Trading card

A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card, usually made out of paperboard or thick paper, which usually contains an image of a certain person, place or thing (fictional or real) and a short description of the picture, along with other text (attacks, statistics, or trivia).[1] There is a wide variation of different types of cards. Modern cards even go as far as to include swatches of game worn memorabilia, autographs, and even DNA hair samples of their subjects.

Trading cards are traditionally associated with sports; baseball cards are especially well-known. Cards dealing with other subjects like Pokémon are often considered a separate category from sports cards, known as non-sports trading cards. These often feature cartoons, comic book characters, television series and film stills. In the 1990s, cards designed specifically for playing games became popular enough to develop into a distinct category, collectible card games. These games are mostly fantasy-based gameplay. Fantasy art cards are a subgenre of trading cards that focus on the artwork. Game with the highest number of cards and most popularity is Magic: the Gathering.

History

Origins

Trade cards are the ancestors of trading cards. Some of the earliest prizes found in retail products were cigarette cards — trade cards advertising the product (not to be confused with trading cards) that were inserted into paper packs of cigarettes as stiffeners to protect the contents.[2] Allen and Ginter in the U.S. in 1886, and British company W.D. & H.O. Wills in 1888, were the first tobacco companies to print advertisements.[3] A couple years later, lithograph pictures on the cards with an encyclopedic variety of topics from nature to war to sports — subjects that appealed to men who smoked - began to surface as well.[4] By 1900, there were thousands of tobacco card sets manufactured by 300 different companies. Children would stand outside of stores to ask customers who bought cigarettes for the promotional cards.[5] Following the success of cigarette cards, trade cards were produced by manufacturers of other products and included in the product or handed to the customer by the store clerk at the time of purchase.[4] World War II put an end to cigarette card production due to limited paper resources, and after the war cigarette cards never really made a comeback. After that collectors of prizes from retail products took to collecting tea cards in the UK and bubble gum cards in the US.[6]

Early baseball cards

The first baseball cards were trade cards printed in the late 1860s by a sporting goods company, around the time baseball became a professional sport.[7] Most of the baseball cards around the beginning of the 20th century came in candy and tobacco products. It was during this era that the most valuable baseball card ever printed was produced - the infamous T206 tobacco card featuring Honus Wagner.[8] The T206 Set, distributed by the American Tobacco Company in 1909, is considered by collectors to be the most popular set of all time.[9] In 1933, Goudey Gum Company of Boston issued baseball cards with players biographies on the backs and was the first to put baseball cards in bubble gum.[10] The 1933 Goudey set remains one of the most popular and affordable vintage sets to this day.[11] Bowman Gum of Philadelphia issued its first baseball cards in 1948.

Modern trading cards

Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., now known as "The Topps Company, Inc.", started inserting trading cards into bubble gum packs in 1950 — with such topics as TV and film cowboy Hopalong Cassidy; "Bring 'Em Back Alive" cards featuring Frank Buck on big game hunts in Africa; and All-American Football Cards. Topps produced its first baseball trading card set in 1951, with the resulting design resembling that of playing cards.[12] Topps owner and founder Sy Berger created the first true modern baseball card set, complete with playing record and statistics, the following year in the form of 1952 Topps Baseball.[13] This is one of the most popular sets of all time, due in large part to the fact that it contained Mickey Mantle's rookie card.[14]

Topps purchased their chief competitor, Bowman Gum, in 1956.[15] Topps was the leader in the trading card industry from 1956 to 1980, not only in sports cards but in entertainment cards as well. Many of the top selling non-sports cards were produced by Topps, including Wacky Packages (1967, 1973–1977), Star Wars (beginning in 1977)[16] and Garbage Pail Kids (beginning in 1985).[17] Topps inserted baseball cards as prizes into packs of gum until 1981, when cards were sold without the gum. Collectors were delighted, since the oil from the gum was ruining an otherwise pristine or valuable card.[18]

Digital trading cards

In an attempt to stay current with technology and digital trends, existing and new trading card companies started to create digital trading cards that lives exclusively online or as a digital counterpart of a physical card. In 2000, Topps established themselves in the digital space by launching a new brand of sports cards, called etopps. These cards were sold exclusively online through individual IPO's (initial player offering) in which the card is offered for usually a week at the IPO price. The quantity sold depended on how many people offered to buy but was limited to a certain maximum. After a sale, the cards were held in a climate-controlled warehouse unless the buyer requests delivery, and the cards could be traded online without changing hands except in the virtual sense. In January 2012, Topps announced that they would be discontinuing their eTopps product line.[19]

Digital collectable card games were estimated to be a $1.3B market in 2013.[20] A number of tech start-ups have attempted to establish themselves in this space, notably Stampii (Spain, 2009),[21][22] Fantom (Ireland, 2011), Deckdaq (Israel, 2011), and 2Stic (Austria, 2013). These companies competed with the high cost of digital licensing of quality brand content, and they also had to struggle with the difficulty of monetizing Internet content particularly in an 8- to 12-year-old demographic. The only successful business model unlocked has been B2B, licensing the tech to sales promotion companies and sports franchises as digital inventory generators. The bulk of the revenue generated digitally is by US and Japanese games companies such as Wizards of the Coast, with deeper game play and their own intellectual property.

The dominant paper-based card companies continue to experiment slowly with digital, being careful not to cannibalize their print markets.

Panini launched their Adrenalyn XL platform with an NBA and NFL trading card collection. Connect2Media together with Winning Moves, created an iPhone Application to host a series of trading card collections, including Dinosaurs, James Bond - 007, Celebs, Gum Ball 3000, European Football Stars and NBA. In 2011, mytcg Technologies launched a platform that enabled content holders to host their content on.

