Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (traditional Chinese: /; simplified Chinese: /; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties).

The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s.

Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau; as well as in Overseas Chinese communities outside Southeast Asia. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China, Singapore and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.

The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. Currently, a large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets.

Traditional Chinese
Hanzi (traditional)
Type
LanguagesChinese
Time period
Since 5th century AD
Parent systems
Child systems
DirectionVaries
ISO 15924Hant, 502
Traditional chinese
The character (Pinyin: fán) meaning "complex, complicated (Chinese characters)."

Modern usage in Chinese-speaking areas

China

Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China primarily in handwriting and also used for inscriptions and religious text. They are often retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters.

Hong Kong & Macau

In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants.[1] This has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage.[2][3]

Taiwan

Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters. The use of simplified characters in official documents is even prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, and learning to read them takes little effort. Some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting.[4][5] For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is also acceptable to write in official documents.

Philippines

Announcement in a Filipino Chinese daily newspaper (Traditional Chinese)
Job announcement in a Filipino Chinese daily newspaper written in Traditional Chinese characters.

In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, and United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are also found in some bookstores.

In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub that is used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters.

United States

Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are generally in Traditional Chinese.[6]

Chinese names

Traditional Chinese characters (Standard characters) are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world. The government of Taiwan officially calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters (traditional Chinese: 正體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字; pinyin: zhèngtǐzì; Zhuyin Fuhao: ㄓㄥˋ ㄊㄧˇ ㄗˋ).[7] However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard, simplified and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters.[8]

In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong, Macau and overseas Chinese communities, and also users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters (traditional Chinese: 繁體字; simplified Chinese: 繁体字; pinyin: fántǐzì; Zhuyin Fuhao: ㄈㄢˊ ㄊㄧˇ ㄗˋ). An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters" (Chinese: 老字; pinyin: lǎozì; Zhuyin Fuhao: ㄌㄠˇ ㄗˋ).

Users of traditional characters also sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" (traditional Chinese: 全體字; simplified Chinese: 全体字; pinyin: quántǐ zì; Zhuyin Fuhao: ㄑㄩㄢˊ ㄊㄧˇ ㄗˋ) to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters.

Some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Similarly, simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers. They also point out that traditional characters are not truly traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time.[9]

Some people refer to traditional characters as simply "proper characters" (Chinese: 正字; pinyin: zhèngzì) and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (simplified Chinese: 简笔字; traditional Chinese: 簡筆字; pinyin: jiǎnbǐzì) or "reduced-stroke characters" (simplified Chinese: 减笔字; traditional Chinese: 減筆字; pinyin: jiǎnbǐzì) (simplified- and reduced- are actually homophones in Mandarin Chinese, both pronounced jiǎn).

The use of such words as "complex", "standard" and "proper" in the context of such a visceral subject as written language arouses strong emotional reactions, especially since there are also political ramifications in this case. Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters explores the differences of opinion that exist on this matter within Chinese-speaking regions.

Printed text

When printing text, people in China, Malaysia and Singapore mainly use the simplified system, developed by the People's Republic of China government in the 1950s. In writing, most people use informal, sometimes personal simplifications. In most cases, an alternative character (異體字) will be used in place of one with more strokes, such as for . In the old days, there were two main uses of alternative characters. First, alternative characters were used to avoid using the characters of the formal name of an important person in less formal contexts as a way of showing respect to the said person by preserving the characters of the person's name. This act is called "offense-avoidance" (避諱) in Chinese. Secondly, alternative characters were used when the same characters were repeated in context to show that the repetition was intentional rather than an editorial mistake (筆誤).

Computer encoding

In the past, Traditional Chinese was most often rendered using the Big5 character encoding scheme, a scheme that favors Traditional Chinese. Unicode, however, has become increasingly popular as a rendering method. Unicode gives equal weight to both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. There are various IMEs (Input Method Editors) available to input Chinese characters. There are still many Unicode characters that cannot be written using most IMEs; one example would be the character used in the Shanghainese dialect instead of , which is U+20C8E 𠲎 ( with a radical).

