Trail blazing

Trail blazing or way marking is the practice of marking paths in outdoor recreational areas with signs or markings that follow each other at certain, though not necessarily exactly defined, distances and mark the direction of the trail.

A blaze in the beginning meant "a mark made on a tree by slashing the bark" (The Canadian Oxford Dictionary). Originally a waymark was "any conspicuous object which serves as a guide to travellers; a landmark" (Oxford English Dictionary).

There are several ways of marking trails: paint, carvings, affixed markers, posts, flagging, cairns, and crosses, with paint being the most widely used.

Modra turisticka trasa značka-šipka doleva
Left Turn Marker on a blue marked trail in the Czech Republic

Types of signage

Paint

BergAlpinWegweiser
Painted Marker in Switzerland

A painted marking of a consistent shape or shapes (often rectangular), dimension and colour or combination of colours is used along the trail route. The system by which blazes are used to signify turns and endpoints in trails (see below) strongly favors the use of paint blazes.

Basic Marker - Red, used in Central Europe for difficult or summit trails

European countries usually use systems of painted bars or shapes in more than one colour. The Central European Hiking Markers System uses three bars - usually one color in between two white bars, with different meanings attached to different colours - in a 10 cm x 10 cm square. Red is often used to mark difficult or summit trails. Arrows of similar design signal a change of direction. Originally created in Czechoslovakia, this system is used in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Croatia, Bosnia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Georgia, Brazil and other countries. French, Italian, Austrian and Swiss trails use a similar system of white and coloured stripes.

In the United States and Canada, a single colour is used, usually white, red, blue or yellow. Trails in South Africa are often marked by yellow footprints painted on trees and rocks.

Blazes may also be painted on obvious rock surfaces or on posts set into the ground (or on utility poles, fences, or other handy surfaces) where the trail follows a road or goes through fields and meadows.

Carvings

Waymarker at Southern Upland Way
Carved Marker - wooden marker using a stylized thistle to mark the Southern Upland Way, Scotland

in North America, Australia and New Zealand,[1] there are trails blazed by cuts made in bark by axe or knife, usually the former. Most often these are informal routes made by loggers or hunters, or trails descended from those routes. Originally a tree would be blazed by hatchet chops (still the dictionary definition) but today other methods have become more common, with environmental and aesthetic concerns sometimes playing a part in the choice of blazing method.[2] Other navigational aids, such as cairns, are used where blazes are unsuitable.

In 1902 the miners of Idaho created and marked the Three Blaze "shortcut" Trail with a series of three distinctive blazes cut on the trees, usually with an axe, to define the specific route to the Thunder Mountain Mines of Central Idaho.[3]

Affixed markers

Tararua Range, New Zealand (15)
Affixed Marker (NZ)

Alternatively, more long lasting plastic, metal or even sometimes wooden markers may be affixed to trees, usually with nails. The placement of these markers requires more skill and labor than paint, as well as an area with an abundant supply of trees to which to attach them.

Flagging

Tape flag
Flag Marker - a rare use of a tape flag as a blaze on an official trail in the USA, here indicating where the trail re-enters the woods after crossing an open ledge

Surveyor's tape hung from branches or tied around trees is sometimes used to indicate trail routes, but usually only for temporary or unofficial trails, most commonly when a trail route has been selected but the trail itself is under construction. Flags are sometimes used for permanent trails, but they are the most vulnerable to the elements of any trail blazing method and may be more difficult to see.

Trail flagging is the predominant method to mark a mountain hiking trail in Japan. Red ribbons usually indicate an ascent route while yellow ribbon indicate a descent route. On some mountains, a non-standard ribbon colour (white or blue) is used to identify a specific trail.

Poles

Markierung Alpiner Wanderweg
Pole Marker on an Alpine route at Piz Uccello, Switzerland

Poles, colored or not, are often used to keep the trail visible during winter and under snow cover.[4] Poles are standard trail markers in Austria, Canada, USA, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, and Slovakia.

Cairns

Igloolik Sunset
Inuksuit - a Cairn in northern Canada were markers used for wayfinding and to locate caches of food or other stores.

Cairns are carefully arranged piles of stones. Cairns are most commonly used to indicate trails in open areas, such as higher-elevation alpine areas, where no trees are available, or where conditions may make blazes hard to see.[5] An ancient example is the inuksuk (plural inuksuit), used by the Inuit, Inupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. These structures are found from Alaska to Greenland. This region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks.

