Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣 秀吉, March 17, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period[1] who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".[2] He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Hideyoshi is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. He financed the construction, restoration and rebuilding of many temples standing today in Kyoto.

He is also known for ordering the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598).

Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi hideyoshi
Imperial Regent of Japan
In office
August 6, 1585 – February 10, 1592
Monarch
Preceded byNijō Akizane
Succeeded byToyotomi Hidetsugu
Chancellor of the Realm
In office
February 2, 1586 – September 18, 1598
MonarchGo-Yōzei
Preceded byKonoe Sakihisa
Succeeded byTokugawa Ieyasu
Personal details
Born
Hiyoshi-maru (日吉丸)

March 17, 1537
Nakamura-ku, Nagoya
DiedSeptember 18, 1598
(aged 61)
Fushimi Castle, Kyoto
NationalityJapanese
Spouse(s)
Children
MotherŌmandokoro
FatherKinoshita Yaemon
Relatives
ReligionShinto
Other names
  • Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎)
  • Hashiba Hideyoshi (羽柴 秀吉)
Military service
Allegiance
RankDaimyō
UnitGoshichi no kiri inverted.svg Toyotomi clan
Battles/warssee below

Early life

Monument of Toyotomi Hideyoshi birthplace
Nakamura park, traditionally Hideyoshi's birthplace

Very little is known for certain about Hideyoshi before 1570 when he begins to appear in surviving documents and letters. His autobiography starts in 1577, but in it, Hideyoshi spoke very little about his past. According to tradition, he was born in Owari Province, the home of the Oda clan (present-day Nakamura-ku, Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture). He was born of no traceable samurai lineage, being the son of a peasant-ashigaru (foot soldier) named Yaemon.[3] He had no surname, and his childhood given name was Hiyoshi-maru (日吉丸) ("Bounty of the Sun") although variations exist.

Yaemon died in 1543, when Hideyoshi was 7, the younger of two children, his sibling being an older sister.[4]

Many legends describe Hideyoshi being sent to study at a temple as a young man, but he rejected temple life and went in search of adventure.[5] Under the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎), he first joined the Imagawa clan as a servant to a local ruler named Matsushita Yukitsuna (松下之綱). He traveled all the way to the lands of Imagawa Yoshimoto, daimyō of Suruga Province, and served there for a time, only to abscond with a sum of money entrusted to him by Matsushita Yukitsuna.

Service under Nobunaga

Battle of Okehazama

YoshiClimber
100 Aspects of the Moon No. 7, by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: "Mount Inaba Moon" 1885, 12th month. The young Toyotomi Hideyoshi (then named Kinoshita Tōkichirō) leads a small group assaulting the castle on Mount Inaba

In 1558, he joined the Oda clan, now headed by Oda Nobunaga, as an ashigaru.[5] He became one of Nobunaga's sandal-bearers and was present at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560 when Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto to become one of the most powerful warlords in the Sengoku period. According to his biographers, he supervised the repair of Kiyosu Castle, a claim described as "apocryphal",[6] and managed the kitchen.

In 1561, Hideyoshi married One who was Asano Nagakatsu's adopted daughter. He carried out repairs on Sunomata Castle with his younger brother Toyotomi Hidenaga and Hachisuka Masakatsu and Maeno Nagayasu. Hideyoshi's efforts were well received because Sunomata was in enemy territory. He constructed a fort in Sunomata,[7] according to legend overnight, and discovered a secret route into Mount Inaba after which much of the garrison surrendered.

Siege of Inabayama Castle

Hideyoshi was very successful as a negotiator. In 1564, he managed to convince, mostly with liberal bribes, a number of Mino warlords to desert the Saitō clan. Hideyoshi approached many Saitō clan samurai and convinced them to submit to Nobunaga, including the Saitō clan's strategist, Takenaka Shigeharu.

Nobunaga's easy victory at Inabayama Castle in 1567 was largely due to Hideyoshi's efforts,[8] and despite his peasant origins, Hideyoshi became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals, eventually taking the name Hashiba Hideyoshi (羽柴 秀吉). The new surname included two characters, one each from Oda's two other right-hand men, Niwa Nagahide ( 長秀) and Shibata Katsuie (田 勝家).