Web pages

The World Wide Web Consortium recommends the use of the language tag zh-Hant as a language attribute value and Content-Language value to specify web-page content in Traditional Chinese.[10]

Usage in other languages

Traditional Chinese characters are also known as Hanja in Korean (almost completely replaced by Hangul for general use by the late 20th century, but nonetheless unchanged from Chinese except for some Korean-made Hanja). In Japanese, Kyūjitai is a term that describes now-obsolete unsimplified forms of simplified Shinjitai Jōyō kanji; as with Korean, these unsimplified characters are mostly congruent with the traditional characters in Chinese, save for a few minor regional graphical differences. Furthermore, characters that are not included in the Jōyō list are generally recommended to be printed in their original unsimplified forms, save for a few exceptions.

See also

References

  1. ^ 李翰文 BBC國際媒體觀察部. 分析:中國與香港之間的「繁簡矛盾」 - BBC News 中文 (in Chinese). Bbc.com. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  2. ^ Post Magazine. "Hong Kong actor's criticism of simplified Chinese character use stirs up passions online | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  3. ^ "Hong Kong TV station criticized for using simplified Chinese - China News". SINA English. 2016-03-01. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  4. ^ Yat-Shing Cheung. "Language variation, culture, and society." In Kingsley Bolton. Sociolinguistics Today: International Perspectives. p. 211
  5. ^ Success with Asian Names: A Practical Guide for Business and Everyday Life
  6. ^ See, for instance, https://www.irs.gov/irm/part22/irm_22-031-001.html (Internal Revenue Manual 22.31.1.6.3 - "The standard language for translation is Traditional Chinese."
  7. ^ 查詢結果. Laws and Regulations Database of The Republic of China. Ministry of Justice (Republic of China). 2014-09-26. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
  8. ^ Academy of Social Sciences, (1978), Modern Chinese Dictionary, The Commercial Press: Beijing.
  9. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988) Chinese, Cambridge University Press, p81.
  10. ^ "Internationalization Best Practices: Specifying Language in XHTML & HTML Content". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
Alternate forms for the name John

Other language forms for the name John:

Can (Turkish)

Chon

Dzon, Džon (Congolese, Serbian)

Ean (Manx)

Eoin (Irish)

Evan (Welsh)

Ewan (Scottish)

Giăng (Vietnamese, Protestant)

Giannina (Italian)

Gioan (Vietnamese, Catholic)

Gioann (West-Lombard)

Giovanni, Gianni (Italian)

Giuàn (Emiliano-Romagnolo)

Gion

Gjoni or Gjin (Albanian)

Hans (Dutch, German, Swedish from Johannes)

Hannes (German, from Johannes)

Hoani (Māori)

Hone (Māori)

Honza (Czech)

Hovanes or Hovannes (Armenian)

Ian (English)

Iain (Scottish Gaelic—common form, though Ian is used in English)

Ianto (Welsh)

Ibane (Basque)

Ifan (Welsh)

Ioan (Romanian, Welsh)

Ioane (Samoan)

Ioannis (Greek)

Ion (Romanian)

Ionel (Romanian)

Ieuan (Welsh)

Ivan (Bulgarian, Croatian, Russian, Ukrainian and other Slavic language nations)

Ivo (Croatian and some other Slavic language nations)

Jaan (Estonian)

Jack (nickname for John; not traditionally a name in itself)

Jan (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Polish, Norwegian)

Ján (Slovak)

Jani (Finnish)

Janez (Slovene)

Jānis (Latvian)

Janka (Slovak, Hungarian)

Janek (Czech)

Janne (Finnish)

János (Hungarian)

Jean (French)

Jens (Danish)

Joan (Catalan)

Jóannes (Faroese)

João (Portuguese)

Johan (Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, German, Faroese, Afrikaans)

Johann (Germanic: German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish)

Jóhann (Icelandic, Faroese)

Johannes (Germanic: German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch)

Jóhannes (Icelandic)

Jon (Basque, Norwegian)

ジョン (Japanese)

Jón

Jonas (Lithuanian, Germanic: German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch)

Jovan (Serbian)

Juan (Spanish, Filipino, Manx)

Juhan (Estonian)

Juhani (Finnish)

Jöns (Swedish)

Nelu (Romanian)

