Trafalgar Square

Trafalgar Square (/trəˈfælɡər/ trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar.

The site of Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and originally contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999.

The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday in 1887, the culmination of the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, and campaigns against climate change. A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removals in the early 21st century.

Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square, London 2 - Jun 2009
View of the square in 2009
Trafalgar Square is located in City of Westminster
Trafalgar Square
Location within Central London
Former name(s)Charing Cross
NamesakeBattle of Trafalgar
Maintained byGreater London Authority
LocationCity of Westminster, London, England
Postal codeWC2
Coordinates51°30′29″N 00°07′41″W / 51.50806°N 0.12806°WCoordinates: 51°30′29″N 00°07′41″W / 51.50806°N 0.12806°W
NorthCharing Cross Road
EastThe Strand
SouthNorthumberland Avenue
Whitehall
WestThe Mall
Construction
Completionc. 1840
Other
DesignerSir Charles Barry
Websitewww.london.gov.uk/trafalgarsquare

Etymology

The name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar (طرف الغار 'cape of the cave/laurel')[1][2][3] or Taraf al-Gharb (طرف الغرب 'cape of the west').[4][3]

Geography

Trafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown[a] and managed by the Greater London Authority, while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace.[6] The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London.[7] The square was formerly surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic.[8]

Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939[9] (replacements for two of Peterhead granite, now in Canada) and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer.[10] At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.

Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east.[10] Also on the east is South Africa House, and facing it across the square is Canada House. To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church.[7]

London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line,[11] which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999.[12] Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines.[13]

London bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 pass through Trafalgar Square.[14]

A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital.[15]

Trafalgar Square, 1908
Trafalgar Square, 1908
A 360-degree view of Trafalgar Square in 2009
A 360-degree view of Trafalgar Square in 2009

History

Trafalgar Square by James Pollard
A painting by James Pollard showing the square before the erection of Nelson's Column

Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, rhinoceros, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus.[16][17][18]

The site of Trafalgar Square has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign, the area was the site of the King's Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall coming north from Westminster.[19] From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting; "mew" is an old word for this. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace.[20]

Clearance and development

After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent. Its site is occupied by the National Gallery.[21]

In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy.[22] The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road (now called Duncannon Street) across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields.[23] The Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after.[22] Nash died soon after construction started, impeding its progress. The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830.[24] Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars.[19][25]

Trafalgar Square 1890 - ten remaining frames by Wordsworth Donisthorpe
Ten frames of Trafalgar Square shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890

After the clearance, development progressed slowly. The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins,[22] and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins' plan for the laying out of the square, but it was not put into effect.[26] In April 1840, following Wilkins' death, new plans by Charles Barry were accepted, and construction started within weeks.[22][27] For Barry, as for Wilkins, a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery, which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur. He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street and the Strand,[28] and constructing a 15-foot (4.6 m) high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side, and steps at each end leading to the main level.[27] Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps.[26] Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite.[27] In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout.[29] The estimated budget, excluding paving and sculptures, was £11,000.[27] The earth removed was used to level Green Park.[28] The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam, which was replaced with stone in the 1920s.[30]

Trafalgar Square was opened to the public on 1 May 1844.[31]

Nelson's Column

Lion-nelson-column-trafalgar-london-uk
The lions at Nelson's Column were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened.

Nelson's Column was planned independently of Barry's work. In 1838 a Nelson Memorial Committee had approached the government proposing that a monument to the victor of Trafalgar, funded by public subscription, should be erected in the square. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218-foot-3-inch (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. The design was approved, but received widespread objections from the public. Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches (44.27 m).[32] The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843.[33]

The last of the bronze reliefs on the column's pedestals was not completed until May 1854, and the four lions, although part of the original design, were only added in 1867.[34] Each lion weighs seven tons.[35] A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson's Column for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place.[36] Landseer, the sculptor, had asked for a lion that had died at the London Zoo to be brought to his studio. He took so long to complete sketches that its corpse began to decompose and some parts had to be improvised. The statues have paws that resemble cats more than lions.[37]

Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column being placed in the square. In July 1840, when its foundations had been laid, he told a parliamentary select committee that "it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art".[27]

In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin[b] after an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972).[38]

The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996.[39]

Redevelopment

A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Atkins with Foster and Partners as sub-consultants was completed in 2003. The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square, demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners.[40][41]

Statues and monuments

Plinths

Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square.[42] A bronze equestrian statue of George IV by Sir Francis Chantrey, originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch,[22] was installed on the eastern plinth in 1844, while the other remained empty until late in the 20th century.[42] There are two other statues on plinths, both installed during the 19th century: General Sir Charles James Napier by George Cannon Adams in the south-west corner in 1855, and Major-General Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes in the south-east in 1861.[22] In 2000, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public.[43]