On July 1, 2011, Wildcat Intellectual Property Holdings filed a lawsuit against 12 defendants, including Topps, Panini, Sony, Electronic Arts, Konami, Pokémon, Zynga and Nintendo, for allegedly infringing Wildcat's "Electronic Trading Card" patent.[23]

In 2012, Topps also launched their first phone application. Topps Bunt is an app that allows users to connect with other fans in a fantasy league type game environment wherein they can collect their favorite players, earn points based on how well they play and trade & compete with other fans. Three years later, the same company launched a digital experiment in Europe (geotargeted to exclude the USA) with its Marvel Hero Attax, using digital as an overlay to its physical product.[24]

Common functionalities that are shared between new and emerging digital trading card platforms include collection, live auctions, virtual shops, multiplayer gaming, a mobile- web- or Facebook application, Digital Rights Management, card tracking, and embedded content.

Value

Today, the development of the Internet has given rise to various online communities, through which members can trade collectible cards with each other. Cards are often bought and sold via eBay and other online retail sources. Many websites solicit their own "sell to us" page in hopes to draw in more purchase opportunities.[25]

The value of a trading card depends on a combination of the card's condition, the subject's popularity and the scarcity of the card. In some cases, especially with older cards that preceded the advent of card collecting as a widespread hobby, they have become collectors' items of considerable value. In recent years, many sports cards have not necessarily appreciated as much in value due to overproduction, although some manufacturers have used limited editions and smaller print runs to boost value. Trading cards, however, do not have an absolute monetary value. Cards are only worth as much as a collector is willing to pay.[26]

Condition

Card condition is one aspect of trading cards that determine the value of a card. There are four areas of interest in determining a cards condition. Centering, corners, edges and surface are taken into consideration, for imperfections, such as color spots and blurred images, and wear, such as creases, scratches and tears, when determining a trading cards value.[27] Cards are considered poor to pristine based on their condition, or in some cases rated 1 through 10.[28] A card in pristine condition, for example, will generally be valued higher than a card in poor condition.

Condition Description
Pristine Perfect card. No imperfections or damage to the naked eye and upon close inspection.
Mint condition No printing imperfections or damage to the naked eye. Very minor printing imperfections or damage upon close inspection. Clean gloss with one or two scratches.
Near Mint/Mint No printing imperfections or damage to the naked eye, but slight printing imperfections or damage upon close inspection. Solid gloss with very minor scratches.
Near Mint Noticeable, but minor, imperfections or wear on the card. Solid gloss with very minor scratches.
Excellent/Near Mint Noticeable, but minor, imperfections or wear on the card. Mostly solid gloss with minor scratches.
Excellent Noticeable imperfections or moderate wear on the card. Some gloss lost with minor scratches.
Very Good/Excellent Noticeable imperfections or moderate wear on the card. Heavy gloss lost with very minor scuffing, and an extremely subtle tear.
Very Good Heavy imperfections or heavy wear on the card. Almost no gloss. Minor scuffing or very minor tear.
Good Severe imperfections or wear on the card. No gloss. Noticeable scuffing or tear.
Poor Destructive imperfections or wear on the card. No gloss. Heavy scuffing, severe tear or heavy creases.

Popularity

Popularity of trading cards is determined by the subject represented on the card, their real life accomplishments, and short term news coverage as well as the specifics of the card.[26]

Scarcity

While vintage cards are truly a scarce commodity, modern day manufacturers have to artificially add value to their products in order to make them scarce. This is accomplished by including serial numbered parallel sets, cards with game worn memorabilia, autographs, and more. Time can also make cards more scarce due to the fact that cards may be lost or destroyed.[8]

Terminology

Phase Definition
9-pocket page A plastic sheet used to store and protect up card in nine card slots, and then stored in a card binder
9-Up Sheet Uncut sheets of nine cards, usually promos.
Autograph Card Printed insert cards that also bear an original cast or artist signature.
Base Set Complete sets of base cards for a particular card series.
Binder A binder used to store cards using 9-card page holders.
Break An online service where someone (usually for the exchange of currency) opens packages of trading cards and sends them to the buyer. Breaks have "spots" for sale, typically sorted by team.
Blaster Box A factory sealed box with typically 6 to 12 packs of cards. Typically made for sale at large retail stores such as Walmart and Target.
Box Original manufacturer's containers of multiple packs, often 24 to 36 packs per box.
Box Topper Card Cards included in a factory sealed box.
Blister Pack Factory plastic bubble packs of cards or packs, for retail peg-hanger sales.
Card sleeve Sleeves that cards are to be put in to protect the cards.
Case Factory-sealed crates filled with card boxes, often six to twelve card boxes per case.
Chase Card Card, or cards, included as a bonus in a factory sealed case.
Common Card Non-rare cards that form the main set. Also known as base cards.
Factory Set Card sets, typically complete base sets, sorted and sold from the manufacturer.[26]
Hobby Card Items sold mainly to collectors, through stores that deal exclusively in collectible cards. Usually contains some items not included in the retail offerings.
Insert Card Non-rare to rare cards that are randomly inserted into packs, at various ratios (e.g. 1 card per 24 packs). An insert card is often different from the base set in appearance and numbering. Also known as chase cards.[29]
Master Set Not well defined; often a base set and all readily available insert sets; typically does not include promos, mail-in cards, sketch cards, or autograph cards.
Oversized Card Any base, common, insert, or other cards not of standard or widevision size.
Parallel Card A modified base card, which may contain extra foil stamping, hologram stamping that distinguishes the card from the base card.
Pack Original wrappers with base, and potentially insert, cards within, often called 'wax packs', typically with two to eight cards per pack. Today the packs are usually plastic or foil wrap.
Retail Card Cards, packs, boxes and cases sold to the public, typically via large retail stores, such as K-mart or Wal-Mart.
Rack Pack Factory pack of unwrapped cards, for retail peg-hanger sales.
Promo Card Cards that are distributed, typically in advance, by the manufacturer to promote upcoming products.
Redemption Card Insert cards found in packs that are mailed (posted) to the manufacturer for a special card or some other gift.
Sell Sheet Also 'ad slicks'. Usually one page, but increasingly fold-outs, distributed by the manufacturers to card distributors, in advance, to promote upcoming products. With the proliferation of the Internet, sell sheets are now typically distributed in digital form to trading card media outlets such as Beckett and The Cardboard Connection so that collectors can preview sets months before they are released.[30]
Singles Individual cards sold at hobby or online stores.
Sketch Card Insert cards that feature near-one-of-a-kind artists sketches.
Swatch Insert cards that feature a mounted swatch of cloth, such as from a sports player's jersey or an actor's costume.
Tin Factory metal cans, typically filled with cards or packs, often with inserts.
Top Loader A hard plastic sleeve used to store a single card to prevent scratches, corner damage and other blemishes.
Unreleased Card Cards printed by the manufacturer, but not officially distributed for a variety of reasons. Often leaked to the public, sometimes improperly. Not to be confused with promo cards.
Uncut Sheet Sheets of uncut base, insert, promo, or other cards.
Wrapper Original pack covers, often with collectible variations.

