Traditional medicine

Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness".[1] Traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine.

In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. When adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often considered a form of alternative medicine.[1] Practices known as traditional medicines include traditional European medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional African medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, Unani, ancient Iranian Medicine, Iranian (Persian), Islamic medicine, Muti, and Ifá. Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, and medical anthropology.

The WHO notes, however, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems.[1] Ultimately, the World Health Organization has implemented a nine year strategy to "support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy."[2]

Market Pharmacy Tana MS5179
Traditional medicine in a market in Antananarivo, Madagascar
Botanica
Botánicas such as this one in Jamaica Plain, Boston, cater to the Latino community and sell folk medicine alongside statues of saints, candles decorated with prayers, lucky bamboo, and other items.

Usage and history

Classical history

In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5,000 years to the ancient Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicine, the Ebers papyrus from c. 1552 BC records a list of folk remedies and magical medical practices.[3] The Old Testament also mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to Kashrut.

Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.[4] The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, which was later augmented as the Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on the Nature of Medicinal Herbs) during the Tang Dynasty. Early recognised Greek compilers of existing and current herbal knowledge include Pythagoras and his followers, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides and Galen.

Roman sources included Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Celsus's De Medicina.[5] Pedanius Dioscorides drew on and corrected earlier authors for his De Materia Medica, adding much new material; the work was translated into several languages, and Turkish, Arabic and Hebrew names were added to it over the centuries.[6] Latin manuscripts of De Materia Medica were combined with a Latin herbal by Apuleius Platonicus (Herbarium Apuleii Platonici) and were incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon codex Cotton Vitellius C.III. These early Greek and Roman compilations became the backbone of European medical theory and were translated by the Persian Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, 980–1037), the Persian Rhazes (Rāzi, 865–925) and the Jewish Maimonides.[5]

Some fossils have been used in traditional medicine since antiquity.[7]

Medieval and later

Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions.[8] Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492.[9] Islamic physicians and Muslim botanists such as al-Dinawari[10] and Ibn al-Baitar[11] significantly expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica. The most famous Persian medical treatise was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, which was an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials.[12][13][14] The Canon was translated into Latin in the 12th century and remained a medical authority in Europe until the 17th century. The Unani system of traditional medicine is also based on the Canon.

Translations of the early Roman-Greek compilations were made into German by Hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published in 1546, was called Kreuter Buch. The book was translated into Dutch as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens (1517–1585), and from Dutch into English by Carolus Clusius, (1526–1609), published by Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve Herball. This became John Gerard's (1545–1612) Herball or General Hiftorie of Plantes.[5][6] Each new work was a compilation of existing texts with new additions.

Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts.[5] Forty-four drugs, diluents, flavouring agents and emollients mentioned by Dioscorides are still listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Europe.[6] The Puritans took Gerard's work to the United States where it influenced American Indigenous medicine.[5]

Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II of Spain spent the years 1571–1577 gathering information in Mexico and then wrote Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, many versions of which have been published including one by Francisco Ximénez. Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the European concepts of disease such as "warm", "cold", and "moist", but it is not clear that the Aztecs used these categories.[15] Juan de Esteyneffer's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas compiled European texts and added 35 Mexican plants.

Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, Latin 241 and given to King Carlos V of Spain in 1552.[16] It was apparently written in haste[17] and influenced by the European occupation of the previous 30 years. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's used ethnographic methods to compile his codices that then became the Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España, published in 1793.[16] Castore Durante published his Herbario Nuovo in 1585 describing medicinal plants from Europe and the East and West Indies. It was translated into German in 1609 and Italian editions were published for the next century.