Below the tree line, cairns are used less frequently, often like flagging to indicate informal or unofficial paths or just their junctions with official trails. They may become obscured by snow in areas with heavy winters and may be easily knocked over. In some areas the recreational building of numerous cairns has obscured the proper use of cairns to mark junctions and crossings. In some areas of the United States, park rangers and land managers must disassemble excess cairns when they become eyesores or when they mislead navigation.

Where rocks are scarce poles can be used. Poles are also frequently used to mark ski and snow shoe trails.[6]

Trail ducks

Duck is a term used in some parts of the USA, generally for a much smaller rock pile than a cairn,[7] typically stacked just high enough to convince the observer it is not natural. For most, two rocks stacked could be a coincidence, but three rocks stacked is a duck. In some regions, ducks also contain a pointer rock (or a couple of stacked rocks) to indicate the direction of the trail.[8]

Crosses

A wayside cross is a cross by a footpath, track or road, at an intersection, along the edge of a field or in a forest, which often serve as waymarks for walkers and pilgrims or designate dangerous places.[9] They are particularly common in Europe, for example in Germany, Galicia and the Alps. It can be made of wood, stone or metal. Most wayside crosses are designed as crucifixes.

Prominence

In US wilderness areas, whether state or federal, the US Wilderness Act requires that the land seems "untrammeled by man," and so blazes are often kept to a minimum. By contrast, in a typical municipal, county, or state park, or any land open to a wide variety of users, or in a well-developed metropolitan area, blazes will be more frequent.[10] Single-track hiking trails also receive more blazes than those that follow old roads or other more obvious routes.

Systems

Loch Dee - geograph.org.uk - 2865
A National Cycle Network (NCN) milepost in Scotland

On a large piece of land, there is likely to be more than one trail. While it might seem obvious that, at minimum, trails should at least take different colours, this is not always done. In Mount Greylock State Reservation, which contains the highest mountain in Massachusetts, all trails other than the Appalachian Trail use the same blue blaze.

Blaze type might also be mixed when different user groups (i.e., snowmobilers, horse riders, mountain bikers) are allowed on trails. For users of faster vehicles, blazes are often larger in order to be seen better at high speeds, and sometimes affixed markers best communicate who may and may not use a trail besides those on foot.

Another possible distinction is by season. In Norway, it is common to use blue for summer routes and red for winter routes. Red routes may traverse lakes and swamps, which are flat and well suited for cross-country skiing in winter, but impassable on foot in summer.

Colours are often assigned simply with an eye toward making sure that no two trails that intersect use the same one, but it can go further than that. On all state land in New York's Catskill Park, for instance, primary trails, especially longer "trunk trails" that go great distances, use red markers if they go in a generally east-west direction and blue if they go north-south. Shorter spur, loop or connector trails generally use yellow blazes.

On occasions when two trails run concurrently, usually at a slightly staggered junction, only one trail may be signed, often with the longer or more heavily trafficked trail's blaze predominating. In other cases, such as southern Vermont where the Appalachian Trail and the Long Trail follow the same path, both trails may use the same white blaze.

A quite different blazing system, called mute blazes was created in the Czech part of Krkonoše.[11] The blazes, cut out of sheet metal and painted red, are suspended on high poles, thus being visible to both hikers and skiers. Unlike in classic systems, they do not refer to paths or trails, but show the way to the nearest mountain huts and adjacent towns and villages with the possibility of overnighting and catering.[12]

National Trails in England and Wales generally use an acorn symbol.[13] The National Cycle Network in the United Kingdom is signposted using a white bicycle symbol on a blue background, with a white route number in an inset box, but with no destination names or distances. National Route numbers have a red background, Regional Route numbers have a blue background. The system of symbols is based on that used by the Danish National Cycle Route network.

The colour used may also indicate the status of the route, for example on rights of way in England and Wales yellow marks are used for footpaths, blue for bridleways, and red for byways open to all traffic.[14]

Meaning of trail signs

Trail blaze-symbols
Symbols commonly used in trail blazing in the United States. Turn signals are often non-directional—one blaze is placed directly above the other.

In addition to reassuring the trail user that they are on the trail, the signage can alert them to imminent turns, particularly if there is some confusion about what might be the trail, and where trails begin and end.