Battle of Anegawa

Hideyoshi led troops in the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 in which Oda Nobunaga allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to lay siege to two fortresses of the Azai and Asakura clans.[6][9] He participated in the 1573 Siege of Nagashima.[10] In 1573, after victorious campaigns against the Azai and Asakura, Nobunaga appointed Hideyoshi daimyō of three districts in the northern part of Ōmi Province. Initially based at the former Azai headquarters in Odani, Hideyoshi moved to Kunitomo and renamed the city Nagahama in tribute to Nobunaga. Hideyoshi later moved to the port at Imahama on Lake Biwa. From there he began work on Imahama Castle and took control of the nearby Kunitomo firearms factory that had been established some years previously by the Azai and Asakura. Under Hideyoshi's administration, the factory's output of firearms increased dramatically.[11]

He fought in the Battle of Nagashino.[12] Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Himeji Castle to conquer the Chūgoku region from the Mori clan in 1576.

He then fought in the 1577 Battle of Tedorigawa, the Siege of Miki, the Siege of Itami (1579), and the 1582 Siege of Takamatsu.[10]

Rise to power

Azuchimomoyama-japan
Japan around 1582

Battle of Yamazaki and conflict with Katsuie

After the assassinations at Honnō-ji of Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada in 1582 at the hands of Akechi Mitsuhide, Hideyoshi, seeking vengeance for the death of his beloved lord, made peace with the Mōri clan and defeated Akechi at the Battle of Yamazaki.[10]:275–279

At a meeting at Kiyosu to decide on a successor to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi cast aside the apparent candidate, Oda Nobutaka and his advocate, Oda clan's chief general, Shibata Katsuie, by supporting Nobutada's young son, Oda Hidenobu.[13] Having won the support of the other two Oda elders, Niwa Nagahide and Ikeda Tsuneoki, Hideyoshi established Hidenobu's position, as well as his own influence in the Oda clan. Tension quickly escalated between Hideyoshi and Katsuie, and at the Battle of Shizugatake in the following year, Hideyoshi destroyed Katsuie's forces.[14] Hideyoshi had thus consolidated his own power, dealt with most of the Oda clan, and controlled 30 provinces.[8]:313–314

Constructing of Osaka Castle

In 1582, Hideyoshi began construction of Osaka Castle. Built on the site of the temple Ishiyama Hongan-ji destroyed by Nobunaga,[15] the castle would become the last stronghold of the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.

Battle of Komaki and Nagakute

Nobunaga's other son, Oda Nobukatsu, remained hostile to Hideyoshi. He allied himself with Tokugawa Ieyasu, and the two sides fought at the inconclusive Battle of Komaki and Nagakute. It ultimately resulted in a stalemate, although Hideyoshi's forces were delivered a heavy blow.[7] Finally, Hideyoshi made peace with Nobukatsu, ending the pretext for war between the Tokugawa and Hashiba clans. Hideyoshi sent Tokugawa Ieyasu his younger sister Asahi no kata and mother Ōmandokoro as hostages. Ieyasu eventually agreed to become a vassal of Hideyoshi.

Pinnacle of power

Hideyoshi Edict of expulsion of the Christian Padres 1587
Hideyoshi's "Edict of expulsion of the Christian Padres" (吉利支丹伴天連追放令), 1587.
Letter from the viceroy of Portuguese India
Letter from Duarte de Meneses, viceroy of Portuguese India, to Hideyoshi dated April 1588, concerning the suppression of Christians, a National Treasure of Japan[16][17]

Like Nobunaga before him, Hideyoshi never achieved the title of shōgun. Instead, he arranged to have himself adopted by Konoe Sakihisa, one of the noblest men belonging to the Fujiwara clan and secured a succession of high court titles including, in 1585, the prestigious position of Imperial Regent (kampaku).[18] In 1586, Hideyoshi was formally given the new clan name Toyotomi (instead of Fujiwara) by the Imperial court.[7] He built a lavish palace, the Jurakudai, in 1587 and entertained the reigning Emperor, Emperor Go-Yōzei, the following year.[19]

Unified Japan

Afterwards, Hideyoshi subjugated Kii Province[20] and conquered Shikoku under the Chōsokabe clan.[21] He also took control of Etchū Province[22] and conquered Kyūshū.[23] In 1587, Hideyoshi banished Christian missionaries from Kyūshū to exert greater control over the Kirishitan daimyōs.[24] However, since he made much of trade with Europeans, individual Christians were overlooked unofficially.

In 1588, Hideyoshi forbade ordinary peasants from owning weapons and started a sword hunt to confiscate arms.[25] The swords were melted down to create a statue of the Buddha. This measure effectively stopped peasant revolts and ensured greater stability at the expense of freedom of the individual daimyōs.

Siege of Odawara

The 1590 Siege of Odawara against the Hōjō clan in the Kantō region[26] eliminated the last resistance to Hideyoshi's authority. His victory signified the end of the Sengoku period. During this siege, Hideyoshi offered Ieyasu the eight Hōjō-ruled provinces in the Kantō region in exchange for the submission of Ieyasu's five provinces. Ieyasu accepted this proposal.