Colonial America

In 17th and 18th-century America, traditional folk healers, frequently women, used herbal remedies, cupping and leeching.[18] Native American traditional herbal medicine introduced cures for malaria, dysentery, scurvy, non-venereal syphilis, and goiter problems.[19] Many of these herbal and folk remedies continued on through the 19th and into the 20th century,[20] with some plant medicines forming the basis for modern pharmacology.[21][22]

Modern usage

The prevalence of folk medicine in certain areas of the world varies according to cultural norms.[23] Some modern medicine is based on plant phytochemicals that had been used in folk medicine.[24] Researchers state that many of the alternative treatments are "statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments".[25]

Knowledge transmission and creation

Indigenous medicine is generally transmitted orally through a community, family and individuals until "collected". Within a given culture, elements of indigenous medicine knowledge may be diffusely known by many, or may be gathered and applied by those in a specific role of healer such as a shaman or midwife.[26] Three factors legitimize the role of the healer – their own beliefs, the success of their actions and the beliefs of the community.[27] When the claims of indigenous medicine become rejected by a culture, generally three types of adherents still use it – those born and socialized in it who become permanent believers, temporary believers who turn to it in crisis times, and those who only believe in specific aspects, not in all of it.[28]

Definition and terminology

Traditional medicine may sometimes be considered as distinct from folk medicine, and the considered to include formalized aspects of folk medicine. Under this definition folk medicine are longstanding remedies passed on and practiced by lay people. Folk medicine consists of the healing practices and ideas of body physiology and health preservation known to some in a culture, transmitted informally as general knowledge, and practiced or applied by anyone in the culture having prior experience.[29]

Folk medicine

Curandera performing a limpieza
Curandera performing a limpieza in Cuenca, Ecuador

Many countries have practices described as folk medicine which may coexist with formalized, science-based, and institutionalized systems of medical practice represented by conventional medicine.[30] Examples of folk medicine traditions are traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, Arabic indigenous medicine, Uyghur traditional medicine, Japanese Kampō medicine, traditional Aboriginal bush medicine, and Georgian folk medicine, among others.[31]

Native American medicine

American Native and Alaska Native medicine are traditional forms of healing that have been around for thousands of years.

Home remedies

A home remedy (sometimes also referred to as a granny cure) is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain spices, vegetables, or other common items. Home remedies may or may not have medicinal properties that treat or cure the disease or ailment in question, as they are typically passed along by laypersons (which has been facilitated in recent years by the Internet). Many are merely used as a result of tradition or habit or because they are effective in inducing the placebo effect.[32]

One of the more popular examples of a home remedy is the use of chicken soup to treat respiratory infections such as a cold or mild flu. Other examples of home remedies include duct tape to help with setting broken bones; and duct tape or superglue to treat plantar warts; and Kogel mogel to treat sore throat. In earlier times, mothers were entrusted with all but serious remedies. Historic cookbooks are frequently full of remedies for dyspepsia, fevers, and female complaints.[33] Components of the aloe vera plant are used to treat skin disorders.[34] Many European liqueurs or digestifs were originally sold as medicinal remedies. In Chinese folk medicine, medicinal congees (long-cooked rice soups with herbs), foods, and soups are part of treatment practices.[35]

Criticism

Safety concerns

Although 130 countries have regulations on folk medicines, there are risks associated with the use of them. It is often assumed that because supposed medicines are herbal or natural that they are safe, but numerous precautions are associated with using herbal remedies.[36]

Use of endangered species

Slow loris - dried 01
Sometimes traditional medicines include parts of endangered species, such as the slow loris in Southeast Asia.

Endangered animals, such as the slow loris, are sometimes killed to make traditional medicines.[37]

