Transborder agglomeration

A transborder agglomeration is an agglomeration or conurbation that extends into multiple territories, countries or states.

List of transborder agglomerations


Main municipalities Countries Total population
Kinshasa-Brazzaville Democratic Republic of the Congo-Republic of the Congo 12,000,000
Goma-Gisenyi Democratic Republic of the Congo-Rwanda 1,000,000
Lomé-Aflao Togo-Ghana 1,100,000
N'djamena-Kousséri Chad-Cameroon 1,200,000


Main municipalities Countries Total population
Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni - Albina French Guiana (France), Suriname
Saint-Georges-de-l'Oyapock - Oiapoque French Guiana (France), Brazil
Santana do Livramento - Rivera Brazil, Uruguay
Chuí - Chuy Brazil, Uruguay 15,592[1][2]
Corumbá - Puerto Suárez Brazil, Bolivia
Leticia - Tabatinga - Santa Rosa Colombia - Brazil - Peru
Ponta Porã - Pedro Juan Caballero Brazil, Paraguay
Foz do Iguaçu - Ciudad del Este - Puerto Iguazu Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina 800,000
Bernardo de Irigoyen - Barracão - Dionísio Cerqueira Argentina, Brazil
Uruguaiana - Paso de los Libres Brazil, Argentina
Cúcuta - San Antonio del Táchira Colombia, Venezuela 700,000 [3]
Metro Vancouver - Fraser Valley - Whatcom County United States, Canada 3,050,000
Detroit-Windsor United States, Canada 5,700,000
Port Huron - Sarnia/Point Edward United States, Canada 105,776
International Falls - Fort Frances United States, Canada 15,000
Buffalo - Fort Erie - Niagara Falls NY - Niagara Falls ON United States, Canada 2,100,000
Sault Ste. Marie - Sault Ste. Marie United States, Canada
San Diego–Tijuana United States, Mexico 5,105,769[4]
Calexico - Mexicali United States, Mexico
San Luis - San Luis Río Colorado United States, Mexico
Lukeville - Sonoyta United States, Mexico
Sasabe - Sáric United States, Mexico
Nogales - Nogales United States, Mexico
Naco - Naco United States, Mexico
Douglas - Agua Prieta United States, Mexico
El Paso–Juárez United States, Mexico 2,500,000[5]
Presidio - Ojinaga United States, Mexico
Del Rio - Ciudad Acuña United States, Mexico
Eagle Pass - Piedras Negras United States, Mexico
Laredo–Nuevo Laredo United States, Mexico 775,481[6]
Rio Grande City - Camargo United States, Mexico
Reynosa–McAllen Metropolitan Area United States, Mexico 1,500,000[7]
Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area United States, Mexico 1,136,995[8]


Main municipalities Countries Total population
Astara - Astara Iran, Azerbaijan 100,000
Basra - Khorramshahr - Abadan Iraq - Iran 2,000,000
Blagoveshchensk - Heihe Russia - China 400,000
Dandong - Sinuiju China, North Korea 1,000,000
Dhahran - Jubail - Manama Saudi Arabia - Bahrain 2,000,000
Fergana - Kyzyl-Kiya Uzbekistan - Tajikistan 300,000
Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hong Kong - China (Mainland) 19,000,000
Sijori (Singapore - Johor Bahru - Batam - Bintan) Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia 9,000,000
Jerusalem - Bethlehem - Ramallah Palestine, Israel 1,000,000
Kara-Suu - Qorasuv Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan 40,000
Lahore - Amritsar Pakistan - India 12,000,000
Macau - Zhuhai - Jiangmen Macau - China (Mainland) 3,000,000
Mukdahan - Savannakhet Thailand - Laos 200,000
Padang Besar - Padang Besar Malaysia, Thailand 20,000
Tashkent - Saryagash Uzbekistan - Kazakhstan 3,000,000 [9]
Vientiane - Nong Khai Laos - Thailand 900,000