Seán (Irish Seán, after the French Jean)

Shane (Anglicised form of Seán)

Shaun (American form of Sean)

Shawn (Anglicised form of Seán)

Sheik (Arabic)

Siôn (Welsh)

Sione (Tongan)

Soane (Tongan)

Xoán (Galician)

Yahya (حنّا or يوحنّا in Arabic, Turkish, Persian for the baptist)

Yan (Indonesian)

Yanka (Belarusian)

Yann (Breton)

Yiannis (Greek)

Vanya (Russian, Ukrainian)

Yohannan (Malayalam)

Yohannes (Ethiopian)

Yohan, Yohanes (Indonesian, Malaysian)

Yohan (Sinhalese, Sri Lankan)

요한 (Korean)

Yonnachan (Malayalam)

youhanna (Arabic, Persian (for John the apostle))

Youhannon (Malayalam)

約翰 (Chinese in Traditional Chinese characters, Protestant translation)

若望 (Chinese in Traditional Chinese characters, Catholic Church translation)

強 (Chinese in Traditional Chinese characters, colloquial transliteration based on English; literally "strong")

Zane

Big5

Big-5 or Big5 is a Chinese character encoding method used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau for traditional Chinese characters.

The People's Republic of China (PRC), which uses simplified Chinese characters, uses the GB character set instead.

Big5 gets its name from the consortium of five companies in Taiwan that developed it.

Boshiamy method

Boshiamy (Chinese: 嘸蝦米, sometimes written 無蝦米, a Mandarin approximation of the Taiwanese phrase 無甚物 (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bô-siáⁿ-mi̍h), meaning "It's nothing!") is a Chinese character input method editor (IME). It was invented by Liu Chung-tz'u (劉重次).

Boshiamy uses about 300 radicals represented by 26 letters to build characters. Radicals are mapped to letters by their shapes, sounds or meanings.

Boshiamy has become one of the fastest input methods by shortening codes of many characters. Speeds exceeding 200 characters per minute have been achieved in typing contests. Boshiamy was originally designed to input traditional Chinese characters, but now it also supports simplified Chinese character input. However, it is commercial software, and users may not be able to use it on some computers. A trial version with fewer characters is available on the official site.

Darughachi

Darughachi (Mongol form) or Basqaq (Turkic form) which originally designated officials in the Mongol Empire in charge of taxes and administration in a certain province, is the plural form of the Mongolian word darugha. They were sometimes referred to as governors. The term corresponds to the Persian داروغه dārugheh and the Turkic basqaq (also spelled baskak) and to ta lu hua ch'ih (in Wade–Giles romanization, 達魯花赤 in Traditional Chinese characters, 达鲁花赤 in Simplified Chinese characters, dálǔhuāchì in Pinyin romanization) in Chinese.

The Turkic term basqaq does not appear in Mongolian sources. In Russian sources, the darughachi were almost always referred to as baskaki. They appear in the thirteenth-century soon after the Mongol Conquest but were withdrawn by 1328 and the Grand Prince of Vladimir (usually the Prince of Moscow) became the khan's tax collector and imperial son in law (kürgen), entrusted with gathering the dan' or tribute from the Rus' principalities for the Golden Horde.In the 13th century, chiefs of Mongol darughas were stationed in Vladimir and Baghdad.The Mongol Empire attempted to send darughachi to Goryeo of Korea in 1231, after the first (of six) invasions. According to some records, 72 darughachi were sent and Mongol military garrisons withdrawn. However, repeated rebellions and continued Goryeo resistance to Mongol dominion (the original darughachi that were stationed were all killed by Goryeo forces in the summer of 1232) made the stationing of darughachi difficult. While there are questions regarding the actual number of darughachi stationed (the extant record denoting 72 darughachi was itself a derivation of an older record that has been lost; Goryeo was too small a territory to merit so many darughachi; the names of none of the 72 darughachi remain, which is unusual considering the importance of their position), most reliable sources (including the Goryeo-sa) indicate that at least some darughachi were stationed in Goryeo for the duration of its vassaldom to the Mongol Empire. While further mention of the darughachi in Korea is scarce in extant sources, after peace was secured between Goryeo and the Mongol Empire in 1259 establishing Korea as a vassal to the Empire, the stationing of darughachi in Korea was likely a more stable proposition.