Shark fins have also been used in traditional medicine, and although its use has not been proven, it is hurting shark populations and their ecosystem.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Traditional Medicine: Definitions". World Health Organization. 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
  2. ^ "WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023". The World Health Organization. December 2013.
  3. ^ "Ebers' Papyrus". Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  4. ^ Girish Dwivedi, Shridhar Dwivedi (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence (PDF). National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  5. ^ a b c d e Kay, MA (1996). Healing with plants in the American and Mexican West. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-8165-1646-9.
  6. ^ a b c Raphael, Sandra; Blunt, Wilfrid (1994). The Illustrated herbal. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-0914-5.
  7. ^ van der Geer, Alexandra; Dermitzakis, Michael (2010). "Fossils in pharmacy: from "snake eggs" to "Saint's bones"; an overview" (PDF). Hellenic Journal of Geosciences. 45: 323–332.
  8. ^ Slikkerveer, L. J. (1990). Plural medical systems in the Horn of Africa: the legacy of "Sheikh" Hippocrates. London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 978-0-7103-0203-8.
  9. ^ García Sánchez, E; Carabaza Bravo, JM; Hernández Bermejo, JE; Ramírez, AJ (1990). "Árboles y arbustos en los textos agrícolas andalusíes (I)". In e Morales Ruiz Matas CA (ed.). Ciencias de la naturaleza en Al-Andalus : textos y estudios (in Spanish). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. ISBN 978-84-00-07727-3.
  10. ^ Fahd, Toufic (1996). "Botany and agriculture". In Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis (eds.). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Routledge. p. 815. ISBN 978-0-415-02063-3.
  11. ^ Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
  12. ^ Tschanz David W (2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine". Heart Views. 4: 2.
  13. ^ Eldredge Jonathan D (2003). "The Randomised Controlled Trial design: unrecognized opportunities for health sciences librarianship". Health Information and Libraries Journal. 20: 34–44 [36]. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2532.20.s1.7.x.
  14. ^ Bloom Bernard S., Retbi Aurelia, Dahan Sandrine, Jonsson Egon (2000). "Evaluation Of Randomized Controlled Trials On Complementary And Alternative Medicine". International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 16 (1): 13–21 [19]. doi:10.1017/s0266462300016123.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Ortiz de Montellano, B (1975). "Empirical Aztec medicine". Science. 188 (4185): 215–20. doi:10.1126/science.1090996. PMID 1090996.
  16. ^ a b Heinrich, M; Pieroni, A; Bremner, P (2005). "Plants as medicines". In Prance G & Nesbitt M (eds.). The Cultural history of plants. Routledge. pp. 205–238. ISBN 978-0-415-92746-8.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  17. ^ Lozoya, Xavier (2016). "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Librito de las yerbas medicinales de los indios) o Códice Badiano". Arqueología Mexicana.
  18. ^ Rosalyn Fraad Baxandall, Linda Gordon, Susan Reverb, America's Working Women: A Documentary History, 1600 to the Present, W. W. Norton & Company, 1995, p. 50
  19. ^ Madsen, Deborah L. The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, Routledge, 2015
  20. ^ Swerdlow JL. Medicine Changes: late 19th to early 20th century. Nature's Medicine: Plants that Heal. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society; 2000. pp. 158–91.
  21. ^ Eugenia M. Fulcher, Robert M. Fulcher, Cathy Dubeansky, Pharmacology: Principles and Applications'', Soto Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014, p. 5
  22. ^ Ansari J.A., Inamdar N.N. (2010). "The Promise of Traditional Medicines". International Journal of Pharmacology. 6 (6): 808–812. doi:10.3923/ijp.2010.808.812.
  23. ^ Bakx Keith (1991). "The 'eclipse' of folk medicine in western society". Sociology of Health and Illness. 13: 20–38. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340307.
  24. ^ Gilani, A.H., (2005) Role of Medicinal Plants in Modern Medicine. Malaysian Journal of Science, 24 (1). pp. 1-5." Archived 2012-08-05 at Archive.today ISSN 1394-3065
  25. ^ The Economist, "Alternative Medicine: Think yourself better", 21 May 2011, pp. 83–84.
  26. ^ Acharya, D; Anshu S (2008). Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices. Jaipur: Aavishkar Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7.
  27. ^ Maurice Mwu, Eric Gbodossou (December 2000). "ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: NIGERIA The role of traditional medicine" (PDF). The Lancet.
  28. ^ Laguerre, Michel S. (1987). Afro-Caribbean folk medicine. New York: Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 978-0-89789-113-4.
  29. ^ Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7. pp 440.
  30. ^ "Traditional, complementary and integrative medicine". World Health Organization. 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  31. ^ "WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Placebo Effect: A Cure in the Mind". Scientific American. February–March 2009.
  33. ^ Catherine Esther Beecher Mrs. Beecher's Housekeeper and Healthkeeper 1874. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  34. ^ Sidgwick, G. P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A (2015). "A comprehensive evidence-based review on the role of topicals and dressings in the management of skin scarring". Archives of Dermatological Research. 307 (6): 461–477. doi:10.1007/s00403-015-1572-0. PMC 4506744. PMID 26044054.
  35. ^ Prince Wen Hui's Cook Bob Flaws and Honora Wolf 1985
  36. ^ "National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines - Report of a WHO Global Survey". World Health Organization. April 2016.
  37. ^ Starr, C.; Nekaris, K. A. I.; Streicher, U.; Leung, L. K. -P. (2011). "Field surveys of the Vulnerable pygmy slow loris Nycticebus pygmaeus using local knowledge in Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia" (PDF). Oryx. 45 (1): 135–142. doi:10.1017/S0030605310001316.
  38. ^ "Traditional medicines continue to thrive globally - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2016-04-25.

