Tragopan

Tragopan is a bird genus in the Phasianidae family, which is commonly called "horned pheasant" because males have two brightly colored, fleshy horns on their head that can be erected during courtship displays.The habit of tragopans nesting in trees is unique among phasianids.[1] The scientific name refers to the horn, being a composite of tragos (billy goat) and the ribald half-goat deity Pan (and in the case of the satyr tragopan, adding Pan's companions for even more emphasis).

There are five recognized tragopan species:[1]

Image Name Common name Distribution
Tragopan melanocephalus Western tragopan Kohistan, Kaghan valley, Kishtwar, Chamba, Kullu and an area east of the Satluj river, Pakistan
Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra Satyr tragopan India, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan.
Temminck Tragopan Tragopan temminckii Temminck's tragopan northern Myanmar to northwestern Tonkin.
Tragopan blythii01 Tragopan blythii Blyth's tragopan Bhutan through north-east India, north Myanmar to south-east Tibet, and also China.
Tragopan caboti Tragopan caboti Cabot's tragopan provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Guangdong, China
Tragopan
Tragopan blythii01
Blyth's tragopan (Tragopan blythii)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Phasianinae
Genus: Tragopan
Cuvier, 1829

Gallery

TragopanWattles

Heads of male tragopans

TragopanEggs

Eggs of tragopan and other pheasants

Sekretär Vogel

Tragopan caboti head feathers of a male

References

  1. ^ a b Madge, S.; McGowan, P. (2002). "Genus Tragopan: tragopans (horned pheasants)". Pheasants, partridges and grouse: including buttonquails, sandgrouse and allies. London: Christopher Helm Publishers. pp. 280−286. ISBN 978-0-7136-3966-7.
Blyth's tragopan

Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii) or the grey-bellied tragopan is a pheasant that is a vulnerable species. The common name commemorates Edward Blyth (1810–1873), English zoologist and Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Cabot's tragopan

Cabot's tragopan (Tragopan caboti) is a pheasant found in south-east China. The common and scientific names of this large bird both commemorate the ornithologist Samuel Cabot III. Other common names include the Chinese tragopan and the yellow-bellied tragopan. The population is divided into two subspecies, of which the nominate race is found in the provinces of Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Guangdong, and T. c. guangxiensis is confined to northeastern Guangxi and southern Hunan. The IUCN has assessed it as being a "vulnerable species".

Elliot's pheasant

Elliot's pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti), is a large pheasant native to south-eastern China.

Francolin

Francolins are birds that traditionally have been placed in the genus Francolinus, but now commonly are divided into multiple genera (see Taxonomy), although some of the major taxonomic listing sources have yet to divide them. The francolins' closest relatives are the junglefowl, long-billed partridge, Alectoris and Coturnix. Together this monophyletic group may warrant family status as the Gallusinidae or in a sub-family Gallusininae.

The pheasant Phasianinae and partridge Perdicinae families of the "Order of Phasianidae" have been established as paraphyletic.

When all are maintained in a single genus, it is the most diverse of the Galliformes, having by far the most members. Francolins are terrestrial (though not flightless) birds that feed on insects, vegetable matter and seeds. Most of the members have a hooked upper beak, well-suited for digging at the bases of grass tussocks and rootballs. They have wide tails with fourteen rectrix feathers. Most species exhibit spurs on the tarsi.

Junglefowl

Junglefowl are the four living species of bird from the genus Gallus in the bird order Galliformes, which occur in India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.

These are large birds, with colourful male plumage, but are nevertheless difficult to see in the dense vegetation they inhabit.

As with many birds in the pheasant family, the male takes no part in the incubation of the egg or rearing of the precocial young. These duties are performed by the drab and well-camouflaged female.

The junglefowl are seed-eaters, but insects are also taken, particularly by the young birds.

One of the species in this genus, the red junglefowl, is of historical importance as the likely ancestor of the domesticated chicken, although the grey junglefowl has been suggested to be also involved.The Sri Lankan junglefowl is the national bird of Sri Lanka.

Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary

Khonoma Nature Conservation and Tragopan Sanctuary or KNCTS is a conservation reserve and a protected area in the Kohima district of the state of Nagaland in India. It is about 18 kilometres (11 mi) west of the capital of Nagaland, Kohima. The total area notified under this park is around 25 square kilometres (9.7 sq mi); some of villages and hamlets are adjacent to this park: Khonoma, Mesoma, Dziilike.

List of Indian state birds

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is made up of 28 states and 9 union territories. All Indian states have their own government and union territories come under the jurisdiction of the central government. As with most of the other countries India, has a national emblem—the Lion Capital of Sarnath.

Apart from India's national emblem, each of its states and union territories have their own seals and symbols which include animals, birds, trees, flowers, etc. A list of state birds of India is given below. See Symbols of Indian states and territories for a complete list of all state characters and seals.

Mikado pheasant

The Mikado pheasant (Syrmaticus mikado) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. Sometimes considered an unofficial national bird of Taiwan (along with the Swinhoe's pheasant and Taiwan blue magpie), a pair of Mikado pheasants and Yushan National Park, one of the areas it is known to inhabit, is depicted in the 1000 dollar bill of the Taiwanese dollar.

Old World quail

Old World quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae.

