Traffic code (also motor vehicle code) refers to the collection of local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been officially adopted in the United States to govern the orderly operation and interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others upon the public (and sometimes private) ways.
The traffic code generally includes provisions relating to the establishment of authority and enforcement procedures, statement of the rules of the road, and other safety provisions. Administrative regulations for driver licensing, vehicle ownership and registration, insurance, vehicle safety inspections and parking violations may also be included, though not always directly related to driving safety. Violations of traffic code (i.e., a "moving violation") are often dealt with by forfeiting a fine in response to receiving a valid citation ("getting a ticket"). Other violations, such as drunk driving or vehicular homicide are handled through the criminal courts, although there may also be civil and administrative cases that arise from the same violation (including payment of damages and loss of driving privileges). In some jurisdictions there is a separate code-enforcement branch of government that handles illegal parking and other non-moving violations (e.g., noise and other emissions, illegal equipment). Elsewhere, there may be multiple overlapping police agencies patrolling for violations of state or federal driving regulations.
In 1949, US is involved in the treaty named Convention sur la circulation routière (Genève, 19 September 1949) in the goal to «establishing certain uniform rules». Such treaty defines for instance dimension of vehicles: 2m50 or 8 feet 20 and in the other side 3m80 or 12 feet 50 or a model of driving permit (USA ratification 30 August 1950). It also assumes existence of national legislation in this domain.
In the United States each state has its own traffic code, although most of the rules of the road are similar for the purpose of uniformity, given that all states grant reciprocal driving privileges (and penalties) to each other's licensed drivers. There is also a "Uniform Vehicle Code" which has been proposed by a private, non-profit group, based upon input by its members. As with many such offerings, some states adopt selected portions as written, or else with modifications, and others create their own versions. Similarly, most states have adopted relevant standards for signs and signals, based upon the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices from the U.S. Department of Transportation. Many of the standard rules of the road involve consistent interpretation of the standard signs and signals, such as what to do when approaching a stop sign, or the driving requirements imposed by a double yellow line on the street or highway. Many federal departments have also adopted their own traffic code for enforcement on their respective reservations (e.g., national parks, military bases).
List of some standard Rules of the Road:
Most countries define a national legislation relative to car driving and penalties. Most of those regulation have some common basis to help people driving from one country to one other: Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals have helped this harmonization effort.
Road, driving and traffic regulations are the subject to specific codification of the law in countries such as:
In Morocco, the law «loi n°52-05 portant code de la route» deals with a new traffic code, approved on 14 January 2009, and adopted on 11 February 2010 (26 safar 1431).
In Belgium this regulation is not a code although it is road traffic specific. It is defined by Koninklijk besluit houdende algemeen reglement op de politie van het wegverkeer en van het gebruik van de openbare weg. [KB. 09.12.1975].
In Switzerland, this legislation is not considered as code it is legislation number 741.01.
In United Kingdom there is no codification. Some piece of laws such as a Road Traffic Act and a Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions do exist; a book named Highway Code is edited by public entity with guidelines based and/or compatible with local law.
In European Union federal level, legislation is more oriented on transport competition and not on sharing the road. There is some effort oriented to issues such as driving license and car control.
See also small-mini-drafts:
Anton Loibl GmbH was a company owned by the SS which was a funding source for the Ahnenerbe research branch and the Lebensborn eugenics programme. It was created to market a bicycle reflector invented by Anton Loibl, a chauffeur for Hitler. It employed slave labour.