LeftTurnBlaze
Painted Marker in the USA - triangular blaze indicating a left turn, in Harriman State Park in the USA

Offset blazes is a system whereby a vertically stacked pair of blazes with the upper one offset in the direction that the trail turns. This system was first used in 1970 on the Beech Trail in Harriman State Park. This system was further refined to where a triangular pattern of blazes would indicate a terminus, its point up or down depending on whether that was the beginning or the end. These began to be used elsewhere and are now fairly common throughout North America, though variations of this system exist. Some trails instead use two blazes painted together at an angle to form an "L" shape to indicate a turn, with the angle between the two blazes indicating the angle and direction of the turn. Also, a few trails indicate turns with two stacked blazes, without an offset, but this can cause confusion as the direction is not implied. In addition, other trails may use two non-offset stacked blazes to indicate the trail goes straight at a location where there may be a tempting mis-turn.

A triangular pattern with its point to the side was also devised for eventualities like spurs or junctions, but these have not caught on.

In some areas, a triangular pattern with its point up indicates that a hiker is at the point of a sharp switchback.

In the Netherlands, signage usually consist of two bars above each other: white-red, yellow-red and red-blue are commonly seen blazes. An upcoming turn is indicated by duplicating the blazes: white-red-white-red, yellow-red-yellow-red, etc. Nowadays, stickers are often used, and instead of duplicating the blaze, the rectangle is cut into an arrow, to indicate direction. A diagonal cross is used to indicate a direction should not be taken: the cross will have the same colours as the blazes (each bar will use a different colour).

Gallery

Snowbank Trail arf1

A cairn trail marker on Snowbank Trail in Northern Minnesota.

Bruce-trail-blaze

Blaze on the Bruce Trail, Ontario, Canada

GR-sign

The characteristic white and red stripes that mark the path of a GR in France

Tourist trails pl01

Signs for tourist horse-, ski-, and hiking-trails (from the top) in Sudetes, Poland.Poland

Ten-zi-trail-entrance

Ten-zi-trail entrance, Taiwan

Trail Blaze Australia

Trail marker on Australian bushwalking track, nailed to Scribbly Gum, Eucalyptus sclerophylla

Markacija drevo

A blaze on a tree in Slovenia (the so-called Knafelc blaze, named after Alojz Knafelc)

Turistické značky cyklo a pěší

Tourist trail signs for cycling (top) and hiking (bottom) in the Czech Republic

Trail marker

An official NYSDEC marker in Catskill Park. Note protruding nail to allow for tree growth

FingerLakesTrail East End

Example of blaze denoting a trail's end in Catskill Park, New York

Pennsylvania - Delaware Water Gap - Appalachian Trail - White Blaze

Typical blaze on the Appalachian Trail

Němá značka Rokytnice

Mute sign marking a path in Krkonoše, the Czech Republic.

Pce Zielona Ścieżka Zdrowia SDC16520

A suburban tourist path in Police, Poland

Cairn at Garvera, Surselva, Graubuenden, Switzerland

A cairn to mark the summit of a mountain, Graubuenden, Switzerland

BergAlpinWegweiser

Swiss signpost: hiking trails in yellow, mountain path in white-red-white, Alpine Route in white-blue-white

Llwybr clawdd offa

A marker post on Offa's Dyke Path, English/Welsh border

Pilgrim Path Waymarker (Ireland)

Pilgrim path waymarker in Ireland.

Trail blazing at Portugal

Trail blazing in Portugal (Sintra-Cascais NP). Shows: direction; route name; distance to; next POI. The small one: wrong direction

Red crosses mark the winter route in Sylan in Sweden

Red crosses mark the winter route in Sylan. Sweden

See also

References

  1. ^ › Mississippi › Fly Drives & Trails; [1]; [2],
  2. ^ See New American Oxford dictionary; Appalachian Trail Conservancy
  3. ^ Fuller, Margaret. Trails of The Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness. 2006. Trail Guide Books, p.208
  4. ^ "Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook", United States Forest Service. [3]
  5. ^ Appalachian Trail Conservancy
  6. ^ Mount Seymour, BC, Canada
  7. ^ "Reading Trail Signs", How to Wilderness.com
  8. ^ "Reading Trail Signs".
  9. ^ Sakrale Kleinbauten: Flurkreuze / Wegkreuze Archived 2014-10-30 at the Wayback Machine(PDF; 256KB) Redaktion: ibid Altbau AG, CH-Merkblätter des Bundesamtes für Bevölkerungsschutz, Kulturgüterschutz
  10. ^ Forest Service Wilderness Sign Guidance - Wilderness.net, [4]
  11. ^ Narciarstwo biegowe w Karkonoszach [retrieved 2012-01-07]
  12. ^ "Lyžařské stezky a jejich značení" (in Czech).
  13. ^ National Trails, [5].
  14. ^ National Trails, [6].
1984 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 1984 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 97th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 1984 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland.