Fourth plinth

In the 21st century, the empty plinth in the north-west corner of the square, the "Fourth Plinth", has been used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth Commission, appointed by the Mayor of London.[44]

Other sculptures

There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. Those of Lord Jellicoe (by Sir Charles Wheeler) and Lord Beatty (by William MacMillan) were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square's fountains, which also commemorate them.[45][46] The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham (by Franta Belsky) was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967.[47]

On the south side of Trafalgar Square, on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678.[48]

The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II by Grinling Gibbons to the west of the portico, and of one George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east.[41] The latter was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia, installed in 1921.[49]

Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed. One of Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was set up in the south-west corner of the square in 1858, next to that of Napier. Sculpted by William Calder Marshall, it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose, and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert. It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862.[50][51] The other, of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft, was erected on an 18-foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888. It was removed in 1943 and re-sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later.[52]

Fountains

Trafalgar square fountain, June 7 2014
Fountain at Trafalgar Square, 2014

In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly.[53] The fountains were fed from two wells, one in front of the National Gallery and one behind it connected by a tunnel. Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery.[22]

In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains. The new centrepieces, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty, although busts of the admirals, initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War.[54] The fountains cost almost £50,000. The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre.[55][56]

A programme of restoration was completed by May 2009. The pump system was replaced with one capable of sending an 80-foot (24 m) jet of water into the air.[57] A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics.[55]

Pigeons

People feeding pigeons in Trafalgar Square c.1993
People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square

The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity. Pigeons began flocking to the square before construction was completed and feed sellers became well known in the Victorian era.[58] The desirability of the birds' presence was contentious: their droppings disfigured the stonework and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered a health hazard.[59][60] A stall seller, Bernie Rayner, infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices.[61]

In February 2001, the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped[59] and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey.[62] Supporters continued to feed the birds but in 2003 the mayor, Ken Livingstone, enacted bylaws to ban feeding them in the square.[63] In September 2007 Westminster City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area.[64] Nelson's column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of £140,000.[61]

Events

New Year

For many years, revellers celebrating the New Year have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged. The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers.[65]

Christmas

Trafalgar Square Christmas tree8
The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree in 2008

A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947.[66] A Norway spruce (or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo as London's Christmas tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II.[66] (Besides war-time support, Norway's Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war.[66])

The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony.[67] It is usually held twelve days before Christmas Day. The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people.[68] The switch-on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas carol singing and other performances and events.[69] On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. Westminster City Council threatened to abandon the event to save £5,000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed.[66]

The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo's municipal forest and shipped, across the North Sea to the Port of Felixstowe, then by road to Trafalgar Square. The first tree was 48 feet (15 m) tall, but more recently has been around 75 feet (23 m). In 1987, protesters chained themselves to the tree.[66] In 1990, a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year's Eve party was scheduled to take place. He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane.[70]

Political demonstrations

Rally in Trafalgar Square
A demonstration in Trafalgar Square

The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country's foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Since its construction, it has been a venue for political demonstrations.[41] The great Chartist rally in 1848, a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square.[41] A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests. On 8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887.[71]

The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's first Aldermaston March, protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), began in the square in 1958.[41] One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons. In March 1968, a crowd of 10,000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square.[72]

DemonstrationAgainstAntiTerrorismLawLondon23Jan
Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti-terrorism law, 23 January 2010

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. In 1990, the Poll Tax Riots began by a demonstration attended by 200,000 people and ultimately caused rioting in the surrounding area.[41] More recently, there have been anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War.[73] A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday, 7 July 2005.[74]

In December 2009, participants from the Camp for Climate Action occupied the square for the two weeks during which the UN Conference on Climate Change took place in Copenhagen.[75] It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation.[76][77][78]

In March 2011, the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts. During the night the situation turned violent as the escalation by riot police and protesters damaged portions of the square.[79] In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held. Crowds sang the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, and held banners in support of the city and country.[80]

Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar.[81] The Royal British Legion holds a Silence in the Square event on Armistice Day, 11 November, in remembrance of those who died in war. The event includes music and poetry readings, culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post and a two-minute silence at 11 am.[82]

Sport

In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion.[83] The square was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup,[84] and on 13 September 2005 for the England national cricket team's victory in the Ashes series.[85]

On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square hosted the announcement of London's bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics.[86] A countdown clock was erected in March 2011, although engineering and weather-related faults caused it to stop a day later.[87] In 2007, it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France[88] and was part of the course for subsequent races.[89]

Other uses

Trafalgar Square Grass - May 2007
Trafalgar Square temporarily grassed over in May 2007

The Sea Cadets hold an annual celebration of the Battle of Trafalgar victory along the square. The parade runs from Horse Guard's Parade, along Whitehall to Nelson's Column.[90]

As an archetypal London location, Trafalgar Square featured in film and television productions during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers,[91] Casino Royale,[92] Doctor Who,[93] and The Ipcress File.[94] It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[95] In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city.[96]

In July 2011, due to building works in Leicester Square, the world premiere of the final film in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, was held in Trafalgar Square, with a 0.75-mile (1.21 km) red carpet linking the squares. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. It was the first film premiere ever to be held there.[97]

Other Trafalgar Squares

Trafalgar Square, Sunderland 1
Trafalgar Square in Sunderland: a group of merchant seamen's almshouses dating from 1840.