Death of Sen no Rikyū

In February 1591, Hideyoshi ordered Sen no Rikyū to commit suicide.[27] Rikyū had been a trusted retainer and master of the tea ceremony under both Hideyoshi and Nobunaga. Under Hideyoshi's patronage, Rikyū made significant changes to the aesthetics of the tea ceremony that had a lasting influence over many aspects of Japanese culture. Even after Rikyū's death, Hideyoshi is said to have built his many construction projects based upon aesthetics promoted by Rikyū.

Following Rikyū's death, Hideyoshi turned his attention from tea ceremony to Noh, which he had been studying since becoming Imperial Regent. During his brief stay in Nagoya Castle in what is today Saga Prefecture, on Kyūshū, Hideyoshi memorized the shite (lead roles) parts of ten Noh plays, which he then performed, forcing various daimyōs to accompany him onstage as the waki (secondary, accompanying role). He even performed before the emperor.[28]

Decline of power

The stability of the Toyotomi dynasty after Hideyoshi's death was put in doubt with the death of his son Tsurumatsu in September 1591. The three-year-old was his only child. When his half-brother Hidenaga died shortly after, Hideyoshi named his nephew Hidetsugu his heir, adopting him in January 1592. Hideyoshi resigned as kampaku to take the title of taikō (retired regent). Hidetsugu succeeded him as kampaku.

Houkokubyo
Houkokubyo (Mausoleum of Toyotomi Hideyoshi) Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto

With Hideyoshi's health beginning to falter, but still yearning for some accomplishment to solidify his legacy, he adopted Oda Nobunaga's dream of a Japanese conquest of China and launched the conquest of the Ming dynasty by way of Korea (at the time known as Koryu or Joseon).[29]

Hideyoshi had been communicating with the Koreans since 1587 requesting unmolested passage into China. As an ally of Ming China, the Joseon government of the time at first refused talks entirely, and in April and July 1591 also refused demands that Japanese troops be allowed to march through Korea. The government of Joseon was concerned that allowing Japanese troops to march through Korea (Joseon) would mean that masses of Ming Chinese troops would battle Hideyoshi's troops on Korean soil before they could reach China, putting Korean security at risk. In August 1591, Hideyoshi ordered preparations for an invasion of Korea to begin.

First campaign against Korea

In the first campaign, Hideyoshi appointed Ukita Hideie as field marshal, and had him go to the Korean peninsula in April 1592. Konishi Yukinaga occupied Seoul, which had been the capital of the Joseon dynasty of Korea, on June 19. After Seoul fell easily, Japanese commanders held a war council in June in Seoul and determined targets of subjugation called Hachidokuniwari (literally, dividing the country into eight routes) by each corps (the First Division of Konishi Yukinaga and others from Pyeongan Province, the Second Division of Katō Kiyomasa and others from Hangyong Province, the Third Division of Kuroda Nagamasa and others from Hwanghae Province, the Fourth Division of Mōri Yoshinari and others from Gangwon Province; the Fifth Division of Fukushima Masanori and others from Chungcheong Province; the Sixth Division by Kobayakawa Takakage and others from Jeolla Province, the Seventh Division by Mōri Terumoto and others from Gyeongsang Province, and the Eighth Division of Ukita Hideie and others from Gyeonggi Province). In only four months, Hideyoshi's forces had a route into Manchuria and occupied much of Korea. The Korean king Seonjo of Joseon escaped to Uiju and requested military intervention from China. In 1593, the Wanli Emperor of Ming China sent an army under general Li Rusong to block the planned Japanese invasion of China and recapture the Korean peninsula. The Ming army of 43,000 soldiers headed by Li Ru-song proceeded to attack Pyongyang. On January 7, 1593, the Ming relief forces under Li recaptured Pyongyang and surrounded Seoul, but Kobayakawa Takakage, Ukita Hideie, Tachibana Muneshige and Kikkawa Hiroie won the Battle of Byeokjegwan in the suburbs of Seoul. At the end of the first campaign, Japan's entire navy was destroyed by Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Korea whose base was located in a part of Korea the Japanese could not control. This, in effect, put an end to Japan's dream of conquering China as the Koreans simply destroyed Japan's ability to re-supply their troops who were bogged down in Pyongyang.