External links

Ayurveda

Ayurveda () is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Globalized and modernized practices derived from Ayurveda traditions are a type of alternative medicine. In countries beyond India, Ayurvedic therapies and practices have been integrated in general wellness applications and in some cases in medical use.The main classical Ayurveda texts begin with accounts of the transmission of medical knowledge from the Gods to sages, and then to human physicians. In Sushruta Samhita (Sushruta's Compendium), Sushruta wrote that Dhanvantari, Hindu god of Ayurveda, incarnated himself as a king of Varanasi and taught medicine to a group of physicians, including Sushruta. Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances (perhaps under the influence of early Indian alchemy or rasa shastra). Ancient Ayurveda texts also taught surgical techniques, including rhinoplasty, kidney stone extractions, sutures, and the extraction of foreign objects.Although laboratory experiments suggest it is possible that some substances used in Ayurveda might be developed into effective treatments, there is no scientific evidence that any are effective as currently practiced. Ayurveda medicine is considered pseudoscientific. Other researchers consider it a protoscience, or trans-science system instead. In a 2008 study, close to 21% of Ayurveda U.S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold through the Internet were found to contain toxic levels of heavy metals, specifically lead, mercury, and arsenic. The public health implications of such metallic contaminants in India are unknown.Some scholars assert that Ayurveda originated in prehistoric times, and that some of the concepts of Ayurveda have existed from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization or even earlier. Ayurveda developed significantly during the Vedic period and later some of the non-Vedic systems such as Buddhism and Jainism also developed medical concepts and practices that appear in the classical Ayurveda texts. Doṣa balance is emphasized, and suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness. Ayurveda treatises describe three elemental doṣas viz. vāta, pitta and kapha, and state that equality (Skt. sāmyatva) of the doṣas results in health, while inequality (viṣamatva) results in disease. Ayurveda treatises divide medicine into eight canonical components. Ayurveda practitioners had developed various medicinal preparations and surgical procedures from at least the beginning of the common era.

Central Council of Indian Medicine

Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) is a statutory body under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, set up in 1971 under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, (Act 48) which was passed in 1970. It is one of the Professional councils under University Grants Commission (UGC) to monitor higher education in Indian systems of medicine, including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani.

Chumash traditional medicine

Chumash traditional medicine is a type of traditional medicine practiced by the Chumash people of the southern coastal regions of California.Chumash medicine focused on treating mind, spirit, and body alike to promote the wellness of both the individual and the larger community. Healing practices included a knowledge of local plants, as well as a mix of spiritual practices including prayer, singing, and dancing. Post-European contact, Chumash healers adapted these methods to treat changes in environment and the introduction of deadly diseases. Prevention was key in promoting health, and healers took responsibility for ensuring all people worked and felt valued in the community. In the modern day, certain medicinal practices are viewed as controversial, including the treatment of menstruating women, the use of sacred datura, and the consumption of dangerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Ethnomedicine

Ethnomedicine is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine based on bioactive compounds in plants and animals and practiced by various ethnic groups, especially those with little access to western medicines, e.g., indigenous peoples. The word ethnomedicine is sometimes used as a synonym for traditional medicine.

Ethnomedical research is interdisciplinary; in its study of traditional medicines, it applies the methods of ethnobotany and medical anthropology. Often, the medicine traditions it studies are preserved only by oral tradition.Scientific ethnomedical studies constitute either anthropological research or drug discovery research. Anthropological studies examine the cultural perception and context of a traditional medicine. The purpose of drug discovery research is to identify and develop a marketable pharmaceutical product.