A Trafalgar Square in Stepney is recorded in Lockie's Topography of London, published in 1810.[98] Trafalgar Square in Scarborough, North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square End at the town's North Marine Road cricket ground.[99]

National Heroes Square in Bridgetown, Barbados, was named Trafalgar Square in 1813, before its better-known British namesake. It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados.[100] There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents.[101]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Queen in Right of the Crown" is legal fiction denoting the land is privately owned by the Queen and it is legally possible, though unlikely, to be sold to another individual. The Crown Jewels are under similar ownership.[5]
  2. ^ Hitler had specifically requested that all of Rembrandt's paintings in the National Gallery be seized as part of the move, as he particularly admired the artist's work.[38]

Citations

  1. ^ A page of a professor of the Facultad de Filología of the Universidad de Salamanca
  2. ^ Entry algar, in DRAE dictionary
  3. ^ a b Richard Burton, The Arabian Nights (vol. 9)'s footnote 82
  4. ^ Prof. Joseph E. Garreau, A Cultural Introduction to the Languages of Europe
  5. ^ "The convenient fiction of who owns priceless treasure". The Guardian. 30 May 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Trafalgar Square (Hansard, 27 November 2003)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 27 November 2003. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Trafalgar Square". Google Maps. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  8. ^ "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Boon to Pedestrians In Central London". The New York Times. 3 August 2003. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  9. ^ Barker 2005, p. 43.
  10. ^ a b Thornbury, Walter (1878). Trafalgar Square and the National Gallery. Old and New London. 3. London. pp. 141–149. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  11. ^ Clayton, Antony (2000). Subterranean City: Beneath the Streets of London. Historical Publications. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-948667-69-5.
  12. ^ "Take a behind-the-scenes tour of the disused parts of Charing Cross tube station". Time Out. 16 April 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  13. ^ "Standard tube map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  14. ^ "Central London Bus Map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  15. ^ Where Is The Centre Of London? Archived 18 January 2010 at WebCite BBC
  16. ^ Sutcliffe, A.J. (1985). On the track of Ice Age mammals. https://archive.org/stream/ontrackoficeagem00sutc: Harvard University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0674637771.
  17. ^ Franks, J.W. (1960). "Interglacial deposits at Trafalgar Square, London". The New Phytologist. 59 (2): 145–150. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1960.tb06212.x. JSTOR 2429192. (Subscription required (help)).
  18. ^ J W Franks (9 September 1959). "Interglacial Deposits at Trafalgar Square, London". New Phytologist. 59 (2): 145–152. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1960.tb06212.x.
  19. ^ a b Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 934.
  20. ^ "The History of the Royal Mews". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  21. ^ Mace 1976, p. 29.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g G. H. Gater (1940). F. R. Hiorns, ed. "Trafalgar Square and the National Gallery". Survey of London. 20: St Martin-in-the-Fields, pt III: Trafalgar Square & Neighbourhood: 15–18. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  23. ^ Mace 1976, p. 37.
  24. ^ Moore 2003, p. 176.
  25. ^ Cardinal, Marc (2010). Wanderlust: Based on the true-life journals of Sydney Taylor. AuthorHouse. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-4490-7907-9.
  26. ^ a b "Design for a national Naval Monument". The Architectural Magazine and Journal. 4: 524. 1837. quoting the ' 'Observer' ' of 24 September 1837
  27. ^ a b c d e Report from the Select Committee on Trafalgar Square together with the Minutes of Evidence, Printed by the House of Commons, 1840, retrieved 6 October 2011
  28. ^ a b "Public Buildings &c Trafalgar Square". The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal. 3: 255. 1840.
  29. ^ Mace 1976, p. 107.
  30. ^ Bradley, Simon; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2003). London 6: Westminster. The Buildings of England. Yale UniversityPress.
  31. ^ Cunningham, Peter (1849). "London Occurrences 1837–1843". Handbook of London Past and Present. London: John Murray. p. lxv. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  32. ^ Moore 2003, p. 177.
  33. ^ Mace 1976, p. 90.
  34. ^ Mace 1976, pp. 107–8.
  35. ^ Bow Bells – A Magazine of General Literature, John Dicks, 1867, archived from the original on 2 April 2017, retrieved 31 March 2017
  36. ^ "Opening of Trafalgar Square". The Times. 31 July 1839. p. 6.
  37. ^ "The faulty lions of Trafalgar Square". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  38. ^ a b Longmate 2012, p. 137.
  39. ^ Historic England, "Trafalgar Square (1001362)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 11 July 2017
  40. ^ "Trafalgar Square redevelopment". Foster+Partners. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 935.
  42. ^ a b "Suggestions for Trafalgar Square's Vacant Plinth". Government News. 27 December 1999. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  43. ^ Paul Kelso (20 October 2000). "Mayor attacks generals in battle of Trafalgar Square". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  44. ^ "Fourth Plinth". Greater London Council. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  45. ^ Baker, Margatet (2008), Discovering London Statues and Monuments, Osprey Publishing, p. 9
  46. ^ "McMillan, William (1887–1977)". Your Archives, The National Archives. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  47. ^ Bust of Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope by Franta Belsky, Your Archives, The National Archives, archived from the original on 24 February 2013, retrieved 27 November 2007
  48. ^ John Gorton: A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland, 1833, p. 687
  49. ^ Weinreb et al. 2008, p. 875.