Anton Loibl, a former long-term chauffeur for Hitler and a decorated SS-Hauptsturmführer (Ernst Röhm had obtained the driver's job for him in the early 1920s, and he had spent time in prison after participating in the Beerhall Putsch in 1923), was a part-time inventor; while working as a machinist and driving instructor, he invented a reflector for bicycle pedals which incorporated glass chips. Heinrich Himmler, who was acquainted with Loibl, ensured that he was awarded the patent in preference to an earlier applicant, and the company was established in September 1936 in Berlin by Himmler's Personal Office in order to market it. In his capacity as police chief of the Reich, Himmler had a requirement added to the traffic code on 13 November 1937 which required all newly manufactured bicycles to incorporate these reflectors. The bicycle manufacturers had to pay a licence fee, which amounted to 600,000 ℛℳ in 1939.Loibl was initially a co-director and co-owner of the company, and received 50% of the income, altogether approximately 500,000 ℛℳ; he was removed for incompetence at the end of 1939 or early in 1940. (An internal report dated June 1939 pointed out Himmler's use of his power for the benefit of the company and criticised Loibl's personally profiting from it.) Additionally, Himmler directed the company to pay substantial sums (290,000 ℛℳ a year) to the Ahnenerbe and the Lebensborn; financing these had been the primary purpose of its establishment. The Ahnenerbe had chronic financing problems for some years and in 1937 the Reichsnährstand had reduced its funding and Himmler set up a foundation to channel funds to it, including from the Loibl concern. The Ahnenerbe's share of the Loibl funds was 77,740 ℛℳ in 1938; the Lebensborn received from 100,000 to 150,000 per year from 1939 on. At the Nuremberg Trials the Loibl company was described as "still earning considerable funds for 'Ahnenerbe'".Chartered to develop "technical articles of all kinds", the company later diversified and also sold other products, such as a patented lamp.By the end of the 1930s, when Germany had achieved full employment, the SS enterprises were using slave labour, including from concentration camps. In January 1938, Loibl showed a visitor around a testing laboratory for aircraft motors at Dachau.In December 1963 the reflectors were still required on German bicycles.Australian Road Rules
The Australian Road Rules are a set of model road rules developed by the National Road Transport Commission which form the basis for state and territory road rules across Australia. The first edition of the rules was published on 19 October 1999, after decades of working towards a shared road safety policy with officials from jurisdictions across Australia. Australians drive on the left.Bursa Province
Bursa Province (Turkish: Bursa ili) is a province in Turkey, along the Sea of Marmara coast in northwestern Anatolia. Its adjacent provinces are Balıkesir to the west, Kütahya to the south, Bilecik and Sakarya to the east, Kocaeli to the northeast and Yalova to the north. The province has an area of 11,043 km2 and a population of 2,842,547 (2015). Its population was 2,125,140 according to the 2000 census. In 1990 it had a population of 1,603,137. The traffic code is 16.
The vast majority of the Bursa Province districts (and the city of Bursa) are located within the Marmara Region; but the districts of Büyükorhan, Harmancık, Keles and Orhaneli are located within the Aegean Region.
The city of Bursa was the capital of the Ottoman State between 1326 and 1365, until the Ottoman conquest of Edirne (Adrianople) which became the new Ottoman capital between 1365 and 1453 (the year when Istanbul (Constantinople) became the final Ottoman capital until 1923.)Civil penalty
A civil penalty or civil fine is a financial penalty imposed by a government agency as restitution for wrongdoing. The wrongdoing is typically defined by a codification of legislation, regulations, and decrees. The civil fine is not considered to be a criminal punishment, because it is primarily sought in order to compensate the state for harm done to it, rather than to punish the wrongful conduct. As such, a civil penalty, in itself, will not carry jail time or other legal penalties. For example, if a person were to dump toxic waste in a state park, the state would have the same right to seek to recover the cost of cleaning up the mess as would a private landowner, and to bring the complaint to a court of law, if necessary.
Civil penalties occupy a strange place in some legal systems - because they are not criminal penalties, the state need not meet a burden of proof that is "beyond a reasonable doubt"; but because the action is brought by the government, and some civil penalties can run into the millions of dollars, it would be uncomfortable to subject citizens to them by a burden of proof that is merely a "preponderance of the evidence." Therefore, the assessment of most civil penalties requires a finding of "clear and convincing evidence" before a civil defendant will be held liable. A defendant may well raise excuses, justifications, affirmative defenses, and procedural defenses. An administrative law judge or hearing officer may oversee the proceedings and render a judgment. Judgment is made on the balance of probabilities, meaning if it is more than fifty percent likely that the accused is responsible then the accused shall be found guilty.
In some cases, a civil penalty may be supplemented by other legal process, including administrative sanctions or even criminal charges, and their respective appeals. For example, failure to pay a fine assessed for a traffic code violation may result in administrative suspension of a driver's license, and further driving after suspension may be a criminal offense. On the other hand, a minimal case may be "put on file", or otherwise suspended for a period during which the defendant may be required to avoid further violations, or carry out specific duties (such as making repairs or restitution, or attending supplemental education), after which the matter is dismissed.
In other cases, such as public safety and consumer protection violations, the local authorities may revoke permits and licenses, and seek injunction to stop or remove non-conforming works or goods, in addition to the civil penalty.
