Trabzon Province

Trabzon Province (Turkish: Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. The provincial capital is Trabzon city, and the traffic code is 61. The major ethnic groups are Turks, but the province is also home to a minority of Muslim Pontic Greek speakers,[2] though younger speakers are not always fluent in this language.

Trabzon Province

Trabzon ili
Location of Trabzon Province in Turkey
Location of Trabzon Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionEast Black Sea
SubregionTrabzon
Government
 • Electoral districtTrabzon
Area
 • Total6,685 km2 (2,581 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total807,903
 • Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Area code(s)0462
Vehicle registration61

Districts

Trabzon province is divided into 18 districts:

Districts along the 114 km coastline (from west to east): Beşikdüzü, Vakfıkebir, Çarşıbaşı, Akçaabat, Yomra, Arsin, Araklı, Sürmene and Of.[3]
Districts inland: Tonya, Düzköy, Şalpazarı, Maçka, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı, Hayrat and Çaykara.

Beşikdüzü and Şalpazarı gained district status in 1988, Çarşıbaşı, Düzköy, Köprübaşı, Dernekpazarı and Hayrat in 1990.

History

Trabzonhouse
A traditional rural Pontic house in Livera village, Maçka district
Uzungöl, Çaykara, Trabzon
Uzungöl village and lake in Çaykara
Village in Çaykara district2
Another village in Çaykara
House in Çaykara
A traditional house in Çaykara

Remarkably attractive throughout its history, Trabzon was the subject of hundreds of travel books by western travellers, some of whom had named it "city of tale in the East" The capital city Trabzon was founded, as Trapezus, by Greek colonists from Sinope, modern Sinop, Turkey. Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. The first written source regarding Trabzon is Anabasis, authored by Xenophon. An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. Trabzon was subsequently made part of the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet the Conqueror. It was initially a sanjak before gaining the status of eyalet, and finally became a vilayet in 1868. After the region was conquered in 1461, the Fatih Medrese (1462), Hatuniye Medrese (1515), İskender Pasha Medrese (1529) and Hamza Pasha Medrese (1543) were established as important medreses (educational centers; some of them within külliye complexes) of the period.[4]

The province was a site of major fighting between Ottoman and Russian forces during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I, which resulted in the capture of the city of Trabzon by the Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

Attractions

Demographics

  • 2000 - 979,081
  • 1997 - 858,687
  • 1990 - 795,849
  • 1985 - 786,194
  • 1980 - 731,045
  • 1975 - 719,008
  • 1970 - 659,120
  • 1965 - 595,782
  • 1960 - 532,999
  • 1955 - 462,249
  • 1950 - 420,279
  • 1945 - 395,733
  • 1940 - 390,733
  • 1935 - 360,679
  • 1927 - 290,303

See also

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Pontic Greek: Romeika of Trabzon Archived 2008-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Trabzon city Archived 2011-11-03 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Trabzon history Archived 2008-06-12 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Coordinates: 40°46′50″N 39°48′44″E / 40.78056°N 39.81222°E

Akçaabat

Akçaabat is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located to the west of the city of Trabzon. It covers an area of 385 km² and the elevation is 10 m. The town has an estimated population of 48,315 (2007). Akçaabat is a coastal town known for its local soccer team Akçaabat Sebatspor, its kofta dish Akçaabat köfte and the Akçaabat Horonu dance. Akçaabat has hosted an international folklore festival since 1990, and it was a venue for Archery and Athletics competitions of the First Black Sea Games held in 2007.

Altındere Valley National Park

Altındere Valley National Park (Turkish: Altındere Vadisi Milli Parkı)), established on September 9, 1987, is a national park in northeastern Turkey. The national park is located in Maçka district of Trabzon Province.It covers an area of 4,468 ha (11,040 acres).

Atasu Dam

Atasu Dam is a concrete-face rock-fill dam on the Gaylan River, 16 km (10 mi) south of Trabzon in Trabzon Province, Turkey. It was built between 1998 and 2010 for the primary purpose of drinking water supply but also has a 5 MW hydroelectric power station.

Cerasus (near Trapezus)

Cerasus or Kerasous (Ancient Greek: Κερασοῦς) was a town of ancient Pontus, on the Black Sea coast, a little to the west of Trapezus. The Ten Thousand, in their retreat, came to Trapezus, and leaving Trapezus, "they arrive on the third day at Cerasus, an Hellenic city on the sea, a colony of the Sinopeis, in Colchis." The Anonymous geographer of Ravenna places Cerasus 60 stadia east of Coralla, and 90 west of Hieron Oros, and on a river of the same name. The name, and possibly the population, of the town were translated to Pharnacia in the Hellenistic era.Its site is tentatively located near Gelida Kale in Asiatic Turkey.

Cordyle

Cordyle or Kordyle (Ancient Greek: Κορδύλη), also called Portus Chordyle, was a town of ancient Pontus, on the Black Sea coast, 40 or 45 stadia east of Hieron Oros or Yoros. The name occurs in the Tabula Peutingeriana in the form Cordile. There appears to be some confusion in Ptolemy about this place.Its site is located near Akçakale in Asiatic Turkey.

Hermonassa (Pontus)

Hermonassa (Ancient Greek: Ἑρμώνασσα) was a town of ancient Pontus on the Black Sea coast.

Its site is located near Akçaabat in Asiatic Turkey.