  50. ^ "The Jenner Monument". Dublin Hospital Gazette. 5: 176. 1858.
  51. ^ Edward Walford (1878). "Kensington Gardens". Old and New London: Volume 5. Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  52. ^ Mace 1976, pp. 125–126.
  53. ^ Mace 1976, p. 87.
  54. ^ Mace 1976, pp. 130–1.
  55. ^ a b Kennedy, Maev (29 May 2009), "Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on 15 July 2014, retrieved 25 May 2010
  56. ^ "Trafalgar Square fountains". 2003. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  57. ^ Kennedy, Maev (29 May 2009). "Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  58. ^ Moore 2003, p. 181.
  59. ^ a b Pigeon feed seller takes flight, BBC News, 7 February 2001, archived from the original on 8 August 2017, retrieved 30 April 2013
  60. ^ Jones, Richard (2015). House Guests, House Pests: A Natural History of Animals in the Home. Bloomsbury. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-4729-0624-3.
  61. ^ a b McSmith, Andy (23 October 2011). "The pigeons have gone, but visitors are flocking to Trafalgar Square". The Independent. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  62. ^ Bird control contractor appointed in 2004 to deter pigeons from Trafalgar Square, vvenv.co.uk, 8 October 2004, archived from the original on 25 April 2012, retrieved 19 October 2011
  63. ^ "Feeding Trafalgar's pigeons illegal". BBC News. 17 November 2003. Archived from the original on 15 March 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  64. ^ Pigeon feeding banned in Trafalgar Square, 24dash.com, 10 September 2007, archived from the original on 29 June 2012, retrieved 17 September 2007
  65. ^ "London New Year's Eve with Unicef". Greater London Authority. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  66. ^ a b c d e "Shedding light on Christmas". BBC News. 21 December 1997. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  67. ^ "Trafalgar Square tree lighting ceremony". Met Office. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  68. ^ "Trafalgar Square sparkles blue as Christmas tree lights go on". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  69. ^ "Christmas in Trafalgar Square". Greater London Council. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  70. ^ Associated Press (31 December 1990). "Man Takes Chain Saw to Trafalgar Square Tree, but Tannenbaum Stands". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  71. ^ Crick 1994, p. 47.
  72. ^ "On This Day – 17 March – 1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 2008. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
  73. ^ Keith Flett (8 January 2005), "The Committee of 100: Sparking a new left", Socialist Worker (1933), archived from the original on 21 March 2006, retrieved 10 March 2006
  74. ^ London falls silent for bomb dead, BBC News, 14 July 2005, archived from the original on 22 July 2006, retrieved 22 June 2007
  75. ^ "COP OUT CAMP OUT Âť Camp for Climate Action". Climatecamp.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  76. ^ "UK Indymedia – Climate protestors scale Canadian Embassy and deface flag". Indymedia.org.uk. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  77. ^ "UK Indymedia – Climate Camp Trafalgar- Ice Bear action". Indymedia.org.uk. 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  78. ^ "UK Indymedia – Thur Dec 17 protest outside Danish Embassy, London". Indymedia.org.uk. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  79. ^ Wikinews:Battle for Trafalgar Square, London as violence breaks out between demonstrators and riot police
  80. ^ "Paris terror attacks". The Independent. 14 November 2015. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  81. ^ "Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade". The Daily Telegraph. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  82. ^ "Armistice Day: Nation remembers war dead". BBC News. 11 November 2015. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  83. ^ England fans mourn defeat, BBC News, 21 June 2002, archived from the original on 8 April 2008, retrieved 24 May 2007
  84. ^ "England honours World Cup stars". BBC Sport. 9 December 2003. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  85. ^ "Fans hail England's Ashes heroes". BBC News. 13 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  86. ^ "2005: London to host 2012 Olympics". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  87. ^ Magnay, Jacquelin (15 March 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Trafalgar Square countdown clock stops". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  88. ^ "Crowds turn out for Tour opening". BBC News. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  89. ^ "London gets ready to welcome back the Tour de France on Monday". Transport For London. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  90. ^ "Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade". The Daily Telegraph. 21 October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  91. ^ Chapman, James (2002). Saints and Avengers: British Adventure Series of the 1960s. I.B.Tauris. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-86064-753-6.
  92. ^ Burlingame, Jon (2012). The Music of James Bond. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-19-986330-3.
  93. ^ Muir, John Kenneth (1999). A Critical History of Doctor Who on Television. McFarland. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-7864-3716-0.
  94. ^ James, Simon (2007). London Film Location Guide. Anova Books. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7134-9062-6.
  95. ^ Larsen 2008, p. 203.
  96. ^ Trafalgar Square green with turf, BBC News, 24 May 2007, archived from the original on 27 August 2017, retrieved 18 December 2015
  97. ^ Masters, Tim (7 July 2011). "Harry Potter premiere: Stars and fans bid tearful goodbye". BBC Entertainment & Arts. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  98. ^ Lockie, John (1810). Lockie's Topography of London and its Environs. London.
  99. ^ "Ground Development". Scarborough Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  100. ^ Whiting, Keith (2012). Barbados Adventure Guides Series. Hunter Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-58843-652-8.
  101. ^ "Safe Behind Their Walls". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.

