Township

Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries.

While a township may be associated with an urban area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban.

Australia

In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; such a place in England might qualify as a village or a hamlet. The term refers purely to the settlement; it does not refer to a unit of government; townships are governed as part of a larger (e.g., shire or city) council.

Canada

In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use.

China

In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties, districts and county level cities; above villages and communities, together with ethnic townships, towns and subdistricts.

India

In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the City.

Post-Soviet countries

In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial, settlement and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа (townlet), посад (posad), местечко (mestechko, from Polish "miasteczko", a small town; in the cases of predominant Jewish population the latter is sometimes translated as shtetl).

Jersey

In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island.

New Zealand

In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer towns or townships. All land is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status.

The term "township" is, however, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area. The expression would generally equate to that of "village" in England.

Philippines

In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were originally established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime. The term was later replaced with "municipal district".[1] Most municipal districts would later be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President.[2]

Currently, Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only legally constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957.

In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities. The modern and largest townships in the Philippines are Clark Green City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga. Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport.

South Africa

In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township (or location), in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites (Blacks, Coloureds, and Indians) living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto ("SOuth-WEstern TOwnships") is a well-known example. However, the term township also has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas.

Taiwan

In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines.

United Kingdom

England

Township marker mungrisdale
Township boundary marker at Mungrisdale, Cumbria. The marker has been restored for historical purposes.

In England, the term township is no longer in official use, but the term still has some meaning.

In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish.[3] This use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships that had been subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right. This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions that had been started in the 16th century. Recently, some councils, normally in the north of England, have revived the term.

Scotland

In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the Highlands and Islands, a township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands generally the term may describe a very small agrarian community.

Wales

For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire.

United States

There are two types of townships in the United States; a state may have one or both types. In states that have both, the boundaries often coincide in many counties.

  • A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. In many states, townships are organized and operate under the authority of state statutes, similar to counties. In others, townships operate as municipal corporations—chartered entities with a degree of home rule. There are exceptions, the most notable being New Jersey and Pennsylvania, where townships are a class of incorporation with fixed boundaries and equal standing to a village, town, borough, or city, analogous to a New England town or towns in New York.

Puerto Rico

When after the Treaty of Paris, the U.S. did its first census of Puerto Rico the documents called them "barrios" as they had been called when Puerto Rico was under Spanish rule.[4] The townships or barrios as they are called in P.R. and on U.S. Census documents are subdivisions of municipalities of Puerto Rico.[5][6]

Vietnam

In Vietnam, a commune-level town (thị trấn) is very similar to a township; it is a subdivision of a rural district (huyện) and is the lowest administration subdivision in the country.

Zimbabwe

In Zimbabwe, the term township was used for segregated parts of suburban areas. During colonial years in Rhodesia, the term township referred to a residential area reserved for black citizens within the boundaries of a city or town, and is still commonly used colloquially. This reflected the South African usage.

In modern Zimbabwe, the term is also used to refer to a residential area within close proximity of a rural growth point.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Keesing, Felix Maxwell; Keesing, Marie Margaret; Keesing, Marie Martin (1934). Taming Philippine Headhunters: A Study of Government and of Cultural Change in Northern Luzon. Stanford University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780804721103. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  2. ^ "Executive Order No. 42, s. 1963: Declaring Certain Municipal Districts in the Philippines as Municipalities". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  3. ^ Winchester, A. (2000), Discovering parish boundaries, Princes Risborough, UK.: Shire Publications, pp. 21–29, ISBN 0-7478-0470-2
  4. ^ Joseph Prentiss Sanger; Henry Gannett; Walter Francis Willcox (1900). Informe sobre el censo de Puerto Rico, 1899, United States. War Dept. Porto Rico Census Office (in Spanish). Imprenta del gobierno. p. 162.
  5. ^ Puerto Rico:2010:population and housing unit counts.pdf (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. 2010.
  6. ^ "Parguera Barrio". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  7. ^ "Reporting from Zimbabwe: a visit to Harare's biggest township". University of Cambridge. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2017.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of township at Wiktionary
Alameda County, California

Alameda County ( AL-ə-MEE-də) is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, making it the 7th-most populous county in the state. The county seat is Oakland. Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region.

