Traffic court

Traffic court is a specialized judicial process for handling traffic ticket cases. In the United States, people who are given a citation by a police officer can plead guilty and pay the indicated fine directly to the court house, by mail, or on the Internet. A person who wishes to plead not guilty or otherwise contest the charges is required to appear in court on the predetermined date on the citation, where he or she may argue before the judge or negotiate with the prosecutor before being called to appear in front of the judge. Most prosecutors will not negotiate with someone who does not have a lawyer. The person may also request a trial by written declaration in the following states: California, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Louisiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, and Wyoming.[1] In the case of a trial by written declaration, the accused does not have to be present in the court room; he or she may just explain the reason to defense for the case. The officer will also be required to turn in his or her declaration. The judge will then make a decision based on the declarations and evidence from both sides. At the conclusion of the written trial the accused is allowed to request a new in-person hearing if he or she is not satisfied with the outcome of the written trial, by filing a trial de novo request.[2][3]

More serious charges, such as a DUI or instances where the person in question may be responsible for injuries to another, may require the person to appear in court regardless of their plea. Some municipalities process guilty pleas of this nature without the presence of an actual judge, whereas others may require one to appear in court. Often these charges are handled by the larger criminal court.

Each state handles traffic matters in its own way. In most of New York State, for example, traffic matters are heard in the court for the city, town, or village where the alleged violation happened. The town and village courts are known as Justice Courts. Each municipality is free to decide how to handle traffic cases. A similar process is followed in Tennessee, though many southern states have varying procedures for paying the fine as a form of pleading guilty.[4] New York City traffic matters (and those of a few other locations) are heard in a special court called Traffic Violations Bureau, with a very different process. New Jersey handles traffic matters in the Municipal Court System, with the most serious cases heard in Superior Court. In Virginia, traffic court is general district court and speeding as low as 81 mph in a 70 is misdemeanor reckless driving.[5][6] In Washington, D.C., traffic tickets are handled by the Department of Motor Vehicles. In California, tickets are handled in Superior Court. Massachusetts tickets are heard in District Courts. In the City of Chicago, traffic tickets issued by Chicago Police Officers with no possibility of jail time are handled by the City's Law Department, frequently by law students. All other traffic violations (including those issued by state police) are dealt with by the Cook County State's Attorney.[7]

References

  1. ^ http://blog.motorists.org/trial-by-declaration-fight-a-traffic-ticket-without-going-to-court/
  2. ^ http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/forms/fillable/tr220.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/vctop/d17/vc40902.htm
  4. ^ Park, Sean. "How Tennessee Handles Traffic Court". The Park Law Firm. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  5. ^ http://www.courts.state.va.us/courts/gd/home.html
  6. ^ https://leavittmartinlaw.com/criminal-defense/reckless-driving/
  7. ^ http://www.cookcountycourt.org/ABOUTTHECOURT/MunicipalDepartment/FirstMunicipalDistrictChicago/TrafficSection/TrafficTickets.aspx

External links

Callowhill, Philadelphia

Callowhill is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is roughly located in the vicinity of Callowhill Street, between Vine Street, Spring Garden Street, Broad Street, and 8th Street. It is named for Hannah Callowhill Penn, William Penn's second wife. Callowhill was formerly home to large-scale manufacturing and other industries, of which an architectural history has been left in the form of grand old abandoned factories. During the 1970s and 1980s, the population of Callowhill plummeted, and although numbers are rising, it is a fairly unpopulated section of the city compared to surrounding neighborhoods. Recently developers have started to employ adaptive reuse projects, converting them into loft style housing; so much so that many have termed the neighborhood "The Loft District". In 2010 the Callowhill Industrial Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places.Callowhill is physically cut off from its neighbor to the south, Chinatown, by the Vine Street Expressway. This has largely prevented Chinese businesses from spreading north, although some industrial and storage uses by the Chinese community have been placed in Callowhill. Vine Street is also blamed for the abrupt drop in pedestrian life above Chinatown, and the struggle faced by efforts to redevelop this section of the city that lies between Center City and North Philadelphia.