Sports cards

Sports card is a generic term for a trading card with a sports-related subject, as opposed to non-sports trading cards that deal with other topics. Sports cards were among the earliest forms of collectibles. They typically consist of a picture of a player on one side, with statistics or other information on the reverse. Cards have been produced featuring most major sports, especially those played in North America, including, but not limited to, American football, association football (soccer), baseball, basketball, boxing, golf, ice hockey, racing and tennis.

The first set with a sporting theme appeared in 1896, a cricket series by W.D. & H.O. Wills of 50 cricketers. The tobacco companies soon realised that sports cards were a great way to obtain brand loyalty. In 1896 the first association football set, "Footballers & Club Colours", was published by Marcus & Company, a small firm in Manchester. Other football sets issued at that time were "Footballers & Club Colours" (Kinner, 1898); "Footballers" (J. F. Bell, 1902); "Footballers" (F. J. Smith, 1902) and "Footballers" (Percy E. Cadle, 1904).[31]

The first stage in the development of sports cards, during the second half of the 19th century, is essentially the story of baseball cards, since baseball was the first sport to become widely professionalized. Hockey cards also began to appear early in the 20th century. Cards from this period are commonly known as cigarette cards or tobacco cards, because many were produced by tobacco companies and inserted into cigarette packages, to stiffen cigarette packaging and advertise cigarette brands. The most expensive card in the hobby is a cigarette card of Honus Wagner in a set called 1909 T-206. The story told is that Wagner was against his cards being inserted into something that children would collect. So the production of his cards stopped abruptly. It is assumed that less than 100 of his cards exist in this set. The 1909 T-206 Honus Wagner card has sold for as much as $2.8 million.[32]

Sets of cards are issued with each season for major professional sports. Since companies typically must pay players for the right to use their images, the vast majority of sports cards feature professional athletes. Amateurs appear only rarely, usually on cards produced or authorized by the institution they compete for, such as a college.

Many older sports cards (pre-1980) command a high price today; this is because they are hard to find, especially in good quality condition. This happened because many children used to place their cards in bicycle spokes, where the cards were easily damaged. Rookie cards of Hall of Fame sports stars can command thousands of dollars if they have been relatively well-preserved.

In the 1980s, sports cards started to get produced in higher numbers, and collectors started to keep their cards in better condition as they became increasingly aware of their potential investment value. This trend continued well into the 1990s. This practice caused many of the cards manufactured during this era to stay low in value, due to their high numbers.

The proliferation of cards saturated the market, and by the late 1990s, card companies began to produce scarcer versions of cards to keep many collectors interested. The latest trends in the hobby have been "game used memorabilia" cards, which usually feature a piece of a player's jersey worn in a real professional game; other memorabilia cards include pieces of bats, balls, hats, helmets, and floors. Authenticated autographs are also popular, as are "serially numbered" cards, which are produced in much smaller amounts than regular "base set cards".

Autographs obtained by card manufacturers have become the most collected baseball cards in the hobby's history. This started in 1990 in baseball when Upper Deck randomly inserted autographs of Reggie Jackson into boxes. They are commonly referred to as "Certified Autographed Inserts" or "CAI's". Both the athlete's and card company's reputations are on the line if they do not personally sign these cards. This has created the most authentic autographs in existence. These cards all have some form of printed statements that the autographs are authentic, this way, no matter who owns the autograph there is no question of its authenticity. CAI's have branched out into autographs of famous actors, musicians, Presidents, and even Albert Einstein. Mostly these autographs are cut from flat items such as postcards, index cards, and plain paper. Then they are pasted onto cards. In 2001, a company called Playoff started obtaining autographs on stickers that are stuck on the cards instead of them actually signing the cards. There is strong opposition against these types of autographs because the players never even saw the cards that the stickers were affixed to.

The competition among card companies to produce quality sports cards has been fierce. In 2005, the long-standing sports card producer Fleer went bankrupt and was bought out by Upper Deck. Not long after that, Donruss lost its MLB baseball license.