Sources

  • Barker, Michael (2005). Sir Edwin Lutyens. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0582-3.
  • Crick, Martin (1994). The History of the Social-Democratic Federation. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-1-85331-091-1.
  • Larsen, Darl (2008). Monty Python's Flying Circus: An Utterly Complete, Thoroughly Unillustrated, Absolutely Unauthorized Guide to Possibly All the References. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8108-6131-2.
  • Longmate, Norman (2012). If Britain Had Fallen: The Real Nazi Occupation Plans (reprinted / illustrated ed.). Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1-84832-647-7.
  • Mace, Rodney (1976). Trafalgar Square: Emblem of Empire. London: Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 978-0-85315-368-9. Second edition published as Mace, Rodney (2005). Trafalgar Square: Emblem of Empire (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 978-1-905007-11-0.
  • Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-943386-6.
  • Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher; Keay, Julia; Keay, John (2008). The London Encyclopedia. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5.

Further reading

  • "Fourth Plinth". blitzandblight.com. 12 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  • Hackman, Gill (2014). Stone to Build London: Portland's Legacy. Monkton Farleigh: Folly Books. ISBN 978-0-9564405-9-4. OCLC 910854593. Book includes details of the Portland stone buildings around Trafalgar Square, including St Martin in the Fields, the National Gallery and Admiralty Arch.
  • Hargreaves, Roger (2005). Trafalgar Square: Through the Camera. London: National Portrait Gallery Publications. ISBN 978-1-85514-345-6.
  • Holt, Gavin (1934). Trafalgar Square. London: Hodder & Stoughton. OCLC 220695363.
  • Hood, Jean (2005). Trafalgar Square: A Visual History of London's Landmark through Time. London: Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-8967-5.

External links

Charing Cross

Charing Cross () is a junction in London, England, where six routes meet. Clockwise from north these are: the east side of Trafalgar Square leading to St Martin's Place and then Charing Cross Road; the Strand; Northumberland Avenue; Whitehall; The Mall leading to Admiralty Arch and Buckingham Palace; and two short roads leading to Pall Mall.

It makes an unbroken public space with Trafalgar Square in central London. A bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur has stood there since 1675.

The junction takes its name from the medieval Eleanor cross that stood on the site from the 1290s until its destruction on the orders of Parliament in 1647. It gives its name in turn to the immediate locality, and to landmarks including Charing Cross railway station, on the forecourt of which stands the ornate Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross of 1864–1865. This was once the heart of the Westminster hamlet or neighbourhood of Charing.

Until 1931, "Charing Cross" also referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square. Drummonds Bank, on the corner with The Mall, retains the address 49 Charing Cross (not to be confused with Charing Cross Road).Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has been the notional "centre of London" and the point from which distances from London are calculated.