Succession dispute

Hideyori Toyotomi
Toyotomi Hideyori

The birth of Hideyoshi's second son in 1593, Hideyori, created a potential succession problem. To avoid it, Hideyoshi exiled his nephew and heir Hidetsugu to Mount Kōya and then ordered him to commit suicide in August 1595. Hidetsugu's family members who did not follow his example were then murdered in Kyoto, including 31 women and several children.[30]

Twenty-six martyrs of Japan

On February 5, 1597, Toyotomi Hideyoshi had twenty-six Christians killed as an example to Japanese who wanted to convert to Christianity. They are known as the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan. They included five European Franciscan missionaries, one Mexican Franciscan missionary, three Japanese Jesuits and seventeen Japanese laymen including three young boys. They were executed by public crucifixion in Nagasaki.[31]

Painting of the Nagasaki Martyrs
The 26 Christian martyrs of Nagasaki, 18-19th-century, Choir of La Recoleta, Cuzco

Second campaign against Korea

After several years of negotiations (broken off because envoys of both sides falsely reported to their masters that the opposition had surrendered), Hideyoshi appointed Kobayakawa Hideaki to lead a renewed invasion of Korea, but their efforts on the peninsula met with less success than the first invasion. Japanese troops remained pinned down in Gyeongsang Province. In June 1598, the Japanese forces turned back several Chinese offensives in Suncheon and Sacheon, but they were unable to make further progress as the Ming army prepared for a final assault. The Koreans continually harassed Japanese forces through guerrilla warfare. While Hideyoshi's battle at Sacheon was a major Japanese victory, all three parties to the war were exhausted. He told his commander in Korea, "Don't let my soldiers become spirits in a foreign land."[2]

Death

Toyotomi Hideyoshi died September 18, 1598. His death was kept secret by the Council of Five Elders to preserve morale, and the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the Council of Five Elders (Tokukawa Ieyasu, Maeda Toshiie, Uesugi Kakekatsu, Mori Terumoto, Ukita Hideie). Because of his failure to capture Korea, Hideyoshi's forces were unable to invade China. Rather than strengthen his position, the military expeditions left his clan's coffers and fighting strength depleted, his vassals at odds over responsibility for the failure, and the clans that were loyal to the Toyotomi name weakened. The dream of a Japanese conquest of China was put on hold indefinitely. The Tokugawa government later not only prohibited any further military expeditions to the Asian mainland but closed Japan to nearly all foreigners during the years of the Tokugawa shogunate. It was not until the late 19th century that Japan again fought a war against China through Korea, using much the same route that Hideyoshi's invasion force had used.

After his death, the other members of the Council of Five Regents were unable to keep the ambitions of Tokugawa Ieyasu in check. Two of Hideyoshi's top generals, Katō Kiyomasa and Fukushima Masanori, had fought bravely during the war but returned to find the Toyotomi clan castellan Ishida Mitsunari in power. He held the generals in contempt, and they sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hideyoshi's underage son and designated successor Hideyori lost the power his father once held, and Tokugawa Ieyasu was declared shōgun following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.

Cultural legacy

Osaka Castle 02bs3200
A replicated Osaka Castle has been created on the site of Hideyoshi's great donjon. The iconic castle has become a symbol of Osaka's re-emergence as a great city after its devastation in World War II.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi changed Japanese society in many ways. These include the imposition of a rigid class structure, restriction on travel, and surveys of land and production.

Class reforms affected commoners and warriors. During the Sengoku period, it had become common for peasants to become warriors, or for samurai to farm due to the constant uncertainty caused by the lack of centralized government and always tentative peace. Upon taking control, Hideyoshi decreed that all peasants be disarmed completely.[32] Conversely, he required samurai to leave the land and take up residence in the castle towns.[33][34] This solidified the social class system for the next 300 years.

Furthermore, he ordered comprehensive surveys and a complete census of Japan. Once this was done and all citizens were registered, he required all Japanese to stay in their respective han (fiefs) unless they obtained official permission to go elsewhere. This ensured order in a period when bandits still roamed the countryside and peace was still new. The land surveys formed the basis for systematic taxation.[35]

In 1590, Hideyoshi completed construction of the Osaka Castle, the largest and most formidable in all Japan, to guard the western approaches to Kyoto. In that same year, Hideyoshi banned "unfree labour" or slavery,[36] but forms of contract and indentured labour persisted alongside the period penal codes' forced labour.[37]

Hideyoshi also influenced the material culture of Japan. He lavished time and money on the tea ceremony, collecting implements, sponsoring lavish social events, and patronizing acclaimed masters. As interest in the tea ceremony rose among the ruling class, so too did demand for fine ceramic implements, and during the course of the Korean campaigns, not only were large quantities of prized ceramic ware confiscated, many Korean artisans were forcibly relocated to Japan.[38]

Inspired by the dazzling Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, he had the Golden Tea Room constructed, which was covered with gold leaf and lined inside with red gossamer. Using this mobile innovation, he was able to practice the tea ceremony wherever he went, powerfully projecting his unrivalled power and status upon his arrival.