After 1921 the word darga (boss) (Khalkha pronunciation of darugha) replaced the aristocratic noyan as the term for high-level officials in Mongolia.

Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters

The debate on traditional Chinese characters and simplified Chinese characters is an ongoing dispute concerning Chinese orthography among users of Chinese characters. It has stirred up heated responses from supporters of both sides in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities with its implications of political ideology and cultural identity. Simplified characters here exclusively refer to those characters simplified by the People's Republic of China (PRC), instead of the concept of character simplification as a whole. The effect of simplified characters on the language remains controversial for decades after their introduction.

Eileen Hsieh

Eileen Hsieh (繁體: 謝雅琳, 简体:谢雅琳) is a bilingual journalist and blogger based in London, and the former host of CNN's weekly Chinese news program which ran from 2009-2011.In April 2009 CNN launched its first-ever Mandarin program on CNN.com, using traditional Chinese characters.

GBK (character encoding)

GBK is an extension of the GB2312 character set for simplified Chinese characters, used in the People's Republic of China. It includes all unified CJK characters found in GB13000.1-93, i.e. ISO/IEC 10646:1993, or Unicode 1.1. Since its initial release in 1993, GBK has been extended by Microsoft in Code page 936/1386, which was then extended into GBK 1.0. GBK is also the IANA-registered internet name for the Microsoft mapping, which differs from other implementations primarily by the single-byte euro sign at 0x80.

GB abbreviates Guojia Biaozhun, which means national standard in Chinese, while K stands for Extension (扩展 kuòzhǎn). GBK not only extended the old standard GB2312 with Traditional Chinese characters, but also with Chinese characters that were simplified after the establishment of GB2312 in 1981. With the arrival of GBK, certain names with characters formerly unrepresentable, like the 镕 (róng) character in former Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji's name, are now representable. 0.1% of all web pages used GBK in December 2018.

GB 18030

GB 18030 is a Chinese government standard, described as Information Technology — Chinese coded character set and defines the required language and character support necessary for software in China. GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. As a Unicode Transformation Format (i.e. an encoding of all Unicode code points), GB18030 supports both simplified and traditional Chinese characters. It is also compatible with legacy encodings including GB2312, CP936, and GBK 1.0.

In addition to the "GB18030 character encoding", this standard contains requirements about which scripts must be supported, font support, etc.

Kyūjitai

Kyūjitai (舊字體/旧字体, literally "old character forms"), are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (新字体), "new character forms". Some of the simplified characters arose centuries ago and were in everyday use in both China and Japan, but they were considered inelegant, even uncouth. After World War II, simplified character forms were made official in both these countries. However, in Japan fewer and less drastic simplifications were made: e.g. "electric" is still written as 電 in Japan, as it is also written in Hong Kong, Macao, South Korea and Taiwan, which continue to use traditional Chinese characters, but has been simplified to 电 in mainland China. Prior to the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji list in 1946, kyūjitai were known as seiji (正字; meaning "proper/correct characters") or seijitai (正字體). Even after kyūjitai were officially marked for discontinuation with the promulgation of the Tōyō kanji list, they were used in print frequently into the 1950s due to logistical delays in changing over typesetting equipment. Kyūjitai continue in use to the present day because when the Japanese government adopted the simplified forms, it did not ban the traditional forms. Thus traditional forms are used when an author wishes to use traditional forms and the publisher agrees.

Unlike in the People's Republic of China, where all personal names were simplified as part of the character simplification reform carried out in the 1950s, the Japanese reform only applied to a subset of the characters in use (the Toyo Kanji) and excluded characters used in proper names. Therefore, kyūjitai are still used in personal names in Japan today (see Jinmeiyo kanji). In modern Japanese, kyūjitai that appear in the official spelling of proper names are sometimes replaced with the modern shinjitai form.

List of territorial entities where Chinese is an official language

The following is a list of territorial entities where Chinese is an official language. While those countries or territories that designate Chinese as an official language use the term "Chinese", as Chinese is a group of related language varieties, of which many are not mutually intelligible, in the context of the spoken language such designations are usually understood as designations of specific varieties of Chinese, namely Cantonese, Taiwanese Hakka and Standard Mandarin. In the context of the written language, written modern standard Chinese is usually understood to be the official standard, though different territories use different standard scripts, namely Traditional Chinese characters and Simplified Chinese characters.