Main municipalities Countries Total population
Greater Copenhagen Denmark, Sweden 3,964,522
Baarle-Hertog - Baarle-Nassau Belgium, Netherlands 9,262
Basel - Huningue - Weil am Rhein (Regio TriRhena) Switzerland, France, Germany 2,400,000
Bourg-Madame - Puigcerdà France, Spain
Como - Chiasso Italy, Switzerland
Saarbrücken - Forbach France, Germany 700,000
Geneva - Annemasse - Ferney-Voltaire - Nyon (France-Vaud-Geneva basin or Grand Genève) Switzerland, France 890,000
Gorizia - Nova Gorica Italy, Slovenia
Görlitz - Zgorzelec Germany, Poland 85,000
Guben - Gubin Germany, Poland 35,000
Hendaye - Irun France, Spain
Ivangorod - Narva Russia, Estonia 69,000
Katowice - Ostrava (the Upper Silesian metropolitan area) Poland, Czech Republic 5,300,000
Komárno - Komárom Slovakia, Hungary 56,000
Le Perthus - Els Límits France, Spain 700
Lille - Roubaix - Tourcoing - Mouscron - Tournai - Kortrijk France, Belgium 1,850,000
Longwy - Aubange - Pétange France, Belgium, Luxembourg 80,000
Strasbourg - Kehl France, Germany 700,000
Konstanz - Kreuzlingen Germany, Switzerland 110,000
Kerkrade - Herzogenrath Netherlands, Germany 95,000
Frankfurt (Oder) - Słubice Germany, Poland 75,000
Haparanda - Tornio Sweden, Finland 32,000
Pello - Pello Sweden, Finland 4,500
Karesuando - Karesuvanto Sweden, Finland 500
Imatra - Svetogorsk Finland, Russia 45,000
Rousse - Giurgiu Bulgaria, Romania 250,000
Lifford - Strabane Ireland, United Kingdom 18,500
Valka - Valga Latvia, Estonia 20,000
Szczecin Poland, Germany 763,321

See also


  1. ^ "IBGE Cidades (Brazil's Census 2010)".
  2. ^ "INE (Uruguay's Census 2011)".
  3. ^ "...que une ambas ciudades formando una conurbación, los 650.000 habitantes de Cúcuta y los 50.000 de San Antonio supieron que comenzaban tiempos difíciles."
  4. ^ "San Diego - Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 2007-10-01. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  5. ^ "The 411 - Fascinating Facts". Guest Life: El Paso/Juarez and Southern New Mexico. Retrieved 17 Feb 2010.
  6. ^ "Nuevo Laredo Metro area". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  7. ^ "McAllen Overview". McAllen Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  8. ^ "Matamoros-Brownsville". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Central Asian cities are overgrown with slums". "". Retrieved 12 May 2017.

Annemasse (French pronunciation: ​[anmas]) is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a chef-lieu de canton and part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève.

It lies near the border with Switzerland, approximately 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east of Geneva. It is the second largest city in the Haute-Savoie department with 35,042 residents in 2017.


A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.The term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the then new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, and gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States.The term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is often used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation." A conurbation should also be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed.

Cross-border town naming

Cross-border town naming occurs where towns or villages with the same or equivalent names are divided between two different countries. This does not necessarily imply that those towns or villages are located in geographic proximity or that they are located near a current border (divided cities). Reasons for this taking place may include the following:

The town or village existed before the border or even before the modern concept of a border. The border was added later (sometimes by war), dividing a community.

A community on one side of a border grows up to service the border and then takes the name of the adjacent community on the other side of the border.

Communities grow up on both sides of the border to service the border, taking the name of the border crossing.Most places are in Europe, but there are also some examples in North America and Asia. In Europe, until the first half of the 20th century and again since the Schengen Agreement in the late 20th century, such divisions could be mostly ignored by the inhabitants.