Politically, he set up a governmental system that balanced out the most powerful Japanese warlords (or daimyōs). A council was created to include the most influential lords. At the same time, a regent was designated to be in command.

Just before his death, Hideyoshi hoped to set up a system stable enough to survive until his son grew old enough to become the next leader.[39] A Council of Five Elders (五大老 go-tairō) was formed, consisting of the five most powerful daimyōs. Following the death of Maeda Toshiie, however, Tokugawa Ieyasu began to secure alliances, including political marriages (which had been forbidden by Hideyoshi). Eventually, the pro-Toyotomi forces fought against the Tokugawa in the Battle of Sekigahara. Ieyasu won and received the title of Seii-Tai Shōgun two years later.

Hideyoshi is commemorated at several Toyokuni Shrines scattered over Japan.

Ieyasu left in place the majority of Hideyoshi's decrees and built his shogunate upon them. This ensured that Hideyoshi's cultural legacy remained. In a letter to his wife, Hideyoshi wrote:

I mean to do glorious deeds and I am ready for a long siege, with provisions and gold and silver in plenty, so as to return in triumph and leave a great name behind me. I desire you to understand this and to tell it to everybody.[40]

Names

Because of his low birth with no family name, to the eventual achievement of Imperial Regent, the highest title of Imperial nobility, Toyotomi Hideyoshi had quite a few names throughout his life. At birth, he was given the name Hiyoshi-Maru (日吉丸). At genpuku, he took the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō (木下 藤吉郎). Later, he was given the surname Hashiba and the honorary court office Chikuzen no Kami; as a result, he was styled Hashiba Chikuzen no Kami Hideyoshi (羽柴筑前守秀吉). His surname remained Hashiba even as he was granted the new Uji or sei ( or , clan name) Toyotomi by the Emperor.

The Toyotomi Uji was simultaneously granted to a number of Hideyoshi's chosen allies, who adopted the new Uji "豊臣朝臣" (Toyotomi no some, courtier of Toyotomi).

The Catholic sources of the time referred to him as "emperor Taicosama" (from taikō, a retired kampaku (see Sesshō and Kampaku), and the honorific -sama).

Toyotomi Hideyoshi had been given the nickname Kozaru, meaning "little monkey", from his lord Oda Nobunaga because his facial features and skinny form resembled that of a monkey. He was also known as the "bald rat".

In popular culture

He was portrayed by Lee Hyo-jung in the 2004–2005 KBS1 TV series Immortal Admiral Yi Sun-sin.

Hyouge Mono (へうげもの Hepburn: Hyōge Mono, "Jocular Fellow") is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Yoshihiro Yamada. It was adapted into an anime series in 2011, and includes a fictional depiction of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's life.

In the Sengoku Basara game series and anime, he is described as a brutally strong man that killed his own wife to kill his heart, then raised an army to conquer Japan with conscripts and forced draftees.

The character “Tokeichiro” is a villain in the Onimusha video game series.

In the The 39 Clues series, Toyotomi is a member of the Tomas branch of the Cahill family, the son of Thomas Cahill.

Honours

Family

Wife and Concubines

  • Nene, or One, later Kōdai-in. Wife.
  • Yodo-dono, or Chacha, later Daikōin, daughter of Azai Nagamasa
  • Minami-dono, daughter of Yamana Toyokuni
  • Minami no Tsubone, daughter of Yamana Toyokuni
  • Matsu no Maru-dono or Kyōgoku Tatsuko, daughter of Kyōgoku Takayoshi
  • Kaga-dono or Maahime, daughter of Maeda Toshiie
  • Kaihime, daughter of Narita Ujinaga
  • Kusu no Tsubone later Hokoin, daughter of Azai Nagamasa
  • Sonnomaru-dono, daughter of Oda Nobunaga
  • Sanjo-dono or Tora, daughter of Gamō Katahide
  • Himeji-dono, daughter of Oda Nobukane
  • Hirozawa no Tsubone, daughter of Kunimitsu Kyosho
  • Ōshima or Shimako later Gekkein, daughter of Ashikaga Yorizumi
  • Anrunkin or Otane no Kata
  • Ofuku later Enyu-in, daughter of Miura Noto no Kami and mother of Ukita Hideie

Children

Hidekatu
Ishimatsumaru
  • Hashiba Hidekatsu (Ishimatsumaru) (1570–1576) by Minami-dono
  • daughter
Toyotomi Tsurumatsu
Tsurumatsu