Charing Cross tube station

Charing Cross (sometimes informally abbreviated as Charing X) is a London Underground station at Charing Cross in the City of Westminster. The station is served by the Bakerloo and Northern lines and provides an interchange with Charing Cross mainline station. It has entrances in Trafalgar Square, Strand and in the mainline station. On the Bakerloo line it is between Embankment and Piccadilly Circus stations and on the Northern line it is between Embankment and Leicester Square stations. The station was served by the Jubilee line between 1979 and 1999, acting as the southern terminus of the line during that period. The station is in fare zone 1.

Charing Cross was originally two separate stations, known for most of their existence as Trafalgar Square and Strand. These were connected and given the current name when the Jubilee line opened.

The station is close to the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, Admiralty Arch, St Martin-in-the-Fields, Canada House, South Africa House, the Savoy Hotel, The Mall, Northumberland Avenue and Whitehall.

Christ Child (sculpture)

Christ Child, also known as In the Beginning or the Millennium Sculpture, is an outdoor sculpture by Michael "Mike" Chapman, located under the portico of St Martins-in-the-Fields at Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. The opening text from the Gospel of John is inscribed around the sculpture: "In the beginning was the word and the word became flesh and lived among us". Chapman has said of the sculpture: "For the millennium I was commissioned to produce a sculpture to be placed in Trafalgar square, during Christmas prior to the celebrations. It seemed to me that a tiny life-size baby carved from stone in such an enormous environment would be the best way to remind us all of just whose birthday we were celebrating. In a 4.5 tonne block of Portland stone, this work can be found at the entrance to the church." It has been called "strikingly modern".

Duke of York's Theatre

The Duke of York's Theatre is a West End Theatre in St Martin's Lane, in the City of Westminster, London. It was built for Frank Wyatt and his wife, Violet Melnotte, who retained ownership of the theatre until her death in 1935. It opened on 10 September 1892 as the Trafalgar Square Theatre, with The Wedding Eve. The theatre, designed by the architect Walter Emden became known as the Trafalgar Theatre in 1894 and the following year became the Duke of York's to honour the future King George V.One of the earliest musical comedies, Go-Bang, was a success at the theatre in 1894. In 1900, Jerome K. Jerome's Miss Hobbs was staged as well as David Belasco's Madame Butterfly, which was seen by Puccini, who later turned it into the famous opera. This was also the theatre where J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up debuted on 27 December 1904. Many famous British actors have appeared here, including Basil Rathbone, who played Alfred de Musset in Madame Sand in June 1920, returning in November 1932 as the Unknown Gentleman in Tonight or Never.

The theatre was Grade II listed by English Heritage in September 1960. In the late 1970s the freehold of the theatre was purchased by Capital Radio and it closed in 1979 for refurbishment. It reopened in February 1980 and the first production under the patronage of Capital was Rose, starring Glenda Jackson. In 1991 comedian Pat Condell performed sketches at the theatre which were later released on DVD.The Ambassador Theatre Group bought the theatre in 1992; this coincided with the successful Royal Court production of Ariel Dorfman's Death and the Maiden. A host of successes followed including the 21st anniversary performance of Richard O'Brien's The Rocky Horror Show and the Royal Court Classics Season in 1995.

The theatre is the London headquarters of the Ambassador Theatre Group, as well as the producing offices of their subsidiary Sonia Friedman Productions, whose revival of In Celebration starring Orlando Bloom played until 15 September 2007.

Embassy of Burundi, London

The Embassy of Burundi in London is the diplomatic mission of Burundi in the United Kingdom. It is located in Uganda House, next to Admiralty Arch on Trafalgar Square; it shares the building with the High Commission of Uganda. There is no plaque or sign signifying that Uganda House also houses the Burundian embassy, the only sign of this being the flag flying above the building.

Equestrian statue of George IV, Trafalgar Square

The statue of George IV in Trafalgar Square, London, is a bronze equestrian statue by Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey. It depicts the King dressed in ancient Roman attire and riding bareback. The sculpture was originally designed to sit on top of the Marble Arch at the entrance to Buckingham Palace, but was placed in its current location following the King's death.

Fourth plinth, Trafalgar Square

The Fourth plinth is the northwest plinth in Trafalgar Square in central London. It was originally intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained bare due to insufficient funds. For over 150 years the fate of the plinth was debated; in 1998, the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) commissioned three contemporary sculptures to be displayed temporarily on the plinth. Shortly afterwards, Chris Smith, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, commissioned Sir John Mortimer to seek opinions from public art commissioners, critics and members of the public as to the future of the plinth.

Mortimer's final report recommended that the commissions remain a rolling programme of temporary artworks rather than settle permanently on one figure or idea to commemorate. In 2003, the ownership of Trafalgar Square was transferred from Westminster City Council to the Mayor of London and this marked the beginning of the Mayor of London's Fourth Plinth Commission as it is now known.