Association football

Churchman card birmingham
Early association football card by Churchman, 1909

The first association football (or "soccer") cards were produced in 1898 by the Marcus & Company Tobacco in Manchester, England.[33] The set consisted of over 100 cards and was issued under the title of "Club Colours". They featured illustrated images of players on the front of the card, and a tobacco advertisement on the back of the card. Many other cigarette companies quickly created their own series, beginning with Kinner in 1898.[34] A later series of cards was produced in 1934 by Ardath, which was a 50-card set called Famous Footballers featuring images of players on the front of the card, and a tobacco advertisement and short biography of the player on the back of the card.

Modern Association football trading cards were sold with bubble gum in the United Kingdom from 1958 to 1975 by A&BC, and later by Topps, UK from 1975 to 1981. Similar smaller sized cards were issued in Spain and Italy beginning in the late 1940s. Cards have been produced from 1981 to present, save 1985 and 1986.[35][36][37][38] Under its Merlin brand, since 1994 Topps has held the licence to produce stickers for the Premier League sticker album.[39] Launched by Topps in the 2007–08 season, Match Attax, the official Premier League trading card game, is the best selling boys collectable in the UK – with around 1.5m collectors in the UK – and with global sales it is also the biggest selling sports trading card game in the world.[39][40]

Troca de cromos da panini - 1
Sticker trade in Brazil for Panini’s 2018 World Cup sticker album

Other variations of football products exist, such as marbles, cut-outs, coins, stamps and stickers, some made of light cardboard and attached with glue or stickers, into sticker albums specifically issued for the products. Forming a partnership with FIFA in 1970, Panini first produced a World Cup sticker album for the 1970 World Cup.[41][42] Initiating a craze for collecting and trading stickers, since then, it has become part of the World Cup experience, especially for the younger generation.[43][44] The Guardian states, “the tradition of swapping duplicate [World Cup] stickers was a playground fixture during the 1970s and 1980s.”[43] Panini begins assembling World Cup squads for their sticker album a few months before they are officially announced by each nation, which means surprise call ups often don’t feature in their album. A notable example of this was 17-year-old Brazilian striker Ronaldo who was called up for the Brazil squad for the 1994 FIFA World Cup.[45]

Panini’s football trading card game Adrenalyn XL was introduced in 2009. In 2010 Panini released a UEFA Champions League edition of Adrenalyn XL, containing 350 cards from 22 of the competing clubs, including defending champions FC Barcelona. The fourth edition of Panini FIFA 365 Adrenalyn XL was released for 2019, featuring top clubs, teams and players.[46]

Baseball

Baseball cards will usually feature one or more baseball players or other baseball-related sports figures. The front of the card typically displays an image of the player with identifying information, including, but not limited to, the player's name and team affiliation. The reverse of most modern cards displays statistics and/or biographical information. Cards are most often found in the United States but are also common in countries such as Canada, Cuba, and Japan, where baseball is a popular sport and there are professional leagues.

The earliest baseball cards were in the form of trade cards produced in 1868.[47] They evolved into tobacco cards by 1886.[48][49] In the early 20th century other industries began printing their own version of baseball cards to promote their products, such as bakery/bread cards, caramel cards, dairy cards, game cards and publication cards. Between the 1930s and 1960s the cards developed into trading cards, becoming their own product. In 1957, Topps changed the dimensions of its cards slightly, to 2-1/2 inches by 3-1/2 inches, setting a standard that remains the basic format for most sports cards produced in the United States.[50]

Basketball

Basketball cards will feature one or more players of the National Basketball Association, National Collegiate Athletic Association, Olympic basketball, Women's National Basketball Association, Women's Professional Basketball League, or some other basketball related theme. The first basketball cards were produced in 1910, in a series cataloged as College Athlete Felts B-33. The complete series included ten different sports, with only 30-cards being associated with basketball. The cards were issued as a cigarette redemption premium by Egyptiene Cigarettes.[51] The number of cigarette packages needed to redeem for the tobacco cards is not known.

The next series of basketball cards were issued in 1911, in two separate series; T6 College Series, measuring approximately 6" by 8", and T51 College Series, measuring approximately 2" by 3". These series included a variety of sports, with only 4 cards being associated with basketball,[52] one card from the T6 series and three cards from the T51 series. Both series were produced in two variations, one variation reading "College Series", the other, "2nd Series". The cards were acquired in trade for fifteen Murad cigarette coupons. The offer expired June 30, 1911.[53]

Basketball cards were not seen again until 1932, when C.A. Briggs Chocolate issued a 31-card set containing multiple sports. In exchange for a completed set of cards, Briggs offered baseball equipment.[54] The number of basketball cards in the set is not known.

Boxing

According to Tallent, one of the first boxing cards on record in "America's Greatest Boxing Cards", and encyclopedia and check-list of boxing cards, was of John C. Heenan issued by Charles D. Fredericks in the 1860s.[55]

Cricket

Cricket cards will usually feature one or more cricket players or a cricket-related theme..

Gridiron football

A gridiron football card is a type of collectible trading card typically printed on paper stock or card stock that features one or more American football, Canadian football or World League of American Football players or other related sports figures. These cards are most often found in the United States and Canada where the sport is popular.

Most football cards features National Football League players. There are also Canadian Football League and college football cards. Player cards normally list the player's statistics.

Golf

Golf cards will usually feature one or more golf players or a golf-related theme. Golf cards were first introduced in 1901 by Ogden.[56]

Horse racing

Horse racing cards will usually feature jockeys or equestrian related theme.

Ice hockey

The first hockey cards were included in cigarette packages from 1910 to 1913. After World War I, only one more cigarette set was issued, during the 1924-25 season by Champ's Cigarettes. NHL player Billy Coutu's biography includes an example of one of the 40 cards issued at that time.