Today, Chinese has an official language status in five countries/regions or territories. In China it is the sole official language as Mandarin, while in Singapore (as Mandarin) it is one of the four official languages, while in Taiwan (as Mandarin) it is a co-official language alongside with Taiwanese Hakka and Formosan languages. In Hong Kong and Macau it is a co-official language as Cantonese, alongside English and Portuguese respectively. Chinese is also an official language in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and also one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Chinese was added as an official language in the United Nations in 1973, when the General Assembly made Chinese a working language.

Macao Special Administrative Region passport

The Macao Special Administrative Region passport (Portuguese: Passaporte da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau; Chinese: 澳門特別行政區護照) is a passport issued to Chinese citizens who are permanent residents of Macau.

In accordance with Macau Basic Law, since the transfer of sovereignty over Macau on 20 December 1999, this passport has been issued by the Identification Services Bureau (under the Secretariat for Administration and Justice) of the government of Macau under the prerogative of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.

The official languages of Macau are Portuguese and Chinese; consequently, all the passport's text is in traditional Chinese characters, Portuguese, and English.

Media in Toronto

This is a list of television and radio stations along with a list of media outlets in and around Toronto, Ontario including the Greater Toronto Area. Toronto is Canada's largest media market, and the fourth-largest market in North America (behind New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago).

Philippine Mandarin

Philippine Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 菲律宾华语; traditional Chinese: 菲律賓華語; pinyin: Fēilǜbīn Huáyǔ) is a variety of Standard Mandarin Chinese widely spoken by Chinese Filipinos. It is based on the phonology of the Beijing dialect and the grammar of Vernacular Chinese, and is identical to the standard of Mandarin used in the Republic of China, Taiwan that is called "Guoyu" (國語). In terms of phonology, vocabulary and grammar, Standard Philippine Mandarin is similar to "Guoyu" (Standard Chinese in the Republic of China (Taiwan)) because almost all use dictionaries and books from Taiwan. Many Chinese Filipino schools use bopomofo (zhuyin fuhao) to teach the language. Philippine Mandarin uses the Traditional Chinese characters in writing and it is seen in the newspapers. Philippine Mandarin can be classified into two distinct Mandarin dialects: Standard Mandarin and Colloquial Mandarin. These two dialects are easily distinguishable to a person proficient in Mandarin. Standard Mandarin is like the standard language of Taiwan, while Colloquial Mandarin tends to combine Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 华语; traditional Chinese: 華語) and Min Nan Yu (閩南語) or Southern Hokkien features.

Shinjitai

Shinjitai (Japanese: 新字体, "new character form") are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. Some of the new forms found in shinjitai are also found in Simplified Chinese characters, but shinjitai is generally not as extensive in the scope of its modification.

Shinjitai were created by reducing the number of strokes in kyūjitai ("old character form"), unsimplified kanji usually the same as Traditional Chinese characters, also called seiji (正字, "proper/correct characters"). This simplification was achieved through a process (similar to that of simplified Chinese) of either replacing the onpu (音符, "sound mark") indicating the On reading with another onpu of the same On reading with fewer strokes, or replacing a complex component of a character with a simpler one.

There have been a few stages of simplifications made since the 1950s, but the only changes that became official were the changes in the Jōyō Kanji List in 1981 and 2010.

SimpleText

SimpleText is the native text editor for the Apple classic Mac OS. SimpleText allows editing including text formatting (underline, italic, bold, etc.), fonts, and sizes. It was developed to integrate the features included in the different versions of TeachText that were created by various software development groups within Apple.It can be considered similar to Windows' WordPad application. In later versions it also gained additional read only display capabilities for PICT files, as well as other Mac OS built-in formats like Quickdraw GX and QTIF, 3DMF and even QuickTime movies. SimpleText can even record short sound samples and, using Apple's PlainTalk speech system, read out text in English. Users who wanted to add sounds longer than 24 seconds, however, needed to use a separate program to create the sound and then paste the desired sound into the document using ResEdit.SimpleText superseded TeachText, which was included in System Software up until Mac OS 8. The need for SimpleText arose after Apple stopped bundling MacWrite, to ensure that every user could open and read Readme documents.