The former Reading Railroad train trestle, the Reading Viaduct, is a defining feature of the Callowhill neighborhood. Neighborhood groups have proposed that the abandoned structure be maintained as a public park. The Reading Viaduct park plan gained momentum in 2009 when Philadelphia's Center City District (CCD), and its influential president Paul Levy, became enamored of the idea and ultimately became a partner to help manage the project. CCD announced on Tuesday, February 6, 2018 that the first phase of the quarter-mile-long, elevated park would open in spring 2018. The actual grand opening of The Rail park was held on June 14, 2018, attracting a large crowd.Philadelphia Traffic Court is in Callowhill, at Spring Garden Street and North 8th Street.

Delaware Court of Common Pleas

The Delaware Court of Common Pleas are state courts of the U.S. state of Delaware.

The Delaware Court of Common Pleas are trial courts and inferior courts of limited jurisdiction. It has criminal jurisdiction throughout the state over all misdemeanors, except certain drug offenses, and motor vehicle offenses (see traffic court). The Court of Common Pleas also holds preliminary hearings in felony cases,

In civil matters, Court of Common Pleas tries lawsuits in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $50,000 (small claims), petitions for name change, habitual offender hearings on the privilege of operating a motor vehicle, and administrative appeals from the Division of Motor Vehicles. The Court of Common Plea also has appellate jurisdiction of criminal matters from Alderman's Courts and criminal and civil matters from the Justice of the Peace Courts.

The Superior Court of Delaware is the court of general jurisdiction in Delaware. It has original jurisdiction in all felony cases and civil suits in which the amount in controversy exceeds $50,000. Appeals from the Court of Common Pleas generally go to the Superior Court.

The Court currently consists of nine judges sitting in Delaware's three counties: Five in New Castle County, two in Kent County, and two in Sussex County. The Court has three problem-solving court divisions: A Drug Diversion Program, a Community Dispute Resolution Program, and a Mental Health Court.

First Judicial District of Pennsylvania

The First Judicial District is the judicial body governing the county of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. It consists of the Court of Common Pleas, the Municipal Court, and Traffic Court for the jurisdiction of Philadelphia.

Although the title of the district is assigned by the Pennsylvania Unified Court System, the court operates under the county of Philadelphia. All judges serving on the bench are elected to serve their terms by registered voters in Philadelphia, rather than appointed by the executive branch of government. The First Judicial District's respective courts preside over all state and local jurisdiction civil and criminal matters that occur within the county of Philadelphia's borders.

Government of Richmond, Virginia

The government of Richmond, Virginia, headquartered at Richmond City Hall in Downtown, is organized under the Richmond, Virginia Charter and provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The mayor is elected to a four-year term and is responsible for the administration of city government. The Richmond City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 9 members, each elected from a geographic district, normally for four-year terms. The court system consists of two city courts and three state courts.

Richmond's government employs approximately 4,000 people. The city government being responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services. The city contains nine city council districts.

Hacienda Village

Hacienda Village (founded 1949) is a defunct town located in central Broward County, Florida in the United States. It possessed both a police and fire department as well as various other municipal agencies, yet still relied heavily on Broward County for many services. It was disincorporated in 1984 (allegedly having its charter revoked after the HVPD cited an influential state representative for a traffic infraction) and was subsequently absorbed into the nearby town of Davie, Florida.The community had a reputation for being a "speed trap." Steve Weller of the Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel stated that while Patton Village, Texas, an area known for a "speed trap," had reduced its monthly citation count from 1,100 to 400, "They tell me that, on a really cranky day, Hacienda Village speed trappers could issue that many tickets before lunch." The Mayor of Hacienda Village, "Red" Crise, originally from New Jersey, appointed himself the Police Chief, Fire Chief and Judge Magistrate. Crise presided over some 18 police officers as well as over a nightly traffic court. He apparently gloried in his reputation as a difficult person, once saying "If you're a redheaded man, you're either a sissy or a son of a bitch. I'm not a sissy."There was a highly visible Country & Western Nightclub called, "The Hacienda Inn" housed in a large building painted with huge contrasting polka dots. "Red" Crise was the owner/operator. As you passed through the front doorway, there was a sign that said, "No Hats". Hats had been known to "cause fights". Blacklights were used for lighting all but the bandstand causing the bottles of beer and people's teeth to glow. Local C & W bands played from 9:30 p.m. until 4:00 a.m. A jukebox supplied music during the band's 20 minute breaks.Hacienda Village was composed of 14 mobile homes and three junkyards. Residents were not taxed, as the town always had a healthy surplus of funds from traffic fines. The fines were a result of some fancy and obscure speed limit postings which were heavily enforced by highly efficient police officers.As with Andytown, it was crippled by the construction of the interstate system, for the Interstate 595 spur, along the State Road 84 corridor, removed most of its revenue, rerouting traffic from SR 84 to I-595. I-595 runs from the Hollywood/Fort Lauderdale International Airport at US 1 to the junction of I-75, where it veers west towards Andytown and Naples.