During the 1920s, some hockey cards were printed by food and candy companies, such as Paulin's Candy, Maple Crispette, Crescent, Holland Creameries and La Patrie.

Through 1941, O-Pee-Chee printed hockey cards, stopping production for World War II. Presumably, the 1941 involvement of the US in the war affected the hockey card market, since Canada had been in the war since 1939.

Hockey cards next appeared during 1951-52, issued by Shirriff Desserts, York Peanut Butter and Post Cereal. Toronto's Parkhurst Products Company began printing cards in 1951, followed by Brooklyn's Topps Chewing Gum in 1954-1955. O-Pee-Chee and Topps did not produce cards in 1955 or 1956, but returned for 1957-58. Shirriff also issued "hockey coins."

Lacrosse

Lacrosse cards will usually feature one or more lacrosse players or other lacrosse related theme.

Racing

Racing cards consist of a card stock with stats and pictures on it. Sometimes it shows the car, sometimes it shows the driver's face, and sometimes both. It also shows the endorsing companies for the car.

Sumo

Sumo cards consist of sports card that features one or more sumo wrestlers (sumoists) or other sumo related theme

Tennis

Tennis cards will usually feature one or more tennis players or other tennis related theme.

Manufacturers

This list contains companies that produce, or have produced, sports trading cards. This list does not contain all the brand names associated with their respected manufacturers.

Manufacturer Association
football
Baseball Basketball Boxing Golf Gridiron
football
Ice
hockey
Racing Tennis
Ace Authentic [57] No No No No No No No No Yes
Action Packed [58] No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No
Allworld [59] No No No Yes Yes No No No No
Best [60] No Yes No No No No No No No
Bowman Gum [note 1] No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Classic Games, Inc. [note 2] No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Collect-A-Card [69] No No Yes No No No No No No
Collector's Edge [70] No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Courtside [71] No No Yes No Yes No No No No
Donruss [note 3] No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Extreme Sports [74] No No No No Yes No No No No
Fleer [note 4] No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Futera Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
Front Row [76] No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Genuine Article [77] No No Yes No No No No No No
Goodwin & Company No Yes No No No No No No No
Goudey [78] No Yes No No No No No No No
Grand Slam Ventures [79] No No No No Yes No No No No
Grandstand [80] No Yes No No No No No No No
Hi-Tech [81] No No No No No No No Yes No
JOGO Inc.[82] No No No No Yes No No No No
Just Minors [83] No Yes No No No No No No No
Kayo No No No Yes No No No No No
Leaf, Inc. [note 5] No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No
Maxx[85] No No No No No No No Yes No
Multi-Ad [86] No Yes No No No No No No No
National Chicle[87] No Yes No No No No No No No
NetPro [88] No No No No No No No No Yes
O-Pee-Chee [89] No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No
Pacific Trading Cards [note 6] Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Panini Group Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Parkhurst Products [91][92] No No No No Yes No Yes No No
Pinnacle Brands [note 7] No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Press Pass, Inc. [95] No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No
Pro Set [96] Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
ProCards [97] No Yes No No No No Yes No No
Razor Entertainment [98] No Yes No No Yes No No No No
Rittenhouse [99] No No Yes No No No No Yes No
Royal Rookies [100] No Yes No No Yes No No No No
SA-GE Collectibles, Inc.[101] No No Yes No Yes No No No No
Signature Rookies[102] No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
SkyBox [note 8] No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No
Stampii [note 9] Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes No
Star Co.[106] No Yes Yes No No No No No No
Star Pics [107] No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Superior Pix [108] No No Yes No Yes No No No No
Superior Rookies [109] No No No No Yes No No No No
Topps [110] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Traks [111] No No No No No No No Yes No
TRISTAR [112] No Yes No No No No No No No
Upper Deck [113] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
USA Baseball [114] No Yes No No No No No No No
Wild Card [115] No No Yes No Yes No No No No
Wizards of the Coast [116] Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
Wonder Bread No No No No Yes No Yes No No
Notes
  1. ^ Gum, Inc. from 1939 to 1941. Bowman Gum from 1948 to 1955. Includes trading cards manufactured under Play Ball. Topps acquired the company in 1956.</ref>[61][62][63][64][65]
  2. ^ Includes trading cards manufactured under Classic Games, Inc., Classic/Scoreboard and Score Board.</ref>[66][67][68]
  3. ^ Includes trading cards manufactured under Donruss and Donruss/Playoff.</ref>[72][73]
  4. ^ Manufactured trading cards from 1959 to 2005, save 1964, 1965 and 1967. Upper Deck acquired the brand name in 2005.</ref>[75]
  5. ^ Manufactured trading cards from 1948 to 1960.</ref>[84]
  6. ^ Manufactured trading cards from 1984 to 2005. Donruss/Playoff acquired their brand names in 2005.</ref>[90]
  7. ^ Includes trading cards manufactured under Sportflics and Pinnacle/Score.</ref>[93][94]
  8. ^ Manufactured trading cards from 1990 to 1995. Fleer acquired SkyBox in 1995.</ref>[103]
  9. ^ Spanish company established in 2009 that released digital cards only.[104][105]

Non-sports cards

Non-sports trading cards feature subject material relating to anything other than sports, such as comics, movies, music and television.[117] Supersisters was a set of 72 trading cards produced and distributed in the United States in 1979 by Supersisters, Inc, featuring famous women from politics, media and entertainment, culture, and other areas of achievement. The cards were designed in response to the trading cards popular among children in the US at the time which mostly featured men.

Manufacturers

This list contains companies that produce, or have produced, non-sports trading cards only. This list does not contain all the brand names associated with their respected manufacturers.