Dublin were considered hot favourites to defeat Kerry. Kerry had lost to Offaly on their last appearance at this stage in 1982 and had not made it past Cork in the 1983 final of the Munster Senior Football Championship. However, it was Kerry who controlled the game and won by five points, only two Dublin forwards scoring. Dublin were well beaten (0-14 to 1-6). Kerry claimed great motivation for their victory came from a piece in the RTÉ Guide in which the team were referred to as "a cowardly blend of experienced players, has-beens and a few newcomers."It was the third of five All-Ireland football titles won by Kerry in the 1980s.

Benjamin Ball (physician)

Benjamin Ball (April 20, 1833 – February 23, 1893) was an English-born French psychiatrist, Professor of Mental Medicine in the Paris Faculty.He was born at Naples, his father being an Englishman and his mother a native of Switzerland. He became a naturalised Frenchman in 1849,

and spent the whole of his professional life in Paris.

He studied medicine under Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours and Jean-Martin Charcot and was an assistant of Charles Lasègue at the Salpêtrière Hospital. During his internat he was Laureate of the Academy of Medicine (Prix Portal, in collaboration with Charcot). He became doctor of medicine in 1862.

In 1877 Benjamin Ball was the first to be appointed to the "Clinical Chair of Mental and Cerebral Diseases" in the Paris Faculty, to the detriment of his rival Valentin Magnan.

In collaboration with Jules Bernard Luys, he founded in 1881 the journal L'Encéphale.

Ball is the author of numerous works relating to mental diseases such as On erotic insanity (La folie érotique), and On persecution deliria (Du délire des persécutions, as well as Lessons on Mental Illnesses (Leçon sur les maladies mentales). In 1885, he published a trail-blazing treatrise On morphinomania (La morphinomanie), in which he evidenced the toxic effects of cocaine which were not absolutely acknowledged at the time.

Blue-Blazed Trails

The Blue-Blazed Hiking Trail system, managed by the Connecticut Forest & Park Association (CFPA), and the related trail systems documented in the two volume ("East" and "West") 19th Edition of the "Connecticut Walk Book" comprise over 800 miles of hiking trails in Connecticut.There are now over 825 miles of CFPA Blue-Blazed Hiking Trails that pass through 96 towns traversing both public and private lands. This includes all official main and side trails. The main line trails are marked using the solid light blue rectangular vertical paint blaze. A recent change in blaze design to official CFPA connector, side and alternate trails is now in use. The new design standard for blaze markings for these trails is the same light blue blaze as the main trails with the designated color square painted below and abutting to the blue blaze.The Blue-Blazed Hiking Trails are sometimes referred to by the acronym 'BBHTs'.

The Blue-Blazed Hiking Trails and other trail systems listed in the Connecticut Walk Books by the Connecticut Forest & Park Association are also known as the 'Connecticut 400' for their total length in miles in the early 1970s.

Bolo knife

A bolo (Tagalog: iták, Cebuano: súndang, Ilokano: bunéng, Hiligaynon: binangon) is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete. It is used particularly in the Philippines, the jungles of Indonesia, and in the sugar fields of Cuba.

The primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is also used in Filipino martial arts or Arnis as part of training.

Canadian Women's Foundation

The Canadian Women's Foundation (French: Fondation Canadienne des Femmes) is a national non-profit organization focused on helping women and girls. It aims to end violence against women, move low-income women out of poverty, and empower girls.

The Canadian Women's Foundation is the only national women's foundation in Canada. Since 1991, it has invested over $40 million in charitable support to over 1,200 community programs and women's shelters across Canada.

Düsseldorf-Benrath

Benrath (German pronunciation: [ˈbɛnʁaːt]) is a part of Düsseldorf in the south of the city. It has been a part of Düsseldorf since 1929.

