Trailokya

Trailokya (Sanskrit: त्रैलोक्य; Pali: tiloka, Wylie: khams gsum) has been translated as "three worlds,"[1][2][3][4][5] "three spheres,"[3] "three planes of existence,"[6] "three realms"[6] and "three regions."[4] These three worlds are identified in Hinduism and appear in early Buddhist texts.

In Buddhist cosmology

In Buddhism, the three worlds refer the following destinations for karmic rebirth:

  • Kāmaloka is the world of desire, typified by base desires, populated by hell beings, preta, animals, ghosts, humans and lower demi-gods.
  • Rūpaloka is the world of form, predominately free of baser desires, populated by dhyāna-dwelling gods, possible rebirth destination for those well practiced in dhyāna.
  • Arūpaloka is the world of formlessness, a noncorporeal realm populated with four heavens, possible rebirth destination for practitioners of the four formlessness stages.[3]

Theosophical views

According to Helena Blavatsky's posthumously published Theosophical Glossary (1892):

  • Kamaloka (or kamadhatu) is the world of Mara. Kamaloka has, like every other world, its seven divisions, the lowest of which begins on earth or invisibly in its atmosphere; the six others ascend gradually, the highest being the abode of those who have died owing to accident, or suicide in a fit of temporary insanity, or were otherwise victims of external forces. It is a place where all those who have died before the end of the term allotted to them, and whose higher principles do not, therefore, go at once into Devachanic state—sleep a dreamless sweet sleep of oblivion, at the termination of which they are either reborn immediately, or pass gradually into the Devachanic state.
  • Rupaloka (or rupadhatu) is the celestial world of "form" (rupa), or what we call "Devachan." With the uninitiated Brahmans, Chinese and other Buddhists, the Rupadhatu is divided into eighteen Brahma or Devalokas; the life of a soul therein lasts from half a Yuga up to 16,000 Yugas or Kalpas, and the height of the "Shades" is from half a Yojana up to 16,000 Yojanas (where a Yojana measures from five and a half to ten miles). Esoteric Philosophy teaches that though for the Egos for the time being, everything or everyone preserves its form (as in a dream), yet as Rupadhatu is a purely matter world, and a state, the Egos themselves have no form outside their own consciousness. Esotericism divides this world into seven Dhyanas, "regions", or states of contemplation, which are not localities but mental representations of these.
  • Arupaloka (or arupadhatu) is a world that is again divided into seven Dhyanas, still more abstract and formless, for this "World" is without any form or desire whatever. It is the highest world of the post-mortem Trailokya; and as it is the abode of those who are almost ready for Nirvana, and is, in fact, the very threshold of the Nirvanic state, it stands to reason that in Anupadhatu (or Arupavachara) there can be neither form nor sensation, nor any feeling connected with our three-dimensional Universe.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Monier-Williams (1899), p. 460, col. 1, entry for "[Tri-]loka" (retrieved at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0460-trimala.pdf) and p. 462, col. 2, entry for "Trailoya" (retrieved at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0462-tripu.pdf).
  2. ^ Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 301, entry for "Ti-" (retrieved at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.1:129.pali). Here, tiloka is compared with tebhūmaka ("three planes").
  3. ^ a b c Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 230, entry for "Triloka." Here, synonyms for triloka include trailokya and traidhātuka.
  4. ^ a b c Blavatsky (1892), pp. 336-7, entry for "Trailokya" (retrieved at http://www.phx-ult-lodge.org/ATUVWXYZ.htm#t).
  5. ^ Purucker (1999), entry for "Trailokya" (retrieved at http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/etgloss/tho-tre.htm).
  6. ^ a b Berzin (2008) renders khams-gsum (Wylie; Tibetan) and tridhatu (Sanskrit) as "three planes of existence" and states that it is "[s]ometimes called 'the three realms.'" Tridhatu is a synonym of triloka where dhatu may be rendered as "dimension" or "realm" and loka as "world" or even "planet."

Sources

  • Berzin, Alexander (March 6, 2008). Berzin Archives Glossary. Retrieved Sunday July 13, 2008 from "Berzin Archives" at http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/about/glossary/glossary_tibetan.html.
  • Blavatsky, H.P. (1892). Theosophical Glossary. London: Theosophical Publishing Society. Retrieved 2008-07-14 from "The Theosophical Glossary (United Lodge of Theosophists, Phoenix, Arizona)" at http://theosophicalglossary.net/.
  • Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, Michael S. Diener and Michael H. Kohn (trans.) (1991). The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-520-4.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1899, 1964). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-864308-X. Retrieved 2008-07-13 from "Cologne University" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/index.php?sfx=pdf.
  • Purucker, G. de (ed.-in-chief) (1999). Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary: A Resource on Theosophy. Theosophical University Press. Retrieved from "The Theosophical Society" at http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/etgloss/etg-hp.htm.
  • Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. Retrieved 2008-07-13 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
  • W. E. Soothill & L. Hodous (1937-2000). A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0319-1.