Manufacturer Cartoon Collectable
Card Game
Comic book Historic Music Movie/
Television
5Finity Yes No Yes No No No
Bushiroad No Yes No No No No
Cartamundi No Yes No No No No
Cryptozoic No Yes Yes No No Yes
Cult Stuff Yes No Yes Yes No No
Dart Flipcards No No No No Yes Yes
Decipher No Yes No No No No
Digimon Yes Yes Yes No No Yes
Donruss No No No No Yes Yes
Fantom Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hidden City No Yes No No No No
Konami Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Monsterwax No No No No No Yes
Nintendo No Yes No No No No
Press Pass No No No No Yes No
Quality Playing Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Score No Yes No No No Yes
Wax Eye Yes Yes No No No No
Webkinz No Yes No No No No
Wizards of the Coast No Yes Yes No No No

See also

References

  1. ^ "Baseball Card History, News, and Reviews". CardboardConnection.com. The Cardboard Connection. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  2. ^ What is what we collect? by Sam Whiting, 26 Oct 2014
  3. ^ Trading Card Central. 2007. 29 Jan. 2008
  4. ^ a b The History of Cartophily Archived 2013-05-23 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Cigarette Cards and Cartophily". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
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External links

.hack

.hack (pronounced "dot-hack") is a Japanese multimedia franchise that encompasses two projects: Project .hack and .hack Conglomerate. Both projects were primarily created and developed by CyberConnect2, and published by Bandai. The series franchise revolves around an alternative history setting in the rise of the new millennium regarding the technological rise of a new version of the internet following a major global computer network disaster in the year 2005, and the mysterious events regarding the wildly popular in-universe MMORPG series The World. The series is mainly followed through anime and video game installations, and has been adapted through manga, novels and other related media.

2016 Pokémon World Championships

The 2016 Pokémon World Championships was the eighth annual e-Sport invite-only tournament held by Play! Pokémon, a branch of The Pokémon Company that unites the top Pokémon video game and Pokémon Trading Card Game players from around the world. The event was held at the San Francisco Marriott Marquis in San Francisco, California from August 19 to August 21.For the first time in the tournament history, the Pokkén Tournament invitational was featured alongside the Video Game Championships (VGC) and Trading Card Game (TCG) tournaments. Side events and an official store with event merchandise occurred alongside the event.

The defending Video Game champions were Shoma Honami from Japan (Masters Division), Mark McQuillan from the United Kingdom (Senior Division) and Kotone Yasue from Japan (Junior Division). The defending Trading Card Game champions were Jacob Van Wagner from the United States (Masters Division), Patrick Martinez from the United States (Senior Division), and Rowan Stavenow from Canada.

Collectible card game

A collectible card game (CCG), also called a trading card game (TCG) or many other names, is a kind of strategy card game that was created in 1993 and consists of specially designed sets of playing cards. These cards use proprietary artwork or images to embellish the card. CCGs may depict anything from fantasy or science fiction genres, horror themes, cartoons, or even sports. Game text is also on the card and is used to interact with the other cards in a strategic fashion. Games are commonly played between two players, though multiplayer formats are also common. Players may also use dice, counters, card sleeves, or play mats to complement their gameplay.

CCGs can be played with or collected, and often both. Generally, a CCG is initially played using a starter deck. This deck may be modified by adding cards from booster packs, which contain around 8 to 15 random cards. As a player obtains more cards, they may create new decks from scratch. When enough players have been established, tournaments are formed to compete for prizes.

Successful CCGs typically have thousands of unique cards, often extended through expansion sets that add new mechanics. Magic: The Gathering, the first developed and most successful, has over 18,000 distinct cards. By the end of 1994, Magic: The Gathering had sold over 1 billion cards, and between the time period of 2008 to 2016 sold over 20 billion. Other successful CCGs include Yu-Gi-Oh! which sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2011, and Pokémon which has sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2018. Other notable CCGs have come and gone, including Legend of the Five Rings, Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, Vampire: The Eternal Struggle, and World of Warcraft. Many other CCGs were produced but had little or no commercial success.Recently, digital collectible card games (DCCGs) have gained popularity, spurred by the success of Hearthstone. DCCGs do not use physical cards and instead use digital representations, with newer DCCGs foregoing card images altogether by using basic icons.

Dragon Ball Z

Dragon Ball Z (Japanese: ドラゴンボールZ (ゼット), Hepburn: Doragon Bōru Zetto, commonly abbreviated as DBZ) is a Japanese anime television series produced by Toei Animation. It is the sequel to the Dragon Ball anime and adapts the latter 325 chapters of the original 519-chapter Dragon Ball manga series created by Akira Toriyama which ran in Weekly Shōnen Jump from 1988-1995. Dragon Ball Z aired in Japan on Fuji TV from April 26, 1989 to January 31, 1996, before getting dubbed in territories including the United States, Canada, Australia, Europe, India, and Latin America. It was broadcast in at least 81 countries worldwide. It is part of the Dragon Ball media franchise.

Dragon Ball Z follows the adventures of Goku who, along with his companions, defend the Earth against villains ranging from conquerors (Frieza), androids (Cell) and other creatures (Majin Buu). While the original Dragon Ball anime followed Goku from childhood to early adulthood, Dragon Ball Z is a continuation of his adult life, but at the same time parallels the life of his son, Gohan, as well as the development of his rivals Piccolo and Vegeta from enemies to allies.