Adopted Sons

Adopted Daughters

Grandchildren

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Ōmi" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 993–994, p. 993, at Google Books
  2. ^ a b Richard Holmes, The World Atlas of Warfare: Military Innovations that Changed the Course of History, Viking Press 1988. p. 68.
  3. ^ Berry 1982, p. 8
  4. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2010). Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781846039607.
  5. ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen R. (1977). The Samurai: A Military History. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. p. 142.
  6. ^ a b Berry 1982, p. 38
  7. ^ a b c Berry 1982, p. 179
  8. ^ a b Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0804705257.
  9. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. Arms and Armour Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0853688266.
  10. ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (2000). The Samurai Sourcebook. London: Cassell & Co. pp. 87, 223–224, 228, 230–232. ISBN 978-1854095237.
  11. ^ Berry 1982, p. 54
  12. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 156–160. ISBN 9780026205405.
  13. ^ Berry 1982, p. 74
  14. ^ Berry 1982, p. 78
  15. ^ Berry 1982, p. 64
  16. ^ "Kondō" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. Archived from the original on 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  17. ^ 五重塔 (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. Archived from the original on 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  18. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 168–181
  19. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 184–186
  20. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 85–86
  21. ^ Berry 1982, p. 83
  22. ^ Berry 1982, p. 84
  23. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 87–93
  24. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 91–93
  25. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 102–106
  26. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 93–96
  27. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 223–225
  28. ^ Ichikawa, Danjūrō XII. Danjūrō no kabuki annai (團十郎の歌舞伎案内, "Danjūrō's Guide to Kabuki"). Tokyo: PHP Shinsho, 2008. pp. 139–140.
  29. ^ Berry 1982, p. 208
  30. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 217–223
  31. ^ "Martyrs List". Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
  32. ^ Jansen, Marius. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan, p. 23.
  33. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 106–107
  34. ^ Jansen, pp. 21–22.
  35. ^ Berry 1982, pp. 111–118
  36. ^ Lewis, James Bryant. (2003). Frontier Contact Between Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan, pp. 31–32.
  37. ^ "Bateren-tsuiho-rei" (the Purge Directive Order to the Jesuits) Article 10
  38. ^ Takeuchi, Rizō. (1985). Nihonshi shōjiten, pp. 274–275; Jansen, p. 27.
  39. ^ 豊臣秀吉の遺言状 Archived 2008-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Sansom, George. (1943). Japan. A Short Cultural History, p. 410.

References

  • Berry, Mary Elizabeth. (1982). Hideyoshi. Cambridge: Harvard UP, ISBN 9780674390256; OCLC 8195691
  • Haboush, JaHyun Kim. (2016) The Great East Asian War and the Birth of the Korean Nation (2016) excerpt
  • Jansen, Marius B. (2000). The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard UP. ISBN 9780674003347; OCLC 44090600
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128

External links

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Konoe Sakihisa
Kampaku
1585–1591
Succeeded by
Toyotomi Hidetsugu
Government offices
Preceded by
Fujiwara no Sakihisa
Daijō Daijin
1585–1591
Succeeded by
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Ankokuji Ekei

Ankokuji Ekei (安国寺 恵瓊, 1539 – November 6, 1600) was a diplomat of Mōri clan, a powerful feudal clan in the Chūgoku region, Japan, as well as a Rinzai Buddhist monk following the Azuchi-Momoyama period of the 16th century. He fought in the Shikoku campaign for Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and was given a fiefdom of 23,000 koku in Iyo Province as a reward. He participated in the Imjin War, and lost the Battle of Uiryong to Gwak Jae-u.He participated in the Siege of Shimoda.When he fought against Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara (1600), he was taken prisoner and later decapitated in Kyoto, along with Ishida Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga.

Asahi no kata

Asahi no kata (朝日の方) (1543 – February 18, 1590) was a half-sister of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and wife of Tokugawa Ieyasu, two of Japan's greatest feudal warlords. She is also called Suruga Gozen (駿河御膳) and Asahi-hime (朝日姫), though none of these are names, referring to her as "the person of Asahi", "the Lady Suruga", or "Princess Asahi".

Asahi no kata was first married to Saji Hyūga no kami, but when her brother Toyotomi Hideyoshi wished to make peace with Tokugawa Ieyasu after the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute, Hideyoshi expressed interest in marrying her to Ieyasu. As a result, Saji Hyūga committed suicide, in order to not pose an obstacle to such a powerful political marriage, and the two were married soon afterwards.

Tokugawa and his new wife visited her mother when she fell ill in 1589; the mother of Asahi no kata and Hideyoshi died the following year, as did Asahi no kata herself. Her buddhist name is Nanmeiin.