Hieron Oros

Hieron Oros was a town of ancient Pontus on the Black Sea coast. The Anonymous geographer of Ravenna places it 90 stadia east of Cerasus.

Its site is located at İncir Liman in Asiatic Turkey.

Hyssus

Hyssus or Hyssos (Ancient Greek: Ὕσσος), also known as Hyssi portus, or Susarmia or Sousarmia (Σουσάρμια), or Susurmaena or Sousourmaina (Σουσούρμαινα), was a port-town of ancient Pontus on the Black Sea coast, at the mouth of the Hyssus River, 180 stadia east of Trapezus. The Tabula Peutingeriana calls it Hyssilime. It seems to have been a place of some importance; for it was fortified, and had the "cohors Apuleia civium Romanorum" for its garrison. Other names borne by the town include Psoron Limen (Ψωρῶν λιμήν), Sousourmena, and Ysiporto.Its site is located near Araklıçarşısı in Asiatic Turkey.

Kara Dere

The Kara Dere is a river that empties into the Black Sea 20 miles east of Trabzon, Turkey. In ancient times it was known as the Hyssos or Hyssus.

Libiopolis

Libiopoliswas a town in ancient Pontus on the Black Sea coast.

Its site is located near Yuvabolu in Asiatic Turkey.

List of populated places in Trabzon Province

Below is the list of populated places in Trabzon Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Madur

Madur, in Antiquity known as Theches (Greek: Θήχης), is a mountain in Sürmene, Turkey.

Maçka

Maçka (Greek: Ματσούκα, romanized: Matsoúka, the "club"; Laz: მაჩხა Maçxa) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

Of, Turkey

Of (Turkish: [of], possibly from Ancient Greek: Ὄφιούς Ophious) is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located in the eastern part of Trabzon and is an important historical district of the province. The mayor is Salim Salih Sarıalioğlu (AKP).

Ophis (Pontus)

Ophis (Ancient Greek: Ὄφις) was a town of ancient Pontus on the Black Sea near the mouth of the Ophis River, 90 stadia east of Hyssus.Its site is located near Of in Asiatic Turkey.

Sumela Monastery

Sumela Monastery (Greek: Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, Moní Panagías Soumelá; Turkish: Sümela Manastırı) is a Greek Orthodox monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Panagia, meaning "The all-holy one" in Greek, a title often used for the Virgin Mary) at Melá Mountain (Turkish: Karadağ, which is a direct translation of the Greek name Sou Melá, "Black Mountain") within the Pontic Mountains (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları) range, in the Maçka district of Trabzon Province in modern Turkey.

According to another etymological theory regarding the origin of the monastery's name, it comes from the Laz word სუმელა [sumela], which means "Trinity" in English.Nestled in a steep cliff at an altitude of about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) facing the Altındere valley, it is a site of great historical and cultural significance, as well as a major tourist attraction within Altındere National Park. Due to an increase in rock falls, on 22 September 2015 the monastery was closed to the public for safety reasons for the duration of one year to resolve the problem; this was later extended to three years. It is scheduled to reopen for visitors on Assumption day 2018. (this has not happened yet) The Monastery is one of the most important historic and touristic venues in Trabzon.

Trabzon Airport

Trabzon Airport (IATA: TZX, ICAO: LTCG) is an airport near the city of Trabzon in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The airport opened in 1957. In 2009, it served 1,596,905 passengers, of which most (95%) were on domestic routes. In 2009, Trabzon Airport ranked 9th for total passenger traffic, and 7th for domestic traffic among airports in Turkey.

Trebizond Vilayet

The Vilayet of Trebizond or Trabzon was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) in the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire and corresponding to the area along the eastern Black Sea coastline and the interior highland region of the Pontic Alps. The region was populated mainly by ethnic Turks in the western half and Laz-speaking Muslims in the eastern half, although throughout the period of Ottoman rule there was a history of conversion to Turkish Islam of many of the region's Pontic Greeks - with even Gulbahar Hatun, the mother of sultan Selim the Grim said to be of Pontic Greek origin.

At the beginning of the 20th century it reportedly had an area of 12,082 square miles (31,290 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 1,047,700. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered.After the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878, the sanjak of Lazistan was established. Rize became the center of the district due to the cession of Batumi, the former centre of the sanjak, to Russia.

Uzungöl

Uzungöl (Long Lake), or in the local Romeyka language: Şeraho, is a lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon, in the Çaykara district of Trabzon Province, Turkey. Uzungöl is also the name of the village on the lake's coast. Over the years, the picturesque lake, its village and the surrounding valley have become popular tourist attractions. The lake is at a distance of 99 km from Trabzon's city center, and 19 km from Çaykara's district center. It was formed by a landslide, which transformed the stream bed into a natural dam, in the valley of the Haldizen Stream.The area is most famous for its natural environment. Located in a valley between high rising mountains, the lake and village at first appear inaccessible. The surrounding mountain forests and fog, occasionally enveloping the lake at night, also add to the scenery.The tourist boom of the recent years has attracted investors, who opened a number of hotels, restaurants, and souvenir shops in the village. The transport infrastructure has also been improved. In 2008, the government built a concrete barrier along the lake's shoreline, so that its waves would not wet the coastal roads around it. This has triggered protests by the locals, as well as ecologists concerned with environmental damage, who stated that it has turned the lake into a giant artificial pool.

Trabzon Province of Turkey
Districts

Languages

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