Due to the success of the anime in the United States, the manga chapters making up its story were initially released by Viz Media under the title Dragon Ball Z. Additional works called animanga were released in Japan, which adapt the animation to manga form. Dragon Ball Z's popularity has spawned numerous releases which have come to represent the majority of content in the Dragon Ball universe; including 17 movies and 148 video games, many of them being only released in Japan, and a host of soundtracks stemming from this material. Dragon Ball Z remains a cultural icon through numerous adaptations, including a more-recent remastered broadcast titled Dragon Ball Kai. There have also been two sequel series; Dragon Ball GT (1996–1997) and Dragon Ball Super (2015–2018).

Fullmetal Alchemist

Fullmetal Alchemist (Japanese: 鋼の錬金術師, Hepburn: Hagane no Renkinjutsushi, lit. "Alchemist of Steel") is a Japanese shōnen manga series written and illustrated by Hiromu Arakawa. It was serialized in Square Enix's Monthly Shōnen Gangan magazine between August 2001 and June 2010; the publisher later collected the individual chapters into twenty-seven tankōbon volumes. The world of Fullmetal Alchemist is styled after the European Industrial Revolution. Set in a fictional universe in which alchemy is one of the most advanced scientific techniques, the story follows two alchemist brothers named Edward and Alphonse Elric, who are searching for the philosopher's stone to restore their bodies after a failed attempt to bring their mother back to life using alchemy.

The manga was published and localized in English by Viz Media in North America, Madman Entertainment in Australasia, and Chuang Yi in Singapore. Yen Press also has the rights for the digital release of the volumes in North America due to the series being a Square Enix title. It has been adapted into two anime television series, two animated films—all animated by Bones studio—and light novels. Funimation dubbed the television series, films and video games. The series has generated original video animations, video games, supplementary books, a collectible card game, and a variety of action figures and other merchandise. A live action film based on the series was also released in 2017.

The manga has sold over 70 million volumes worldwide, making it one of the best-selling manga series. The English release of the manga's first volume was the top-selling graphic novel during 2005. In two TV Asahi web polls, the anime was voted the most popular anime of all time in Japan. At the American Anime Awards in February 2007, it was eligible for eight awards, nominated for six, and won five. Reviewers from several media conglomerations had positive comments on the series, particularly for its character development, action scenes, symbolism and philosophical references.

Harry Potter Trading Card Game

The Harry Potter Trading Card Game is an out-of-print collectible card game based in the world of J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter novels. Created by Wizards of the Coast in August 2001, the game was designed to compete with the Yu-Gi-Oh!, Pokémon and Magic: The Gathering card games. Its release was timed to coincide with the theatrical premiere of the first film in the series. The game was praised for the way it immersed children in the Harry Potter universe. At one point the game was the second best selling toy in the United States; however, it is now out of print.

Inazuma Eleven (series)

Inazuma Eleven (イナズマイレブン, Inazuma Irebun, "Lightning Eleven") is a role-playing sports video game franchise created by Level-5. By 2016, the series had sold around eight million copies worldwide.

List of Pokémon Trading Card Game sets

This is a list of Pokémon Trading Card Game sets which is a collectible card game first released in Japan in 1996. As of September 2017, there were 74 card sets released in America and 68 in Japan. Collectively, there are 6,959 cards in the Japanese sets and 9,110 cards in the English sets. The large difference stems from non-holofoil duplicates of rare cards included in English sets that are not printed in Japanese sets. As of March 2017, 23.6 billion cards had been shipped worldwide.The sets are generally broken into two lists: one for the first line of Wizards of the Coast cards and the second after Nintendo's acquisition of the card game after Wizards.

List of Stargate games

Stargate games are inspired by the Stargate franchise, which started with the 1994 film, Stargate directed by Roland Emmerich.

The games in this article are not related to the 1981 arcade game Stargate by Williams Electronics.

List of collectible card games

See List of digital collectible card games and digital collectible card game for more information on this genre.

This is a list of known collectible card games. Unless otherwise noted, all dates listed should be considered as the North American release date.

Pokémon

Pokémon (Japanese: ポケモン, Hepburn: Pokemon, English: ), also known as Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター) in Japan, is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures. The franchise copyright is shared by all three companies, but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark. The franchise was created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995, and is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokémon", which humans, known as Pokémon Trainers, catch and train to battle each other for sport. The English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch 'Em All". Works within the franchise are set in the Pokémon universe.

The franchise began as Pokémon Red and Green (released outside of Japan as Pokémon Red and Blue), a pair of video games for the original Game Boy that were developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo in February 1996. Pokémon has since gone on to become the highest-grossing media franchise of all time, with $90 billion in total franchise revenue. The original video game series is the second best-selling video game franchise (behind Nintendo's Mario franchise) with more than 300 million copies sold and over 800 million mobile downloads, and it spawned a hit anime television series that has become the most successful video game adaptation with over 20 seasons and 1,000 episodes in 124 countries. In addition, the Pokémon franchise includes the world's top-selling toy brand, the top-selling trading card game with over 25.7 billion cards sold, an anime film series, a live-action film, books, manga comics, music, and merchandise. The franchise is also represented in other Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series.

In November 2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing of Pokémon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokémon representation agreement. The Pokémon Company International oversees all Pokémon licensing outside Asia. The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006. In 2016, The Pokémon Company celebrated Pokémon's 20th anniversary by airing an ad during Super Bowl 50 in January, issuing re-releases of Pokémon Red and Blue and the 1998 Game Boy game Pokémon Yellow as downloads for the Nintendo 3DS in February, and redesigning the way the games are played. The mobile augmented reality game Pokémon Go was released in July. The latest games in the main series, Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!, were released worldwide on the Nintendo Switch on November 16, 2018. The first live action film in the franchise Pokémon: Detective Pikachu, based on Detective Pikachu, began production in January 2018 and is set to release in 2019.