Esmond Edwards

Esmond Edwards (October 29, 1927 – January 20, 2007) was an American photographer, record producer, and recording engineer. He worked for jazz label Prestige Records during the 1950s and early-1960s. He was originally hired by founder Bob Weinstock as a photographer for the record label. He was a trail-blazing African-American, as very few recording industry executives were from minorities. He took over the supervision of recording sessions as the Prestige label's success grew.

Główny Szlak Sudecki

Główny Szlak Sudecki (full name Główny Szlak Sudecki im. Mieczysława Orłowicza, which means Mieczysław Orłowicz Main Sudetes Trail in Polish) is a public hiking trail in Poland running along the Sudetes. The total length of this route is 350 km and the approximate time to cover it varies between 87 and 90 hours. The trail was constructed in 1947 and throughout its history has been several times modified. It is blazed red.

Hunter B. Shirley

Hunter B. Shirley (December 25, 1927 – November 1, 2010) born Hunter Barentine Shirley, was a longtime licensed clinical psychologist and a former Associate Professor at Wisconsin State University where he headed a psychological research laboratory devoted to evaluating the world's first analog model of the mind. He was most recently the Director of the International Division of the American Institute of Applied Behavioral Research and Human Relations Training. Formerly Director of Behavior Analysis, Inc. of St. Louis subsequently he was director of the Counseling and Testing Center at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and later served as the Chief Clinical Psychologist of the Lafayette Institute of Behavior Therapy and Crisis Management. Author of a number of books, including the trail-blazing book Mapping the Mind, and the popular self-help book Your Mind May Be Programmed Against You!. He is credited with having developed the most sophisticated model of the human mind currently in existence. With offices in Staré Splavy near Prague, Shirley was in charge of a "Think tank" performing behavioral science research for NGOs and government agencies. His final work The Human Mind: A Guided Tour, a comprehensive compilation of his theories on the emotional system and the human mind developed over a lifetime of clinical and field studies, is in the final phases of editing in preparation for publication. This book includes over 300 diagrams of the emotional system based on a cybernetics approach as he first presented in his book Mapping The Mind and in numerous published articles.

List of first women lawyers and judges in Montana

This is a list of the first women lawyer(s) and judge(s) in Montana. It includes the year in which the women were admitted to practice law (in parentheses). Also included are women who achieved other distinctions such becoming the first in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure.

Lokomotivfabrik der StEG

In 1839 the Lokomotivfabrik der StEG became the first Austro-Hungarian locomotive works to be founded and it produced many influential locomotive designs.

The factory was built in 1839 by the Vienna-Raab Railway between the Vienna Südbahnhof and Vienna Ostbahnhof and stocked with machinery, much of which was from England. The first locomotives and coaches were built in 1840 based on American prototypes. These were also the first railway vehicles to be built in Austria. The manufacture of railway vehicles was difficult because at that time in Austria there were still no iron foundries and none of the workers had the training for this type of work.

One of the biggest influences on the development of locomotive construction in Austria was the first manager of the factory, John Haswell, who led it from 1840 to 1882.

In 1855, the factory went into the ownership of the Staats-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft (State Railway Company) or StEG (full title: k.k. landesbefugte Maschinen-Fabrik in Wien der privilegirten österreichisch-ungarischen Staats-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft), which had the factory expanded in size.

Amongst the trail-blazing locomotives, which this factory produced, was the first six-coupled locomotive on the continent, the FAHRAFELD, the Semmering competition engine, VINDOBONA, and the first eight-coupled locomotive, WIEN-RAAB.

The company runs a subsidiary today in Romania's Reşiţa. Until 1918, however only 7 steam engines were built there.

Due mainly to the consequences of the First World War, there was only a low demand for locomotives within the reduced Austrian national territory. This was able to be compensated for a time by orders from abroad, nevertheless in 1930 the factory had to shut its gates.