External links

Christopher Charles Benninger

Christopher Charles Benninger is an American-Indian architect and planner.

Dapodi

Dapodi (दापोडी in Marathi) is a neighborhood in the Pune Metropolitan Area. It is located in the northwest area of the city. Dapodi is situated on the banks of Pavana river and Mula River.

The neighbourhood lies on National Highway 48 (India). It is served by Dapodi railway station which falls on Mumbai–Chennai line. The railway station opened in 1858.

Earlier a small village, Dapodi has been transformed into an urban area.

Desire realm

The desire realm (Sanskrit: kāmadhātu) is one of the trailokya or three realms (Sanskrit: dhātu, Tibetan: khams) in Buddhist cosmology into which a being wandering in saṃsāra may be reborn. The other two are the form realm, (Sanskrit rūpadhātu) and the formless realm (S. ārūpadhātu).Within the desire realm are either five or six domains (Sanskrit: gati, also sometimes translated as "realm"). In Tibetan Buddhism, there are six domains (Wylie: rigs drug gi skye gnas) and in Theravada Buddhism there are only five, because the domain of the Asuras is not regarded as separate from that of the Nāgas.

The five realms are also found in Taoism and Jainism.The Śūraṅgama Sūtra in Mahayana Buddhism regarded the 10 kinds of Xian as separate immortal realms between the Deva and human realms.The six domains of the desire realm are also known as the "six paths of suffering", the "six planes", and the "six lower realms". In schools of thought that use the ten realms system, these six domains are often contrasted negatively with the "four higher realms" of Śrāvaka, Pratyekabuddha, Bodhisattva and full Buddha, which are considered to be the spiritual goals of the different Buddhist traditions.

A being's Karma (previous actions and thoughts) determines which of the six domains it will be reborn into. A sentient being may also ascend to one of the higher realms beyond the six domains of the desire realm by practicing various types of meditation, specifically the Eight Dhyānas.

The 8th century Buddhist monument Borobudur in Central Java incorporated the trailokya into the architectural design with the plan of mandala that took the form of a stepped stone pyramid crowned with stupas.

Dhir Shamsher Rana

Dhir Shamsher Kunwar (1828 – 1884 Kathmandu) after 1848 known as Dhir Shamsher Kunwar Ranaji (Nepali: धीर शम्शेर कुँवर राणाजी) or Dhir Shamsher Jang Kunwar Ranaji or shortly Dhir Shamsher Rana posthumously known as Dhir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana was a Nepalese politician, army general and minister of state. He served as the Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese Army from 1879 to 1884 A.D. He was born in Kunwar family as the youngest son of Kaji Bal Narsingh Kunwar and Ganesh Kumari Thapa, daughter of Kaji Nain Singh Thapa of Thapa dynasty. Dhir Shamsher was the youngest brother of Jang Bahadur Kunwar Ranaji, who rose to premiership of Nepal after the murders of influential persons - Mathabarsingh Thapa and Gagan Singh Bhandari and the incidence of Kot Massacre. Dhir was personally involved in the massacre protecting his nearly slaughtered brother Krishna Bahadur Kunwar Rana. Dhir became military Colonel after the incident. He was in the entourage of Jung Bahadur's visit of Europe in early 1850s.

Dhir Shamsher led the Nepalese Army in the two victorious campaigns i.e. Nepalese-Tibetan War in 1855-1856 and in the Indian Mutiny of 1857. He consolidated greater power when his elder brother Commander-in-Chief Jagat Shamsher Kunwar Rana died in 1879 CE. Onwards, he became the Commander-in-Chief of the Nepalese Army and was the stronghold behind the premiership of Shri Tin Maharaja Ranodip Singh Bahadur Kunwar Rana. He protected the premiership of his brother from a coup attempt by Jagat Jung Rana, eldest son of Jang Bahadur and Crown Prince Trailokya of Nepal in 1881-82 known as "38 Saalko Parva". His presence prevented the clash of his 17 sons against the sons of Jung Bahadur. His death in 1884 paved way for the consolidation of power by his 17 sons (Shamsher Ranas) through the murder of Premier Ranodip Singh Kunwar.