Pokémon TCG Online

Pokémon TCG Online (PTCGO) is the digital version of the Pokémon Trading Card Game developed by American studio Dire Wolf Digital, and is available for Microsoft Windows, OS X, iPad and Android. It was originally released in April 2011 as Pokémon Trainer Challenge.

Pokémon Trading Card Game

The Pokémon Trading Card Game (ポケモンカードゲーム, Pokemon Kādo Gēmu, "Pokémon Card Game"), abbreviated to PTCG or Pokémon TCG, is a collectible card game, based on Nintendo's Pokémon franchise of video games and anime, first published in October 1996 by Media Factory in Japan. In the US, it was initially published by Wizards of the Coast; The Pokémon Company eventually took over publishing the card game in June 2003. In 2016, it was the year's top-selling toy in the strategic card game subclass. In 2017, it had an 82% share of Europe's strategic card game market. As of March 2018, the game has sold over 25.7 billion cards worldwide.

Pokémon Trading Card Game (video game)

Pokémon Trading Card Game, originally released in Japan as Pokémon Card GB (ポケモンカードGB, Pokemon Kādo Jī Bī) is a video game adaptation of the original tabletop trading card game of the same name, which in turn was based on the Pokémon role-playing video game series. Developed by Hudson Soft and Creatures, and published by Nintendo, it was initially released in Japan on December 18, 1998, with an English version appearing in North America in April 10, 2000 and in Europe the following December. The title features digital versions of cards from the first three sets of the trading card game originally released in English by Wizards of the Coast between 1998 and 1999, as well as exclusive cards not available outside of the game.

A second Game Boy Color game, Pokémon Card GB2: Great Rocket-Dan Sanjō! (ポケモンカードGB2 GR団参上!, Pokémon Card GB2: Here Comes Team Great Rocket!), was released in Japan on March 28, 2001. The sequel was not released in North America or Europe.

Star Wars trading card

Star Wars trading card usually refers to a non-sport card themed after a Star Wars movie or television show. However a common colloquial reference to trading card can also include reference to stickers, wrappers, or caps (pog) often produced along the same theme. Usually produced as either promotional or collectible memorabilia relating to Star Wars, the cards can depict anything from screen still imagery to original art. In addition, there have been various companies that have issued promotional Star Wars trading cards that include reference to or information about that corresponding company.

An avid collecting and trading community of these cards and sets exists worldwide. New cards released commercially are available through most major retailers and wholesalers, however some cards are specially issued as exclusive and only available though a specific source. A thriving secondary market also exists on eBay in various categories. Star Wars trading cards are different from the various Star Wars collectible card game cards.

The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game

The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game (a.k.a. LOTR TCG) is an out-of-print collectible card game produced by Decipher, Inc. Released November 2001, it is based on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and the J. R. R. Tolkien novel on which the films were based. Decipher also had the rights to The Hobbit novel but did not release any cards based on it. In addition to images taken from the films, in 2004 Weta Workshop produced artwork depicting characters and items from the novel absent from the films for use on cards.

The game also has an online version that maintains identical gameplay as well as a market economy. However, since the game's print run has ended, sales for online cards have been stopped and the servers closed in June 2010.In 2002, LOTR TCG won the Origins Awards for Best Trading Card Game of 2001 and Best Graphic Presentation of a Card Game 2001.

Wizards of the Coast

Wizards of the Coast LLC (often referred to as WotC or simply Wizards) is an American publisher of games, primarily based on fantasy and science fiction themes, and formerly an operator of retail stores for games. Originally a basement-run role-playing game publisher, the company popularized the collectible card game genre with Magic: The Gathering in the mid-1990s, acquired the popular Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game by purchasing the failing company TSR, and experienced tremendous success by publishing the licensed Pokémon Trading Card Game. The company's corporate headquarters are located in Renton, Washington in the United States.Wizards of the Coast publishes role-playing games, board games, and collectible card games. They have received numerous awards, including several Origins Awards. The company has been a subsidiary of Hasbro since 1999. All Wizards of the Coast stores were closed in 2004.

World of Warcraft Trading Card Game

The World of Warcraft Trading Card Game (WoW TCG) was a collectible card game based on Blizzard Entertainment's MMORPG, World of Warcraft. The game was announced by Upper Deck Entertainment on August 18, 2005 and released on October 25, 2006. Players can fight against each other one-on-one, or can join others in order to defeat dungeon/raid bosses based on those in the MMORPG. In March 2010, Upper Deck Entertainment lost the license from Blizzard Entertainment. On March 24, 2010 Cryptozoic Entertainment announced the acquisition of the game's license and that planned card sets would be released.On August 23, 2013, Blizzard Entertainment announced that the TCG would be discontinued, and that they would not be renewing the game's license. In March 2014, Blizzard released Hearthstone: Heroes of Warcraft, an online collectible card game featuring many of the same characters, abilities and artwork.

Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game

The Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game, known as the Yu-Gi-Oh! Official Card Game (遊☆戯☆王オフィシャルカードゲーム, Yū-Gi-Ō Ofisharu Kādo Gēmu) in Asia, is a Japanese collectible card game developed and published by Konami. It is based on the fictional game of Duel Monsters created by manga artist Kazuki Takahashi, which is the main plot device during the majority of the manga franchise, Yu-Gi-Oh!, and its various anime adaptations and spinoff series.The trading card game was launched by Konami in 1999 in Japan and March 2002 in North America. It was named the top selling trading card game in the world by Guinness World Records on July 7, 2009, having sold over 22 billion cards worldwide. As of March 31, 2011, Konami Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd. Japan sold 25.2 billion cards globally since 1999.

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