Marking

Marking may refer to:

An annotation

A perforation

Card marking

Direct part marking (DPM)

Photographic film markings

Postal marking

Grading (education)

Road surface marking, such as lines or words, or the stripes of a zebra crossing on a road surface

Sail Class Markings

Sole markings

Trail blazing

UID-marking

Vägmärken (Markings), a book by Dag Hammarskjold

Jehovah's Witnesses "marking", withdrawing of close association from a congregant according to Thessalonians 3:14

Mute blazes in Czech Krkonoše

Mute blazes in Czech Krkonoše, called also Muttich blazes (Czech: muttichovky), is a system of trail blazing used in the Czech part of Krkonoše Mountains.The system is created by the set of blazes, which are cut out of sheet metal and painted red. However, compared to classic blazing systems, they do not mark particular routes or hiking trails. Each sign corresponds to a different object in the mountains, the most frequent being the nearest mountain huts and villages with the possibility of overnighting and catering. The blazes are usually suspended on high poles, which makes them visible even when covered in snow – thus the system can be used by skiers or for winter hiking.

The system was invented and introduced in 1923. One of the initial goals was to overcome naming discrepancies between the German and Czechoslovak authorities, who had been arguing about which language should be used in trail blazing on both sides. The system was created and implemented by Vladislav Muttich, a Czech painter and member of the Czech skiing society. Although another system was introduced after World War II, the old one proved popular and efficient and thus has been left unchanged in the Czech part of the mountain range.

Ora Washington

Ora Washington (January 23, 1898 – December 21, 1971) was an American athlete from the Germantown section of Northwest Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, known as the "Queen of Tennis".

Production sharing agreement

Production sharing agreements (PSAs) or production sharing contracts (PSCs) are a common type of contract signed between a government and a resource extraction company (or group of companies) concerning how much of the resource (usually oil) extracted from the country each will receive.

Rashmi Uday Singh

Synonymous with good food for over three decades, Rashmi Uday Singh, has been trailblazing in the fields of food, vegetarianism and health. TV host, Author of 40 books, Gourmand World Cookbook Award-winner, Singh been conferred with prestigious international awards including the Chevalier knighthood from the government of France.

Many firsts

Singh has many firsts to her credit... India’s first ever city-restaurant guide, The world’s first vegetarian guide to Paris. Also in the list of firsts is Rashmi's Nightlife guide to Mumbai followed by a City restaurant guide to Pune. India’s first ever complete TV show "Health Today" was produced, scripted, directed, presented by her. Rashmi Uday Singh’s Good food Academy and Sunshine workshops were trail blazing too.

Steel fence post

A steel fence post, also called (depending on design or country) a T-post, a Y-post, or variants on star post, is a type of fence post or picket. They are made of steel and are sometimes manufactured using durable rail steel. They can be used to support various types of wire or wire mesh. The end view of the post creates an obvious T, Y or other shape. The posts are driven into the ground with a manual or pneumatic post pounder. All along the post, along the spine, there are studs or nubs that prevent the barbed wire or mesh from sliding up or down the post. They are generally designated as 1.01, 1.25 or 1.33, referring to the weight in pounds per lineal foot. They are commonly painted with a white tip on top, white improves the visibility of the fence line.

While T-Posts are more common in the United States, Y-posts are more common in Australia and New Zealand where they are sometimes called "Waratahs", after the company which registered a patent for them in 1926. In New Zealand Waratahs are often used for trail blazing.

In areas (such as the British Isles) where treated timber is relatively inexpensive, wooden fence-posts are used and steel ones are unusual for agricultural purposes. In the British Isles steel posts are however often used for fencing into solid rock. In this case a hole is drilled into the rock, and the post is fixed using cement or epoxy.

In Australia these are normally called a star picket and sizing is by length, normally one notch on the top and holes down the length. They appear to be covered in a tarlike substance.

Toko Shinoda

Toko Shinoda (篠田 桃紅, Shinoda Tōkō, born March 28, 1913) is a Japanese artist working with sumi ink paintings and prints. Her art merges traditional calligraphy with modern abstract expressionism. A 1983 interview in Time magazine asserted "her trail-blazing accomplishments are analogous to Picasso's". Shinoda's works had been exhibited in the Hague National Museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, Cincinnati Art Museum and other leading museums in the world.

Tom Marr

Thomas Aquinas "Tom" Marr (October 17, 1942 – July 7, 2016) was an American talk radio host on WCBM (680-AM) in Baltimore, Maryland, known for his conservative political views. He spent nearly 20 years as a newsman and sportscaster, including eight seasons as a radio play-by-play broadcaster for the Baltimore Orioles before he embarked on a trail blazing political talk-radio career. His full broadcasting career spanned close to fifty years, mostly in Baltimore, although he worked in other major markets, including Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and New York City.

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