High Commission of South Africa, London

The High Commission of South Africa in London is the diplomatic mission from South Africa to the United Kingdom. It is located at South Africa House, a building on Trafalgar Square, London. As well as containing the offices of the High Commissioner, the building also hosts the South African consulate. It has been a Grade II* Listed Building since 1982.

High Commission of Uganda, London

The High Commission of Uganda in London is the diplomatic mission of Uganda in the United Kingdom. It is located in Uganda House, next to Admiralty Arch on Trafalgar Square; it shares the building with the Embassy of Burundi.In 2011 a protest was held outside by High Commission by diaspora Ugandans opposed to the Presidency of Yoweri Museveni. and also in 2012 by people opposed to the Uganda Anti-Homosexuality Bill.In 2012 it was revealed that two staff at the High Commission were being investigated for suspected smuggling and tax evasion.

Independent Publishers Group

Independent Publishers Group (IPG) is a worldwide distributor for independent general, academic, and professional publishers, founded in 1971 to exclusively market titles from independent client publishers to the international book trade. As per other book wholesalers and distributors, IPG combines its client publishers’ books into a single list, comparable to the larger publishing houses. IPG’s distribution services to publishers include warehousing, bill collecting, and sales to the book trade. IPG currently represents about 1,000 publishers. They are based in Chicago, Illinois. IPG distributes publishers based in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Ireland, Switzerland, New Zealand, Israel, and others.

List of night buses in London

The London Night Bus network is a series of night bus routes that serve Greater London. Services broadly operate between the hours of 23:00 and 06:00.

Many services commence from or operate via Trafalgar Square and are extensions or variations of daytime routes and hence derive their number from these; for example, route N73 Oxford Circus to Walthamstow follows that of route 73 as far as Stoke Newington, before continuing further north.

List of public art in Trafalgar Square and the vicinity

This is a list of public art in and around Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London.

Charing Cross, at the junction of Strand and Whitehall, was the site of the first public monument in what is now the City of Westminster, the cross commissioned by Edward I late in the 13th century in memory of his queen, Eleanor of Castile. Destroyed by order of the Long Parliament in 1647, the Eleanor cross was replaced after the Restoration by the equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur, the oldest public sculpture now standing in the borough. In 1865 a facsimile of the cross was erected in the forecourt of Charing Cross railway station. Charing Cross was declared the official centre of London in 1831 and a plaque marking this status was installed near Le Sueur's statue in 1955.Immediately to the north of Charing Cross lies Trafalgar Square, one of London's most famous public spaces. Conceived as part of John Nash's urban improvements, the square was initially developed from the 1820s onwards. Its centrepiece, Nelson's Column, was constructed in 1839–1842. Charles Barry's 1840 redesign of the square provided plinths for equestrian monuments to George IV and William IV, but sufficient funds were never raised for the latter statue. Most of the memorials since added have had a military or naval flavour, an exception being the statue of the physician Edward Jenner, erected in 1858 but moved to Kensington Gardens only four years later. Another work which originally stood on the square is Hamo Thornycroft's statue of General Gordon; this was removed during World War II and reinstalled on the Victoria Embankment in 1953.

Since 1999 the formerly empty fourth plinth on Trafalgar Square has become London's most prominent showcase for temporary new sculpture.

Nelson's Column

Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, Central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton at a cost of £47,000 (equivalent to £4,532,261 in 2018). It is a column of the Corinthian order built from Dartmoor granite. The Craigleith sandstone statue of Nelson is by E.H. Baily, and the four bronze lions on the base, added in 1867, were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer.The pedestal is decorated with four bronze relief panels, each 18 feet (5.5 m) square, cast from captured French guns. They depict the Battle of Cape St Vincent, the Battle of the Nile, the Battle of Copenhagen and the death of Nelson at Trafalgar. The sculptors were Musgrave Watson, William F. Woodington, John Ternouth and John Edward Carew, respectively.

It was refurbished in 2006 at a cost of £420,000 (equivalent to £596,901 in 2018), at which time it was surveyed and found to be 14 feet 6 inches (4.42 m) shorter than previously supposed. The whole monument is 169 feet 3 inches (51.59 m) tall from the bottom of the pedestal to the top of Nelson's hat.

Statue of Charles James Napier, Trafalgar Square

A bronze statue of Charles James Napier by the sculptor George Gammon Adams stands in Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. It occupies one of the four plinths in Trafalgar Square, the one to the southwest of Nelson's Column.

General Sir Charles James Napier GCB (not to be confused with his cousin and close contemporary, the Admiral Charles John Napier) was born in 1782 and died in 1853, 19 days after his 71st birthday. He was an officer in the British Army, and served in the Peninsular War, the War of 1812, and later in India. In 1843 he captured Sindh and was made its first Governor, holding the post until his first return to England in October 1847. IN 1849 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in India and held the post until February 1851, when he returned again to England and retired.