Battle of Sendaigawa

The 1587 battle of Sendaigawa was part of the Kyūshū Campaign undertaken by warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi towards the end of Japan's Sengoku period. The Sendai River (Sendaigawa) was among the final obstacles to Hideyoshi's attack on Kagoshima, the center of the Shimazu clan's domains.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi and his half-brother Hashiba Hidenaga met a Shimazu clan force, led by Niiro Tadamoto, near the river. Despite being vastly outnumbered 5,000 to 170,000, Niiro led his men in a charge against the Toyotomi force, and even engaged the famous warrior Katō Kiyomasa in personal combat before retreating under cover of night.

Battle of Uchidehama

The Battle of Uchidehama (打出浜の戦い, Uchidehama no Tatakai) took place in 1582, near Kyoto, Japan, following the Battle of Yamazaki.

The forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi pursued the defeated Akechi clan to Uchidehama and engaged the clan again there. Akechi Mitsuharu led the Akechi, as his cousin, Mitsuhide, died at Yamazaki. Hori Hidemasa led the Toyotomi forces at Uchidehama, and defeated Akechi Mitsuharu.

Uchidehama was near present-day Ōtsu city, Shiga prefecture outside Kyoto.

Battle of Yamazaki

The Battle of Yamazaki (山崎の戦い, Yamazaki no tatakai) was fought in 1582 in Yamazaki, Japan, located in current day Kyoto Prefecture. This battle is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Mt. Tennō (天王山の戦い Tennō-zan no tatakai).

In the Honnō-ji Incident Akechi Mitsuhide, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, attacked Nobunaga as he rested in Honnō-ji, and forced him to commit seppuku. Mitsuhide then took over Nobunaga's power and authority around the Kyoto area. Thirteen days later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi met Mitsuhide at Yamazaki and defeated him, avenging his lord (Nobunaga) and taking Nobunaga's authority and power for himself.

Chikurin-in

Chikurin-in (竹林院) (1579/1580 – June 27, 1649) was a Japanese woman of the late Azuchi-Momoyama through early Edo period. She was Ōtani Yoshitsugu's daughter, then she was adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, before marrying Sanada Yukimura (Nobushige). She is described as having been very beautiful. They had two sons and four daughters.

Fushimi Castle

Fushimi Castle (伏見城, Fushimi-jō), also known as Momoyama Castle (桃山城, Momoyama-jō) or Fushimi-Momoyama Castle, is a castle in Kyoto's Fushimi Ward. The current structure is a 1964 replica of the original built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Gaspar Coelho

Gaspar Coelho (c. 1529 – 1590) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary. He replaced Francisco Cabral as the Superior and Vice-Provincial of the Jesuit mission in Japan during the late 16th century. He is most noted for catalyzing the disfavor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi against the Jesuit mission in Japan in 1587.

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan quickly succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies (Joseon civilian militias) and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate. The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, and was followed by ultimately unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597.

In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time. The pattern of the second invasion largely mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula. The pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, however, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate.

With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, and continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years, ultimately resulting in the normalization of relations.

Konishi Yukinaga

Konishi Yukinaga (小西 行長, baptised under the personal name Agostinho (Portuguese for Augustine); 1555 – November 6, 1600) was a Kirishitan daimyō under Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Kōzōsu

Kōzōsu (孝蔵主) was the daughter of Kawazoe Katsuhige, a retainer of the Gamō clan. She was an elite female officer under Nene's command and chief secretary to Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Toyotomi administration she possessed such authority that it was said that while Asano Nagamasa may run matters outside, Kōzōsu ran matters inside. She accompanied the Toyotomi clan in Japan's unification campaigns.

Sengoku period

The Sengoku period (戦国時代, Sengoku Jidai, "Age of Warring States"; c. 1467 – c. 1600) is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China. It was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, and came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Siege of Kaganoi

The 1584 siege of Kaganoi was one of the final battles fought by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his bid to gain the lands and power of Oda Nobunaga, who died two years earlier.

Oda Nobukatsu was the most prominent of Nobunaga's relatives to oppose Hideyoshi in this quest. Hideyoshi bombarded Oda Nobukatsu's fortress at Kaganoi, and captured it soon afterwards.

Siege of Odawara (1590)

The third siege of Odawara (小田原征伐, Odawara seibatsu) occurred in 1590, and was the primary action in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to eliminate the Hōjō clan as a threat to his power. The months leading up to it saw hasty but major improvements in the defense of the castle, as Hideyoshi's intentions became clear. Thus, despite the overwhelming force brought to bear by Hideyoshi, the siege saw little actual fighting.