The key improvement of SimpleText over TeachText was the addition of text styling. The underlying OS required by SimpleText implemented a standard styled text format, which meant that SimpleText could support multiple fonts and font sizes. Prior Macintosh OS versions lacked this feature, so TeachText supported only a single font per document. Adding text styling features made SimpleText WorldScript-savvy, meaning that it can use Simplified and Traditional Chinese characters. Like TeachText, SimpleText was also limited to only 32 kB of text in a document, although images could increase the total file size beyond this limit. SimpleText style information was stored in the file's resource fork in such a way that if the resource fork was stripped (such as by uploading to a non-Macintosh server), the text information would be retained.

In Mac OS X, SimpleText is replaced by the more powerful TextEdit application, which reads and writes more document formats as well as including word processor-like features such as a ruler and spell checking. TextEdit's styled text format is RTF, which is able to survive a single-forked file system intact.

Apple has released the source code for a Carbon version of SimpleText in the Mac OS X Panther Developer Tools. If the Developer Tools are installed, it can be found at /Developer/Examples/Carbon/SimpleText.

Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China (Taiwan). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters.Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; jiǎntǐzì). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms. On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which (as stated by then-Chairman Mao Zedong in 1952) includes not only structural simplification but also substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters.Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters. Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character, usually the simplest amongst all variants in form. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification, and are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies.

Some simplified characters are very dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters, especially in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol. This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the 'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is straightforward and internally consistent. Proponents have also emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants.A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was later retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons, largely due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future.In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 (simplified and unchanged) characters was officially implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013.

Singapore Chinese characters

The development of Singapore's Chinese characters can be divided into three periods:

Before 1969 : Used Traditional Chinese characters

1969-1976: The Ministry of Education promulgated the Table of Simplified Characters (simplified Chinese: 简体字表; traditional Chinese: 簡體字表; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì biǎo), which differed from the Chinese Character Simplification Scheme of the People's Republic of China

After 1976: fully adopted the Simplified Chinese characters of the People's Republic of China. In 1977, the second attempt to simplify the characters was stopped, ending the long period of confusion associated with simplification.

Taiwan Academy

Taiwan Academies (Chinese: 臺灣書院; pinyin: Táiwān Shūyuàn) are non-profit public institutes with a stated aim of promoting Mandarin language (known in Taiwan as Guóyǔ (國語)), Traditional Chinese characters, and research on Taiwan-related topics. The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of China (ROC) established the Taiwan Academy in 2011.

Xinhua Zidian

The Xinhua Zidian (simplified Chinese: 新华字典; traditional Chinese: 新華字典; pinyin: Xīnhuá Zìdiǎn; literally: 'New Chinese Dictionary'), or Xinhua Dictionary, is a Chinese language dictionary published by the Commercial Press. It is the best-selling Chinese dictionary and the world's most popular reference work (Xinhua 2004). In 2016, Guinness World Records officially confirmed that the dictionary, published by The Commercial Press, is the "Most popular dictionary" and the "Best-selling book (regularly updated)". It is considered a symbol of Chinese culture.This pocket-sized dictionary of Chinese characters uses simplified Chinese characters and pinyin romanization. The most recent Xinhua Zidian edition (the 11th) contains 3,300 compounds and includes over 13,000 logograms, including traditional Chinese characters and variant Chinese characters. Bopomofo is used as a supplement alongside Pinyin. Xinhua Zidian is divided into 189 "radicals" or "section headers" (DeFrancis 1984:291).

Besides their popular concise version Xinhua Zidian, Commercial Press also publishes a large-print edition and a Xinhua Dictionary with English Translation (Yao 2000, reviewed by Clark 2001). In addition, the Shanxi Education Press publishes a pinyin-edition Xinhua Zidian with both characters and orthographically precise transcriptions (Yi et al. 1999).

Major
subdivisions
Standardised
forms
Phonology
Grammar
Set phrase
Input method
History
Literary
forms
Scripts

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