Kirtan Ghoxa

The Kirtan Ghoxa (Assamese: কীৰ্তন ঘোষা Assamese pronunciation: [kiɹ.tɔn.ɡʱʊ.xa]) is a collection of poetical works, primarily composed by the medieval saint Srimanta Sankardev meant for community singing in the Ekasarana religion. Its importance in the religion is second only to the primary text, the Bhagavat of Sankardeva.

Lalit Rajeshwori Rajya Lakshmi Devi

Lalit Rajeshwori Rajya Lakshmi Devi (1854–1917) was the Crown Princess of Prince Trailokya of Nepal. She was the mother of Prithvi of Nepal, King of Nepal.

List of Asam Sahitya Sabha presidents

Asam Sahitya Sabha (Assamese: অসম সাহিত্য সভা), Ôxôm Xahityô Xôbha or "Assam Literary Society") was founded in 1917 in Assam, India to promote the culture of Assam and Assamese literature.

Except regular biennially seasons in 2000 and 2002 special session was held at Jorhat and Kalgachia.

Parul Mukherjee

Parul Mukherjee is a Comilla, Bangladesh-based revolutionary exploit during the Indian revolution. Mukherjee was called as Nihar, Arti, Santi, Sovarani Bose, Bani, Suroma Devi, and Khuki to maintain the secrecy during the Indian revolution.

Prince Narendra of Nepal

General Prince Narendra Bikram Shah (December 1848 - before 1901) was the second son of King Surendra of Nepal. The prince was exiled to India because of his involvement in a conspiracy against the Rana dynasty.

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah

Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah (Nepali: पृथ्वी बीर विक्रम शाह) (18 August 1875 – 11 December 1911) was King of Nepal from 1881 until 1911. Among the most notable events of his reign were the introduction of the first automobiles to Nepal, and the creation of strict water and sanitation systems for much of the country.

King Prithvi's eldest child was Princess Royal Lakshmi Rajya Lakshmi Devi, who was married to Field Marshal Kaiser Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. She was made the Crown Princess and was heir to Nepal's throne until she was in her late teens, when her brother King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Dev was born. Until then King Prithvi only had four daughters and four from another wife.

Queen Divyeshwari of Nepal

Queen Divyeshwari (1875–1933) was the Queen Consort of Nepal from her marriage in 1886 to her husband's death in 1911. She was the second wife of King Prithvi of Nepal. Queen Divyeshwari was the mother of King Tribhuvan of Nepal.Queen Divyeshwari was originally a Rajput princess from Kangra, Punjab. She was married to King Prithvi in 1886 at the Narayanhity Royal Palace. She was a queen consort until 1911, when her husband died. Her son, Crown Prince Tribhuvan, then ascended the throne. Also she had a daughter, Princess Suman Rajya Lakshmi Devi (1908-1968).

Queen Divyeshwari died in 1933 at the Narayanhity Royal Palace.

Ramnagar, Purba Medinipur (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Ramnagar (Vidhan Sabha constituency) (Bengali: রামনগর বিধানসভা কেন্দ্র) is an assembly constituency in Purba Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Surendra Bikram Shah

Surendra Bikram Shah (Nepali: सुरेन्द्र बिक्रम शाह) (1829–1881) was King of Nepal between 1847 and 1881. He became king after Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana forced the abdication of Surendra's father, Rajendra Bikram Shah. Surendra wielded little real power, with Jang Bahadur Rana effectively ruling the country during Surendra's reign.

Trailokya, Crown Prince of Nepal

General Crown Prince Trailokya Bir Bikram Shah Deva (November 30, 1847 – March 30, 1878) was, as the eldest son of King Surendra of Nepal, the heir apparent to the throne of Nepal. He died before his father, and his son Prithvi ascended the throne.

Trailokya Malla

Trailokya Malla (Nepali: त्रैलोक्य मल्ल) was a Malla Dynasty King of Bhaktapur, Nepal from 1560 to 1613.