Pending or admitted civil violations may also be used as evidence of responsibility in a civil suit. One example is speeding causing in a car accident, resulting in a wrongful death claim. However, the plaintiff may be required to prove causation through a harm encompassed in the regulations.Driver's education
Driver's education, driver education, driving education, driver's ed, or driving tuition or driving lessons is a formal class or program that prepares a new driver to obtain a learner's permit or driver's license. The formal class program may also prepare existing license holders for an overseas license conversion or medical assessment driving test or refresher course. It may take place in a classroom, in a vehicle, online, or a combination of the above. Topics of instruction include traffic code or laws and vehicle operation. Typically, instruction will warn of dangerous conditions in driving such as road conditions, driver impairments, and hazardous weather. Instructional videos may also be shown, demonstrating proper driving strategies and the consequences for not observing the rules.
Education is intended to supplement the knowledge obtained from government-printed driving handbooks or manuals and prepares students for tests to obtain a driver's license or learner's permit. In-car instruction places a student in a vehicle with an instructor. A car fitted with dual controls, which has pedals or other controls on the passenger side, may be used.Federal Highway Police (Brazil)
The Brazilian Federal Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Federal or PRF) is a federal highway patrol, subordinate to the Ministry of Justice, whose main function is fighting crime on Brazilian federal roads and highways, as well as monitoring and supervising vehicular traffic, although it has also taken on duties that go beyond its original authority, such as action within Brazilian cities and forests in conjunction with other public safety agencies.
It was subordinate to the old National Department of Roadways (Departamento Nacional de Estradas de Rodagem or DNER), now the National Department of Transport Infrastructure (Departamento Nacional de Infra-Estrutura de Transportes or DNIT), until the publication of Law 8,028 of 12 April 1990, which redefined the structure of the Brazilian executive branch.
Its competences are defined by article 144 of the Federal Constitution and by Law 9,503 (Brazilian Traffic Code), by Decree 1655 of 3 October 1995 and by its internal regulation, approved by Ministerial Decree 1,375 of 2 August 2007.
The title patrolman given to the members was abolished in 1998, replaced by the title "police". Members of the PRF are divided into four classes: Third, Second, First and Special.
Since 2009, entry into the PRF already required a university education degree recognized by the Ministry of Education. Condition now described in Law 9,654.Fish (cryptography)
Fish (sometimes FISH) was the UK's GC&CS Bletchley Park codename for any of several German teleprinter stream ciphers used during World War II. Enciphered teleprinter traffic was used between German High Command and Army Group commanders in the field, so its intelligence value (Ultra) was of the highest strategic value to the Allies. This traffic normally passed over landlines, but as German forces extended their geographic reach beyond western Europe, they had to resort to wireless transmission.Bletchley Park decrypts of messages enciphered with the Enigma machines revealed that the Germans called one of their wireless teleprinter transmission systems "Sägefisch" (sawfish) which led British cryptographers to refer to encrypted German radiotelegraphic traffic as Fish. The code Tunny (tunafish) was the name given to the first non-Morse link, and it was subsequently used for the Lorenz SZ machines and the traffic enciphered by them.Kahramanmaraş Province
Kahramanmaraş Province (Turkish: Kahramanmaraş ili) is a province of Turkey. Its provincial capital is the city of Kahramanmaraş, the traffic code is 46.Karaman Province
Karaman Province (Turkish: Karaman ili) is a province of south-central Turkey. It has an area of 9,163 km2. It has a population of 232,633 (2010 est). According to the 2000 census the population was 243,210. Population density is 27.54 people/km2. The traffic code is 70. The capital is the city of Karaman. Karaman was the location of the Karamanid emirate, which came to an end in 1486.Kocaeli Province
Kocaeli Province (Turkish: Kocaeli ili, pronounced [koˈdʒaeli]) is a province of Turkey and one of only two to not have the same official name as its capital, İzmit, which is thus also sometimes called Kocaeli. The province is the successor of the Ottoman-era Sanjak of Kocaeli. The largest towns in the province are İzmit and Gebze. The traffic code is 41. The province is located at the easternmost end of the Marmara Sea around the Gulf of İzmit. Kocaeli is bordered by the province of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, the province of Sakarya to the east, the province of Bursa to the south and the province of Yalova to the southwest. The metropolitan area of Istanbul extends to the Kocaeli-Istanbul provincial border. The size and natural conditions of the Bay of İzmit allow for extensive port facilities, including the Gölcük Naval Base. The province is called the industrial capital of Turkey. Kocaeli has an airport named Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station which is used for military and civilian transport. Kocaeli has two universities: Kocaeli University and Gebze Technical University.Konya Province
Konya Province (Turkish: Konya ili) is a province of Turkey in central Anatolia. The provincial capital is the city of Konya. By area it is the largest province of Turkey. Its traffic code is 42.