Hasty Road

Hasty Road (1951–1978) was an American thoroughbred racehorse which won the 1954 Preakness Stakes. In 1953, Hasty Road won six of his nine races including the Arlington Futurity and the Washington Park Futurity, and set a record for prize money won by a two-year-old. In 1954 Hasty Road defeated Determine in track record time in the Derby Trial and then finished second to the same horse in the Kentucky Derby. At Pimlico Race Course in May he recorded his most important victory when winning the Preakness Stakes by a neck from Correlation. The rest of his three-year-old campaign wasn't as good, but he returned to form to win the Widener Handicap in February 1955 before his racing career was ended by injury.

Janice Frey Van Ness

JaNice Frey Van Ness is a former American Republican politician from Georgia. Van Ness narrowly defeated Democratic State Representative Tonya Anderson in a December 1, 2015, runoff election for the then vacant State Senate District 43 seat, which covers portions of DeKalb, Rockdale, and Newton Counties.

The seat was vacant following Ronald Ramsey's resignation in July 2015 to become a judge on the DeKalb County traffic court.

Van Ness served two four-year terms as a Rockdale County commissioner. She was defeated in her 2014 re-election bid.

In the 2016 General Election, Van Ness had a rematch contest with Democrat Tonya Anderson, in which Van Ness was unseated.

Justice and Police Museum

The Justice and Police Museum is a heritage-listed former water police station, offices and courthouse and now justice and police museum located at 4-8 Phillip Street on the corner of Albert Street, in the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Edmund Blacket, Alexander Dawson and James Barnet and built from 1854 to 1886. It is also known as Police Station & Law Courts (former) and Traffic Court. The property is owned by the Department of Justice, a department of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Moving violation

A moving violation is any violation of the law committed by the driver of a vehicle while it is in motion. The term "motion" distinguishes it from other motor vehicle violations, such as paperwork violations (which include violations involving automobile insurance, registration and inspection), parking violations, or equipment violations. Moving violations often increase insurance premiums.

Nonoalco

Nonoalco (1971–1992) was an American-bred Thoroughbred racehorse who raced in France.

Open All Night (song)

"Open All Night" is a song written and recorded by rock musician Bruce Springsteen, which first appeared on Springsteen's 1982 solo album Nebraska.

Operation Greylord

Operation Greylord was an investigation conducted jointly by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the IRS Criminal Investigation Division, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, the Chicago Police Department Internal Affairs Division and the Illinois State Police into corruption in the judiciary of Cook County, Illinois (the Chicago jurisdiction). The FBI named the investigation "Operation Greylord" after the curly wigs worn by British judges.

Packingham v. North Carolina

Packingham v. North Carolina, 582 U.S. ___ (2017), is a United States Supreme Court decision holding that a North Carolina statute that prohibited sex offenders from accessing social media websites violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The case arose following the 2010 arrest of Lester Gerard Packingham, previously convicted of inappropriate sexual behavior with a minor in 2002 but having served his criminal punishment, for posting to Facebook to comment favorably on a recent traffic court experience in 2010. Packingham was charged under North Carolina's statute that prevented registered sex offenders from using social media sites. Challenged in state courts, Packingham argued that the statute violated his First Amendment rights and the ability to use such sites for daily use in the dot-com era, and eventually sought the United States Supreme Court to hear the case, asking the Court to use strict scrutiny when looking at First Amendment rights violations under this law.

In a unanimous judgment issued in June 2017, the Court ruled the North Carolina statute unconstitutional, and that social media — defined broadly enough to include Facebook, Amazon.com, the Washington Post, and WebMD — is considered a "protected space" under the First Amendment for lawful speech. The Court offered that North Carolina could protect children through less restrictive means, such as prohibiting "conduct that often presages a sexual crime, like contacting a minor or using a website to gather information about a minor".

Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 175

The 175th Pennsylvania House of Representatives District is located in Philadelphia County and includes the following areas:

Ward 02 [PART, Divisions 01, 15, 16, 25, 26 and 27]

Ward 05 [PART, Divisions 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26 and 27]

Ward 18 [PART, Divisions 02, 04, 05, 06, 07, 10, 11, 12 and 17]

Ward 25 [PART, Divisions 09, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 24]

Ward 31 [PART, Divisions 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14]

Philadelphia Municipal Court

The Philadelphia Municipal Court is a trial court of limited jurisdiction seated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It has 27 judges elected by the voters of Philadelphia. The Municipal Court has three divisions: the Criminal Division, the Civil Division, and the Traffic Division. Within the Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania, it serves as a substitute for the magisterial district courts that serve the rest of the Commonwealth. It is a part of the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania.

The Criminal Division hears trials for misdemeanors and summary offenses. It also hears preliminary matters in felony cases before they are transferred to the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas. The Criminal Division is seated at the Justice Juanita Kidd Stout Center for Criminal Justice.The Civil Division has jurisdiction over small claims, landlord tenant evictions, and civil enforcement claims by the City of Philadelphia for violations of the Philadelphia Code. The maximum principal amount allowed to be filed for is $12,000. However, there is no limit for landlord tenant evictions in cases that leave the landlord with back rent and damages. The Civil Division is seated at the Widener Building at 1339 Chestnut Street (adjoining One South Broad).The Traffic Division of Municipal Court was established by Act 17 of 2013 of the Pennsylvania General Assembly which abolished the former Philadelphia Traffic Court and transferred its jurisdiction to the Municipal Court. The Traffic Division is seated at the Traffic Court's former facilities at 800 Spring Garden Street, making it the only courthouse in Philadelphia outside Center City (at least by some definitions).

Police tribunal (Belgium)

The police tribunal (Dutch: politierechtbank, French: tribunal de police, German: Polizeigericht) is the traffic court and trial court which tries minor contraventions in the judicial system of Belgium. It is the lowest Belgian court with criminal jurisdiction (in addition to some limited civil jurisdiction). There is a police tribunal for each judicial arrondissement ("district"), except for Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde, where there are multiple police tribunals due to the area's sensitive political situation. Most of them hear cases in multiple seats per arrondissement. As of 2018, there are 15 police tribunals in total, who hear cases in 38 seats. Further below, an overview is provided of all seats of the police tribunal per judicial arrondissement.A police tribunal is chaired by a judge of the police tribunal, more commonly called police judge (Dutch: politierechter, French: juge de police, German: Polizeirichter). Police judges are professional, law-trained magistrates who are, like all judges in Belgium, appointed for life until their retirement age. The police judges hear cases as single judges, but are always assisted by a clerk. There is also a prosecutor from the public prosecutor's office present who prosecutes (suspected) offenders in the criminal cases the police tribunal hears. The defendants, as well as any victim seeking civil damages, can be assisted or represented by counsel, but this is not required. Lawyers or notaries can act as locum tenens police judge whenever a judge is absent. The organisation of the police tribunals and the applicable rules of civil procedure and criminal procedure are laid down in the Belgian Judicial Code and the Belgian Code of Criminal Procedure. Mind the fact that, despite their name, the police tribunals are not organisationally related to the police.

The Scofflaw

"The Scofflaw" is the 99th episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. It was the 13th episode for the sixth season. It aired on January 26, 1995.

Traffic ticket

A traffic ticket is a notice issued by a law enforcement official to a motorist or other road user, indicating that the user has violated traffic laws. Traffic tickets generally come in two forms, citing a moving violation, such as exceeding the speed limit, or a non-moving violation, such as a parking violation, with the ticket also being referred to as a parking citation, or parking ticket.

In some jurisdictions, a traffic ticket constitutes a notice that a penalty, such as a fine or deduction of points, has been or will be assessed against the driver or owner of a vehicle; failure to pay generally leads to prosecution or to civil recovery proceedings for the fine. In others, the ticket constitutes only a citation and summons to appear at traffic court, with a determination of guilt to be made only in court.

William F. Keller

William F. "Bill" Keller (born January 19, 1951) is an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.

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