The origin of Kumari can be traced to King Trailokya Malla who is believed to have instituted the tradition of Kumari after losing his right to see Durga in person. Taleju was recognized as a form of the beautiful Goddess Durga, who appeared in human form in front of King Trailokya Malla every night. Trailokya was said to play many games of dice (tripasa) with her, until one night, overcome by desire, the king made sexual advances toward the goddess. When this occurred, the goddess disappeared and left the king in deep regret. Later, Taleju appeared in the king’s dream and informed him that she would embody in the human form a virgin girl of the Shakya caste, a Buddhist by faith, who would bless him every year. It is believed that he was murdered one night while taking his dinner through poison, which was kept in his dinner foods.

Trailokya Rajya Lakshmi Devi

Trailokya Rajya Lakshmi Devi (? – October 1850) was the Queen of Surendra Bikram Shah, King of Nepal. She was the mother of Trailokya, Crown Prince of Nepal.

Trailokyanath Sanyal

Trailokyanath Sanyal (Bengali: ত্রৈলোক্যনাথ সান্যাল) (also spelt Trailokya Nath Sanyal) was one of the Brahmo missionaries, who assisted in combining the ideals of traditional Vaishnavism with those of Brahmo Samaj. Through hundreds of devotional songs which he created, he developed Brahma Sangit, devotional songs of Brahmo Samaj, as an art form. Rabindranath Tagore later brought this musical art to perfection and popularised it in Bengal. Sanyal’s songs are till this day sung extensively with prayers of the Brahmo Samaj. He used to set his songs not only to classical tunes but also to a folk tune like Bhatiali and popular Ramprasadi.

Trailokyavarman

Trailokya-Varman (reigned c. 1203–1245 CE) was a king of the Chandela dynasty of central India. He ruled the Jejakabhukti region (Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh).

Chandela inscriptions suggest that Trailokyavarman succeeded Paramardi as the Chandela ruler. He was probably Paramardi's son, although this cannot be said with certainty based on the available evidence.Seven inscriptions of Trailokyavarman have been found at Ajaygarh, Banpur, Garra near Chhatarpur, and Tehri (Tikamgarh). A number of other places in the Bundelkhand region are mentioned in these inscriptions. The inscriptions give him the usual imperial titles Parama-bhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara Parama-Maheshvara Shri-Kalanjaradhipati. His coins have been found in Banda district. This indicates that he controlled a large part of the traditional Chandela dominions.Trailokyavarman bore the title Kalanjaradhipati ("Lord of Kalanjara"), which suggests that he recovered the Kalanjara fort from the Turkic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate. The Garra copper-plate inscription of Trailokyavarman as well as the Ajaygarh inscription of his successor Viravarman support this hypothesis. The Garra inscription records the grant of a village to the son of Rauta Pape, who was killed in a battle with the Turushkas (Turkic people). The Ajaygarh inscription states that like Vishnu, he lifted the earth submerged in the ocean formed by the Turushkas.The Muslim chronicle Tabaqat-i Nasiri also suggests that Kalanjara had slipped from the Delhi Sultanate control, before it was raided by Malik Nusrat-ud-din Taisi (or Tayasi) in 1233 CE. According to the text, Taisi marched to Kalanjara from Gwalior, forcing the ruler of Kalanjara to flee, and then plundered the city.According to the Ajaygarh rock inscription from Bhojavarman's reign, Trailokyavarman's general Ananda subjugated several tribes, including the Bhillas, the Shabaras and the Pulindas. He is also said to have defeated Bhojuka, whose identity is uncertain.Some earlier scholars believed that Trailokyavarman captured the northern portion of the Kalachuri kingdom as well as Kanyakubja. This theory was based on the identification of "Trailokyamalla" mentioned in the 1212 CE Dhureti inscription with Trailokyavarman. However, the discovery of the 1197 CE Jhulpur inscription nullifies this assumption: Trailokyamalla was actually a son of Kalachuri king Vijayasimha.Like his predecessors, Trailokyavarman issued gold coins featuring a seated goddess, and copper coins featuring the deity Hanuman. He was succeeded by Viravarman.

Trilok

Trilok (Jainism), a division of the universe into heavenly, earthly and infernal regions

Trilok Teerth Dham, a Jain temple in Bada Gaon, Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh

Trailokya, a division of the universe into three regions or states of existence in Hindu and Buddhist theology, and in theosophism; also a surname

Trilok Gurtu (born 1951), Indian percussionist and composer

Trilok Kapoor (active 1933-1954), Indian film actor

Trilok Sharma (born 1960), Indian president of the anti-corruption campaign Bharat Swabhiman Andolan in Haryana

Zamindaar Babu Trilok Nath (1866-1960), ruler of the princely state of Belghat, Northwest Province, British India (modern day Uttar Pradesh)

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