The Kızören solar power plant in Konya will be able to produce 22.5 megawatts of electricity in an area of 430,000 square meters.Land Transportation Office (Philippines)
The Land Transportation Office (Filipino: Tanggapan ng Transportasyong-Lupa or LTO) is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Transportation and is responsible for all land transportation in the Philippines. Functions of the Land Transportation Office include the inspection and registration of motor vehicles, issuance of license and permits, enforcement of land transportation rules and regulations, adjudication of traffic cases, and the collection of revenues for the government of the Philippines.Its primary mission is to rationalize the land transportation services and facilities and to effectively implement the various transportation laws, rules, and regulations. It believes that it is the responsibility of those involved in the public service to be more vigilant in their part in the over-all development scheme of national leadership. Hence, the promotion of safety and comfort in land travel is one of LTO's continuing commitments. It aims to be a frontline government agency that showcases fast and efficient public service for a progressive land transport sector.Manisa Province
Manisa Province (Turkish: Manisa ili) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir to the west, Aydın to the south, Denizli to the southeast, Uşak to the east, Kütahya to the northeast, and Balıkesir to the north. The city of Manisa is the seat and capital of the province. The traffic code is 45.Samsun Province
Samsun Province (Turkish: Samsun ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast with a population of 1,252,693 (2010). Its adjacent provinces are Sinop on the northwest, Çorum on the west, Amasya on the south, Tokat on the southeast on the east. Its traffic code is 55. The provincial capital is Samsun, one of the most populated cities in Turkey.Trabzon Province
Trabzon Province (Turkish: Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers, though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language.Woonerf
A woonerf (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋoːnɛrf]) is a living street, as originally implemented in the Netherlands and in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium. Techniques include shared space, traffic calming, and low speed limits. Under Article 44 of the Dutch traffic code, motorised traffic in a woonerf or "recreation area" is restricted to walking pace.The term "woonerf" has been adopted directly by some English-language publications. In the UK, these areas are called home zones. In the US, complete streets are a distinct concept where equal priority is given to all modes of transportation including automobiles, bicycles, and pedestrians, usually with separate rather than shared right-of-way.Çorum Province
Çorum (Turkish: Çorum İli) is a province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, but lying inland and having more characteristics of Central Anatolia than the Black Sea coast. Its provincial capital is the city of Çorum, the traffic code is 19.İzmir Province
İzmir Province (Turkish: İzmir ili) is a province and metropolitan municipality of Turkey in western Anatolia, situated along the Aegean coast. Its capital is the city of İzmir, which is in itself composed of the province's central 11 districts out of 30 in total. To the west, it is surrounded by the Aegean Sea, and it encloses the Gulf of Izmir. Its area is 11,973 square kilometres (4,623 square miles), with a population of 4,279,677 in 2017. The population was 3,370,866 in 2000. Neighboring provinces are Balıkesir to the north, Manisa to the east, and Aydın to the south. The traffic code of the province is 35.
Major rivers of the province include the Küçük Menderes river, Koca Çay (with Güzelhisar dam), and Bakırçay.Şanlıurfa Province
Şanlıurfa Province (Turkish: Şanlıurfa ili) or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,845,667 (2014).
The province is famous for its Abrahamic sites such as Balıklıgöl, where Prophet Abraham was cast by Nimrod into fire that is believed to have turned to water, and Mevlid-i Halil Mosque where Abraham was born in the cave next to the mosque. Also lying within the district, approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa, is the pre-historic site of Göbekli Tepe, where continuing excavations have unearthed 12,000-year-old sanctuaries dating from the early Neolithic period, considered to be the oldest temples in the world, predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years.
Population in 1990 was 1,001,455; 551,124 in the district centers, 450,331 in rural villages. By 2000, the population of Şanlıurfa province had grown to 1,436,956 and that of Urfa city, 829,000. Its provincial capital is the city of Urfa, the traffic code is 63.
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