The massive army of Toyotomi Hideyoshi surrounded the castle in what has been called "the most unconventional siege lines in samurai history." The samurai were entertained by everything: from concubines, prostitutes and musicians to acrobats, fire-eaters, and jugglers. The defenders slept on the ramparts with their arquebuses and armor; despite their smaller numbers, they discouraged Hideyoshi from attacking. So, for the most part, this siege consisted of traditional starvation tactics. Only a few small skirmishes erupted around the castle, as when a group of miners from Kai Province dug under the castle walls, allowing men under Ii Naomasa to enter.After three months, the Hōjō surrendered, facing overwhelming numbers and, presumably, an impending shortage of food and supplies. Tokugawa Ieyasu, one of Hideyoshi's top generals, was given the Hōjō lands. Though Hideyoshi could not have guessed it at the time, this would turn out to be a great stepping-stone towards Tokugawa's attempts at conquest and the office of Shōgun.

In addition to taking Odawara Castle, Hideyoshi also defeated the Hōjō at their outposts at Hachiōji, Yorii, and Shizuoka in and near the southwestern part of the Kantō region. The Chiba, allies of the Hōjō in Shimōsa, also saw Sakura Castle fall to Honda Tadakatsu and Sakai Ietsugu of the Tokugawa army during the campaign. Chiba Shigetane, daimyō of the Chiba, surrendered the castle to the besieging forces on the condition that his clan would not be abolished. While the Chiba were consequently divested of all of their holdings, many of their senior members were taken into service by Tokugawa retainer Ii Naomasa, thanks to aid he had received many years earlier from the clan during the occupation of Takeda Katsuyori's Tsutsujigasaki castle.The tea master Yamanoue Sōji was at the service of the Odawara lords. He was sentenced to death in a tortuous way.

Siege of Takehana

The 1584 siege of Takehana was something of a follow-up to the siege of Kaganoi; the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi sought to consolidate his power, particularly in the lands of his late lord Oda Nobunaga. Hideyoshi employed the same tactics at Takehana as at Kaganoi, diverting the Kiso River with a dam and flooding the fortress.

Takigawa Kazumasu

Takigawa Kazumasu (滝川 一益, 1525 – October 21, 1586), also known as Sakonshōgen (左近将監), was a samurai retainer to Oda Nobunaga, and later Toyotomi Hideyoshi, during Japan's Sengoku period. His biological son, Toshimasu, was adopted by Maeda Toshihisa and later served Nobunaga alongside Kazumasu and Toshimasu's adopted uncle, Maeda Toshiie.

Originally from Ōmi Province, Takigawa was appointed Kantō-kanrei (Shōgun's Deputy in the East) by Nobunaga; in this post, with a portion of Kōzuke Province as his domain, he was assigned to keep an eye on the powerful Hōjō clan, based at Odawara. Under Nobunaga, he took part in a great many battles, including the battle of Anegawa in 1570, and the campaigns against the Ikkō-ikki of Nagashima (1571–1574).

This included the failed 1573 Siege of Nagashima, the 1577 Battle of Tedorigawa, and the 1579 Siege of Maruyama in Iga Province.Following Nobunaga's death in 1582, Takigawa took part in the Battle of Kanagawa.He, along with many of the Oda retainers, initially opposed Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but was defeated defending Kameyama Castle (Mie), after Hideyoshi used mines to bring down the castle.Takigawa retired from battle and become a Buddhist monk. He died in 1586.

Takigawa's standard was three red circles arranged vertically.

Ukita Hideie

Ukita Hideie (宇喜多 秀家, 1573 – December 17, 1655) was the daimyō of Bizen and Mimasaka Provinces (modern Okayama Prefecture), and one of the council of Five Elders appointed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Son of Ukita Naoie, he married Gōhime, a daughter of Maeda Toshiie. Having fought against Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Battle of Sekigahara he was exiled to the island prison of Hachijō-jima, where he died.

Yuki no Kata

Yuki no Kata (ゆきの方) or Oyuki (おゆき), was a one of the many women who fought during the Warring States period. She was the wife of Tomita Nobutaka, an officer of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Her birth and death are not recorded. Portrayed in current records as beautiful and highly skilled warrior, she defended the Anōtsu castle in the Battle of Sekigahara.

Ōmandokoro

Ōmandokoro (大政所, 1516 – 29 August 1592) was the mother of the Japanese ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Her daughter was Asahi no kata.

After her death, she received the Buddhist name Tenzui'in (天瑞院).

Campaigns of Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Campaigns of Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Prominent people of the Sengoku period
Three major daimyōs
Shōgun
Emperor
Other daimyōs
Swordsmen
Ninja, rogues and
mercenaries
Monks and other
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Female lord
Onna-bugeisha
Other women
Foreign people in Japan
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