) member states, UN observer states, partially recognized or unrecognized states, and their dependencies. However excluding the pegged (fixed exchange rate) currencies, there are only 130 currencies (which are independent or pegged to a currency basket). Dependencies and unrecognized states are listed here only if another currency is used in their territory that is different from the one of the state that administers them or has jurisdiction over them.

List of currencies

A list of all currencies, current and historic. The local name of the currency is used in this list, with the adjectival form of the country or region.

List of currencies in Europe

There are 25 currencies currently used in the 50 countries of Europe, all of which are members of the United Nations, except Vatican City, which is an observer. All de facto present currencies in Europe, and an incomplete list of the preceding currency, are listed here.

A currency is a medium of exchange, such as money, banknotes, and coins. In Europe, the most commonly used currency is the euro (used by 25 countries); any country entering the European Union (EU) is expected to join the eurozone when they meet the five convergence criteria. Denmark is the only EU member which has been granted an exemption from using the euro. Sweden has also not adopted the Euro, although unlike Denmark, it has not formally opted out; instead, it fails to meet the ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism) which results in the non-use of the Euro. For countries which hope to join the eurozone, there are five guidelines that need to be followed, grouped in the Maastricht criteria.The pound sterling, used by the United Kingdom, is rated at fourth on Investopedia's list of the top 8 most tradable currencies, saying that it is a "little bit more volatile than the euro". It was ranked just ahead of the Swiss franc, ranked fifth, which is used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein, saying that the set up of the Swiss banking "emphasizes the economic and financial stability policies dictated by the governing board of the SNB". Both are in the top 8 major currencies on Bloomberg. Several countries use currencies which translate as "crown": the Czech koruna, the Norwegian krone, the Danish krone, the Icelandic króna, and the Swedish krona.At present, the euro is legal tender in 19 out of 28 European Union member states, in addition to 5 countries not part of the EU (Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City, Andorra and Montenegro). Kosovo also uses the euro, but is only partially recognised as an independent state.

Moldovan leu

The leu (sign: L; ISO 4217 code: MDL) is the currency of Moldova. Like the Romanian leu, the Moldovan leu (plural: lei) is subdivided into 100 bani (singular: ban). The name of the currency originates from a Romanian word which means "lion".

Orthodox Temples (Transnistria)

Orthodox Temples is the name of a series of commemorative coins issued in Transnistria in 2001 by the Transnistrian Republican Bank.

According to official information from the Bank, the coins were issued in remembrance of the many churches which were "destroyed in times of persecutions" of the Church [during the Soviet time] and, as such, the series was devoted to restored and reconstructed sacred edifices.The series consists of gold and silver coins featuring images of the following Russian Orthodox churches within the Diocese of Tiraspol (Transnistria):

Church of the Blessed Virgin's Assumption (Vărăncău village)

Church of the Blessed Virgin's Protection (Valea Adâncă village)

Cathedral of God's Ascension (Chiţcani village)

Cathedral of the Birth of Christ (Tiraspol city)

Cathedral of Transfiguration (Bender city)

Church of the Blessed Virgin's Birth (Vadul-Turcului village)

Church of Paraskeva the Serbian (Zăzuleni village)

Church of the Lifegiving Trinity (Raşcov village)

Church of St Michael the Archangel (Stroieşti village)

Qapik

The qapik (Azerbaijani: qəpik pronounced [ɡæˈpiç]) is a monetary unit of Azerbaijan, equal to ​1⁄100 of the Azerbaijani manat. The 2006 currency denomination of the manat introduced 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-qapik coins into circulation.

The 1, 3 and 5 qapik are made of copper-covered steel. The 10 and 20 qapik are of brass-covered steel, and the 50 qapik is bicolor.The word qəpik comes from the Russian word kopek (копе́к) which means "spear", and which was a Russian coin since the time of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century, and is now the monetary subunit of the Russian ruble, Ukrainian hryvnia, Belarusian ruble and the Transnistrian ruble.

Ruble

The ruble or rouble (; Russian: рубль, IPA: [rublʲ]) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia. Originally, the ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and then the Soviet Union (as the Soviet ruble), and it is currently the currency unit of Russia (as the Russian ruble) and Belarus (as the Belarussian ruble). The Russian ruble is also used in two regions of Georgia, which are considered by Russia as partially recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were also named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks (Russian: копейка, IPA: [kɐˈpʲejkə]).

Transnistria

Transnistria, or Transdniestria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, is a primarily unrecognised state that split off from Moldova after the dissolution of the USSR and mostly consists of a narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the territory of Ukraine. Transnistria has been recognised only by

three other mostly non-recognised states: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia. The region is considered by the UN to be part of Moldova.

Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status (Romanian: Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria), or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between Moldova and the breakaway Transnistrian territory escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year. As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, currency and vehicle registration. Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem and coat of arms. It is the only country still using the hammer and sickle on its flag.

After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities. This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) took force in 2005. Most Transnistrians also have Moldovan citizenship, but many Transnistrians also have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship. The main ethnic groups in 2015 were Russians (34%), Moldovans (33%), and Ukrainians (26.7%).

Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Artsakh are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones. These four partially recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.

Transnistria autonomous territorial unit

Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, officially The Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester (Romanian: Unitățile Administrativ-Teritoriale din stînga Nistrului (Transnistria); Russian: Административно-территориальные единицы левобережья Днестра (Приднестровья); Ukrainian: Автономне територіальне утворення з особливим правовим статусом Придністров'я) is a formal administrative unit of Moldova established by the Government of Moldova to delineate the territory controlled by the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

Transnistrian Republican Bank

The Transnistrian Republican Bank is the central bank of Transnistria. It issues its own currency, the Transnistrian ruble and also a series of memorable gold- and silver coins, among them The Outstanding People of Pridnestrovie.

In October 2006, the bank inaugurated a new headquarters of a size of 40,000 square feet (3,700 m2) in Tiraspol.

Currencies of Europe
European Union
Eastern
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Currencies of post-Soviet states
In circulation
Obsolete
Currencies named ruble or similar
Circulating
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