The Detroit–Windsor region is an international transborder agglomeration comprising the American city of Detroit, Michigan, the Canadian city of Windsor, Ontario, and the Detroit River between them. The Detroit–Windsor area acts as a critical commercial link straddling the Canada–United States border and has a total population of about 5,700,000. It is North America's largest cross-border conurbation.

The Detroit–Windsor area covers the southeastern Michigan counties of St. Clair, Macomb, Lapeer, Genesee, Livingston, Oakland, Washtenaw, Monroe and Wayne; as well as the Southern Ontario City of Windsor and counties of Essex, Lambton, and Kent.

El Paso–Juárez

El Paso–Juárez, also known as Juárez–El Paso, the Borderplex or Paso del Norte, is a binational metropolitan area, or conurbation, on the border between Mexico and the United States. The region is centered on two large cities: Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico and El Paso, Texas, U.S. Additionally, nearby Las Cruces, New Mexico, U.S. is sometimes included as part of the region, referred to as El Paso–Juárez–Las Cruces or El Paso–Juárez–Southern New Mexico. With over 2.7 million people, this binational region is the 2nd largest metropolitan area (San Diego–Tijuana being the largest) on the United States–Mexico border. The El Paso–Juárez region is the largest bilingual, binational work force in the Western Hemisphere.This region is commonly subdivided into the Juárez Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana de Juárez) and greater El Paso, as well as greater Las Cruces. These sub-regions are typically divided by state borders: Chihuahua, Texas, and New Mexico.

Grand Genève

The Grand Genève (Greater Geneva in English) is an agglomeration that extends in Switzerland (canton of Geneva, le district of Nyon) and France (parts of Haute-Savoie and Ain) around the city of Geneva. It has 946,000 inhabitants (2015).

List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries

This is a list of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries. Excluded from list are city-states being part of the overlap. One example of that would be Rome since Vatican City is isolated within Italy.

Léman Express

The Léman Express, is a planned commuter rail network for the transborder agglomeration of Grand Genève (Greater Geneva) in west Switzerland and the French Alps (Haute-Savoie).

At the heart of the Léman Express system will be the CEVA rail project linking Eaux Vives station with Cornavin station in Geneva. This new line, largely underground, is due to open in December 2019.

The local rail network in Geneva consists of two short lines and is not really comparable to the 'RER'/S-Bahn networks of major cities. But in 1994, local trains between La Plaine (in Dardagny) and Geneva's central Cornavin station were branded as the Rhône Express Régional (abbreviated to 'RER'), similar to Paris' (Réseau Express Régional), using tram-trains derived from those on Lausanne métro's line M1. These special vehicles were required on the line as it was electrified using 1,500 Volts direct current, unlike the 15,000 Volts alternating current rest of the Swiss Federal Railway network. Local trains to Bellegarde-sur-Valserine (in France) joined the network on 3 December 2001. The line was subsequently upgraded to the standard 25 kV AC electrification (as used on much of the French railways) in conjunction with the development of the Léman Express system.

When the Léman Express will be opened, the cities of Evian, Thonon, Annemasse and Annecy as well as the population of the Arve valley up to Saint-Gervais-les-Bains could be served with direct services from Genève-Cornavin railway station, so the future Geneva RER might have up to five lines.


A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

San Diego

San Diego (; Spanish for "Saint Didacus"; Spanish: [san ˈdjeɣo]) is a city in the U.S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, approximately 120 miles (190 km) south of Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico.

With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U.S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center.

San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Historically home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.

The city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, and manufacturing. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology.


Sciez is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Sciez forms part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève (Greater Geneva).


Thonon-les-Bains (French pronunciation: ​[tɔ.nɔ̃.lɛ.bɛ̃]; Arpitan: Tonon) is a town (commune) in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Thonon is part of a transborder agglomeration known as Grand Genève. The town is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman, or simply Le Léman).


Transborder may refer to:

Transborder agglomeration, a conurbation that extends into multiple territories.

Transborder Express, a bus company based in Canberra, Australia.

Trans-Border Institute, an institute at the University of San Diego, United States.

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