Fenugreek

Fenugreek (; Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop. Its seeds and leaves are common ingredients in dishes from South and Central Asia.

Ghee

Ghee (Sanskrit: Ghṛta), is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India. It is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine, cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asian cuisine, traditional medicine, and religious rituals.

Ginseng

Ginseng () is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

Although ginseng has been used in traditional medicine over centuries, modern clinical research is inconclusive about its medical effectiveness. There is no substantial evidence that ginseng is effective for treating any medical condition, and its use has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a prescription drug. Although ginseng is commonly sold as a dietary supplement, inconsistent manufacturing practices for supplements have led to analyses showing that ginseng products may be contaminated with toxic metals or unrelated filler compounds, and its excessive use may have adverse effects or untoward interactions with prescription drugs.

Iranian traditional medicine

Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), also known as Persian traditional medicine, Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM), traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), or simply traditional medicine (Persian: طب سنتی‌ ایرانی tebbe sonnati irāni) is one of famous and most ancient forms of traditional medicines. Studies and researches reveal that some of the earliest records of history of ancient Iranian medicine can be found in 8,000 to 6,500 B.C. while it is remarkable that Hippocrates, a Greek physician who is considered as one of the outstanding figures in the history of medicine belongs to about 460 BC.

Iranian traditional medicine is grounded in the four humours concept: Phlegm (Balgham), Blood (Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā') and Black bile (Saudā'). Some traditional medicine forms are in this base. Yunani and Graeco-Arabic are the most famous of that. It is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates and Roman physician Galen, and developed by Rhazes, Avicenna (Ibn Sena) into an elaborate medical system.

The old medical system was developed by a number of nations. Iranian traditional medicine, although often presumed as part of unani medicine because of a great overlap between these two, still is a separate tradition with roots further in the ancient Iranian and Indian past.

Kampo

Kampo medicine (漢方医学, Kanpō igaku), often known simply as Kanpō (漢方, Chinese [medicine]), is the study of traditional Chinese medicine in Japan following its introduction, beginning in the 7th century. Since then, the Japanese have created their own unique system of diagnosis and therapy. Japanese traditional medicine uses most of the Chinese therapies including acupuncture and moxibustion, but Kampō in its present-day sense is primarily concerned with the study of herbs.

Kulam

Kulam or "Pagkukulam" is a form of folk magic, specifically natural magic, practiced in the Philippines. It puts emphasis on the innate power of the self and a secret knowledge of Magica Baja or low magic. Earth (soil), fire, herbs, spices, candles, oils and kitchenwares and utensils are often used for rituals, charms, spells and potions.

Medicinal plants

Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety.The earliest historical records of herbs are found from the Sumerian civilisation, where hundreds of medicinal plants including opium are listed on clay tablets. The Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt, c. 1550 BC, describes over 850 plant medicines. The Greek physician Dioscorides, who worked in the Roman army, documented over 1000 recipes for medicines using over 600 medicinal plants in De materia medica, c. 60 AD; this formed the basis of pharmacopoeias for some 1500 years. Drug research makes use of ethnobotany to search for pharmacologically active substances in nature, and has in this way discovered hundreds of useful compounds. These include the common drugs aspirin, digoxin, quinine, and opium. The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most are in four major biochemical classes: alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, and terpenes.

Medicinal plants are widely used in non-industrialized societies, mainly because they are readily available and cheaper than modern medicines. The annual global export value of 50,000 to 70,000 types of plants with suspected medicinal properties was estimated to be US$2.2 billion in 2012, and in 2017, the potential global market for botanical extracts and medicines was estimated at several hundred billion dollars. In many countries, there is little regulation of traditional medicine, but the World Health Organization coordinates a network to encourage safe and rational usage. Medicinal plants face both general threats, such as climate change and habitat destruction, and the specific threat of over-collection to meet market demand.

Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.Medicine has been around for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science.

Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition, but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery.

Miswak

The miswak (miswaak, siwak, sewak, Arabic: سواك‎ or مسواك) is a teeth cleaning twig made from the Salvadora persica tree (known as arāk, أراك, in Arabic). It is reputed to have been used over 7000 years ago. The miswak's properties have been described thus: "Apart from their antibacterial activity which may help control the formation and activity of dental plaque, they can be used effectively as a natural toothbrush for teeth cleaning. Such sticks are effective, inexpensive, common, available, and contain many medical properties". It also features prominently in Islamic hygienical jurisprudence.