New World quail are also found in the Galliformes, but are not in the same family (Odontophoridae). Buttonquails are not closely related at all, but are named for their similar appearance. They are presently found in the Turnicidae family in the Charadriiformes, more closely related to shorebirds, gulls and auks.

The collective noun for a group of quail is flock, bevy or covey.

Partridge

Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory birds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa. They are sometimes grouped in the Perdicinae subfamily of the Phasianidae (pheasants, quail, etc.). However, molecular research suggests that partridges are not a distinct taxon within the family Phasianidae, but that some species are closer to the pheasants, while others are closer to the junglefowl.

Perdicinae

Perdicinae is a subfamily of birds in the pheasant family, Phasianidae, regrouping the partridges, Old World quails, and francolins. Although this subfamily was considered monophyletic and separated from the pheasants, tragopans, junglefowls, and peafowls (Phasianinae) till the early 1990s, molecular phylogenies have shown that these two subfamilies actually constitute only one lineage. For example, some partridges (Perdix genus) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the Alectoris genus are closer to junglefowls.Perdicinae is a non-migratory Old World group. These are medium-sized birds, and are native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. They are ground-nesting seed-eaters. The subfamily includes the partridges, the snowcocks, the francolins, the spurfowl and the Old World quail.

Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of heavy, ground-living birds, which includes pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, turkeys, Old World quail, and peafowl. The family includes many of the most popular gamebirds. The family is a large one, and is occasionally broken up into two subfamilies, the Phasianinae and the Perdicinae. Sometimes, additional families and birds are treated as part of this family. For example, the American Ornithologists' Union includes the Tetraonidae (grouse), Numididae (guineafowl), and Meleagrididae (turkeys) as subfamilies in Phasianidae.

Phasianinae

The Phasianinae (Horsfield, 1821) are a subfamily of the pheasant family (Phasianidae) of landfowl, the order Galliformes. The subfamily includes pheasants, tragopans, junglefowl, peafowl, and other similar birds. Although this subfamily was considered monophyletic and separated from the partridges, francolins, and Old World quails (Perdicinae) till the early 1990s, molecular phylogenies have shown that this two subfamilies actually constitute only one lineage. For example, some partridges (genus Perdix) are more closely affiliated to pheasants, whereas Old World quails and partridges from the genus Alectoris are closer to junglefowls.Phasianinae are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. They typically eat seeds and some insects.

Pheasant

Pheasants () are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Though they can be found world over in introduced (and captive) populations, the pheasant genera native range is restricted to Asia.

Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly decorated with bright colors and adornments such as wattles. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young.

Pheasants typically eat seeds and some insects.

The best-known is the common pheasant, which is widespread throughout the world, in introduced feral populations and in farm operations. Various other pheasant species are popular in aviaries, such as the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

Satyr tragopan

The satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra) also known as the crimson horned pheasant, is a pheasant found in the Himalayan reaches of India, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. They reside in moist oak and rhododendron forests with dense undergrowth and bamboo clumps. They range from 8,000 to 14,000 feet in summer and 6,000 feet in winter. The male crimson horned pheasant is about 70 cm long.

When it is mating season, male satyr tragopans grow blue horns and a gular wattle. When ready to display, they will inflate their horns and hide behind a rock, waiting for females to pass by. When one does, they will perform an elaborate and attractive display in front of the females. At the end of the display, the male will stretch to his full height and show off all of his ornaments.Females are brown. Males are usually red with blue, black, and white spots and freckles.

Although the least threatened of the tragopans, satyr tragopans still face many threats. The species is thought to have a moderately small population that is subject to hunting and habitat loss throughout most of its range.

Sirohi National Park

Shirui National Park is a national park located in the state of Manipur in India. It was established in 1982. Among the animals that make their homes here include the tragopan, the tiger and leopard. It is here that the famous shirui lily (Lilium maclineae) grows naturally. The main peak of Shirui abounds with flowers during the monsoon and it is a veritable paradise.

The Shirui Kashong Peak near Ukhrul is a marvelous hill top view point located at a height of 2,835 meters above sea level.

A number of rivers originate from the cracks and slopes of this peak. The exotic Shirui lily flower (Lilium mackliniae) blooms on the hilltop in May/June. The flower attracts hundreds of scientists and tourists every year.

Rare birds like Blyth s Tragopan and Mrs. Hume s bar-backed pheasant inhabit the hill top.

Temminck's tragopan

The Temminck's tragopan (Tragopan temminckii) is a medium-sized, approximately 64 cm long, pheasant in the genus Tragopan. The male is a stocky red-and-orange bird with white-spotted plumage, black bill and pink legs. It has a bare blue facial skin, inflatable dark-blue lappet and horns. The female is a white-spotted brown bird with blue circular eye skin.

Its appearance resembles the satyr tragopan, but unlike the latter species it has all red upperbody plumage and orange collar. The diet consists mainly of berries, grass and plants.

The Temminck's tragopan is found across the mountains of far northeast India, central China, far northern Myanmar to northwestern Tonkin.

Widespread and a common species throughout its large habitat range, the Temminck's tragopan is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

This bird's common name and Latin binomial commemorate the Dutch naturalist Coenraad Jacob Temminck.

Western tragopan

The western tragopan or western horned tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) is a medium-sized brightly plumed pheasant found along the Himalayas from north-eastern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in northern Pakistan in the west to Uttarakhand within India to the east. The species is highly endangered and globally threatened.

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