The bronze statue stands on a tall granite pedestal, creating a monument about 12 feet (3.7 m) high. Napier is depicted standing, bareheaded, wearing military uniform with a cloak. He holds up his scabbard in his left hand, with a scroll in his right hand symbolising his governorship of Sind. It was erected in 1855–6 by means of public subscriptions, the most numerous contributors being private soldiers. It bears an inscription stating that Napier was "born in MDCCLXXXII and died LXXI years later in MDCCCLIII". It was quickly criticised as being one of the worst pieces of sculpture in England.A similar marble statue of Napier, also by George Gammon Adams, stands in the Crypt of St Paul's Cathedral, with Napier similarly in uniform and bearheaded, with his right hand resting on his sword and his left hand on his hip holding a scroll.In 1936 it was suggested that the statues of Generals Napier and Havelock in Trafalgar Square should be replaced by statues of Admirals Beatty and Jellicoe, the naval commanders at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, but a place was eventually found for bronze busts of the Edwardian admirals (and later for Admiral Cunningham) against the north wall of the square, without removing the statues of the Victorian generals from their plinths.

It became a Grade II listed building in 1970. Trafalgar Square is itself Grade I listed.

In 2000 the Mayor of London Ken Livingstone suggested that the statues of Napier and Havelock should be removed from Trafalgar Square, because he didn't have any idea who they were.

Statue of Henry Havelock, Trafalgar Square

A bronze statue of Henry Havelock by the sculptor William Behnes, stands in Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. It occupies one of the four plinths in Trafalgar Square, the one to the southeast of Nelson's Column.The bronze statue depicts Major General Sir Henry Havelock KCB as a standing figure in military uniform, with a cloak. Havelock was born in 1795 and died in 1857. He served in the First Anglo-Burmese War in the 1820s and the First Anglo-Afghan War in the 1840s. He recaptured Cawnpore and Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, shortly before he died of dysentery.

The statue was reputedly one of the first statues to be made from a photograph. It was erected by public subscription in 1861, on a granite plinth, matching the statue of General Charles James Napier erected to the west in 1855–1856. A copy in Mowbray Park in Sunderland was also erected by public subscription and unveiled in 1861.In 1936, it was suggested that the statues of Generals Havelock and Napier in Trafalgar Square should be replaced by statues of Admirals Beatty and Jellicoe, the naval commanders at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, but a place was eventually found for bronze busts of the Edwardian admirals (and later for Admiral Cunningham) against the north wall of the square, without removing the statues of the Victorian generals from their plinths.

The monument became a Grade II listed building in 1970. Trafalgar Square is itself Grade I listed.

In 2000, the Mayor of London Ken Livingstone suggested that the statues of Havelock and General Charles James Napier should be removed from Trafalgar Square, because he had no idea who they were.

Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square

The statue of James II is an outdoor bronze sculpture located in the front garden of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. Probably inspired by French statues of the same period, it depicts James II of England as a Roman emperor, wearing Roman armour and a laurel wreath (traditionally awarded to a victorious Roman commander). It originally also depicted him holding a baton. It was produced by the workshop of Grinling Gibbons, though probably not by Gibbons himself. The statue has been relocated several times since it was first erected in the grounds of the old Palace of Whitehall in 1686, only two years before James II was deposed.

The Mall, London

The Mall () is a road in the City of Westminster, central London, between Buckingham Palace at its western end and Trafalgar Square via Admiralty Arch to the east. Near the east end at Trafalgar Square/Whitehall it is met by Horse Guards Road and Spring Gardens where the Metropolitan Board of Works and London County Council were once based. It is closed to traffic on Saturdays, Sundays, public holidays and on ceremonial occasions.

The Trafalgar St. James London

The Trafalgar St. James London, Curio Collection by Hilton, formerly The Trafalgar Hotel, is a hotel in the City of Westminster, Central London, owned by London & Regional Properties. It was Hilton's first unbranded property.Previously known as the Trafalgar Hotel, it was relaunched as The Trafalgar St. James London in August 2017, following a refurbishment in which the number of rooms has been increased to 131. The hotel is a contemporary boutique hotel located on the south side of Trafalgar Square. The building was once used by the Cunard Steamship Company. The boardroom was used in feature films such as Dr. No and The Ipcress File.

Trafalgar Square Christmas tree

The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree is a Christmas tree donated to the people of Britain by the city of Oslo, Norway each year since 1947. The tree is prominently displayed in Trafalgar Square from the beginning of December until 6 January.

Trafalgar Square, London
Buildings
Statues
Adjacent streets
People
Events
Miscellaneous
London landmarks
Buildings andstructures
Parks
Squares and
public spaces
Streets

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.