The miswak is predominant in Muslim-inhabited areas. It is commonly used in the Arabian peninsula, the Horn of Africa, North Africa, parts of the Sahel, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, miswak is known as Kayu Sugi (Malay for 'chewing stick').

Propolis

Propolis or bee glue is a resinous mixture that honey bees produce by mixing saliva and beeswax with exudate gathered from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. Propolis is used for small gaps (approximately 6 millimeters (0.24 in) or less), while larger spaces are usually filled with beeswax. Its color varies depending on its botanical source, with dark brown as the most common. Propolis is sticky at and above 20 °C (68 °F), while at lower temperatures, it becomes hard and brittle.

While foraging, worker bees primarily harvest pollen and nectar, while also collecting water and tree resin necessary for the production of propolis. The chemical composition and nature of propolis depend on environmental conditions and harvested resources.

Tea tree oil

Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil or ti tree oil, is an essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor and a colour that ranges from pale yellow to nearly colourless and clear. It is derived from the leaves of the tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, native to Southeast Queensland and the Northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia.

Although there is little evidence of efficacy, it is typically used as a topical medication in low concentrations by folk medicine for attempted treatments of skin conditions. Tea tree oil is claimed as useful for treating dandruff, acne, lice, herpes, insect bites, scabies, and skin fungal or bacterial infections. However, the quality of the evidence for efficacy in these conditions is minimal. Tea tree oil is neither a patented product nor an approved drug, and is poisonous if consumed by mouth.

Traditional African medicine

Traditional African medicine is an alternative medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists. Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancers, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera, most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma, eczema, fever, anxiety, depression, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary tract infections, gout, and healing of wounds and burns and even Ebola.Diagnosis is reached through spiritual means and a treatment is prescribed, usually consisting of a herbal remedy that is considered to have not only healing abilities but also symbolic and spiritual significance. Traditional African medicine, with its belief that illness is not derived from chance occurrences, but through spiritual or social imbalance, differs greatly from modern scientific medicine, which is technically and analytically based. In the 21st century, modern pharmaceuticals and medical procedures remain inaccessible to large numbers of African people due to their relatively high cost and concentration of health facilities in urban centres.

Before the establishment of science-based medicine, traditional medicine was the dominant medical system for millions of people in Africa but the arrival of the Europeans was a noticeable turning point in the history of this ancient tradition and culture. Herbal medicines in Africa are generally not adequately researched, and are weakly regulated. There is a lack of the detailed documentation of the traditional knowledge, which is generally transferred orally. Serious adverse effects can result from mis-identification or misuse of healing plants.The geographical reach of this article is sub-saharan Africa. Though, of course neighbouring medical traditions influenced traditional African medicine.

Traditional Korean medicine

Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학(Hanuihak), Hanja: 韓醫學) or (Hangul: 향약 (Hyangyak), Hanja: 鄕藥) refers to the traditional medicine practices that originated and developed in Korea.

Traditional Tibetan medicine

Traditional Tibetan medicine (Tibetan: བོད་ཀྱི་གསོ་བ་རིག་པ་, Wylie: bod kyi gso ba rig pa), also known as Sowa-Rigpa medicine, is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e.g., herbs and minerals) and physical therapies (e.g. Tibetan acupuncture, moxabustion, etc.) to treat illness.

The Tibetan medical system is based upon Indian Buddhist literature (for example Abhidharma and Vajrayana tantras) and Ayurveda. It continues to be practiced in Tibet, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Ladakh, Siberia, China and Mongolia, as well as more recently in parts of Europe and North America. It embraces the traditional Buddhist belief that all illness ultimately results from the three poisons: ignorance, attachment and aversion. Tibetan medicine follows the Buddha's Four Noble Truths which apply medical diagnostic logic to suffering.

Witch doctor

A witch doctor was originally a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft. The term witch doctor is sometimes used to refer to healers, particularly in regions which use traditional healing rather than contemporary medicine. .

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