The Spanish word alameda means either, "...a grove of poplars,...or a tree lined street" a name originally used to describe the Arroyo de la Alameda. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early Spanish explorers of a road lined with trees. Although a strict translation to English might be "Poplar Grove Creek", the name of the principal stream that flows through the county is now simply "Alameda Creek."

Alameda County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area.

Charter township

A charter township is a form of local government in the U.S. state of Michigan. Townships in Michigan are organized governments. A charter township has been granted a charter, which allows it certain rights and responsibilities of home rule that are generally intermediate between those of a city (a semi-autonomous jurisdiction in Michigan) and a village. Unless it is a home-rule village, the latter is subject to the authority of any township in which it is located.

Civil township

A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States that is subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, and Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries often coincide and may completely geographically subdivide a county. The U.S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. Currently, there are 20 states with civil townships.

Township functions are generally overseen by a governing board (the name varies from state to state) and a clerk or trustee. Township officers frequently include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor, constable, and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships also added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, and even cemetery services. In some states, a township and a municipality that is coterminous with that township may wholly or partially consolidate their operations.

Cook County, Illinois

Cook County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles County, California. As of 2017, the population was 5,211,263. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. More than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County.

Cook County's population is larger than that of 28 individual U.S. states, and the combined populations of the seven smallest states. There are 135 incorporated municipalities partially or wholly within Cook County, the largest of which is Chicago, which is home to approximately 54% of the population of the county.

That part of the county which lies outside the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships; these often divide or share governmental services with local municipalities. Geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area. It shares the state's Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County. Including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles (4,234.6 km2), the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles (2,447.5 km2) is land and 690 square miles (1,787.1 km2) (42.16%) is water. Land-use in Cook County is mainly urban and densely populated.

Cook County is included in the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is surrounded by what are known as the five collar counties.

Edison, New Jersey

Edison is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. Situated in north-central New Jersey, Edison lies within the core of the Raritan Valley region. As of the 2010 United States Census, Edison had a total population of 99,967, retaining its position as the fifth-most populous municipality in New Jersey. The 2010 population reflected an increase of 2,280 (+2.3%) from the 97,687 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 9,007 (+10.2%) from the 88,680 counted in 1990. Edison's population has been above the 100,000 threshold since 2010, increasing by 0.7% to a Census-estimated 100,693 in 2018.What is now Edison Township was originally incorporated as Raritan Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 17, 1870, from portions of both Piscataway Township and Woodbridge Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Metuchen on March 20, 1900, and Highland Park on March 15, 1905. The name was officially changed to Edison Township on November 10, 1954, in honor of inventor Thomas Edison, who had his main laboratory in the Menlo Park section of the township.Edison was ranked the 28th most-livable small city in the United States by CNN Money Magazine, and second in New Jersey in 2006 in Money Magazine's "Best Places To Live". In 2008, two years later, Money Magazine ranked the township 35th out of the top 100 places to live in the United States. In the 2006 survey of America's Safest Cities, the township was ranked 23rd, out of 371 cities included nationwide, in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey. In 2009, Edison was ranked as one of "America's 10 Best Places to Grow Up" by U.S. News & World Report. The rankings focused on low crime, strong schools, green spaces, and abundance of recreational activities.

James Gandolfini

James Joseph Gandolfini Jr. (Italian: [ɡandolˈfiːni]; September 18, 1961 – June 19, 2013) was an American actor best known for his role as Tony Soprano, the Italian-American crime boss in HBO's television series The Sopranos. He won three Emmy Awards, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, and one Golden Globe Award. Gandolfini's performance as Tony Soprano is widely regarded as among the greatest performances in television history.His notable film roles include mob henchman Virgil in True Romance (1993), Lt. Bobby Dougherty in Crimson Tide (1995), and Mayor of New York in The Taking of Pelham 123 (2009). Other roles are enforcer and stuntman Bear in Get Shorty (1995) and impulsive "Wild Thing" Carol in Where the Wild Things Are 2010 Welcome to the Riley’s, co-starring Kristen Stewart and Melissa Leo. For his performance as Albert in Enough Said (2013), Gandolfini posthumously received much critical praise and several accolades, including a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination and the Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor.

In 2007, Gandolfini produced Alive Day Memories: Home from Iraq, a documentary in which he interviewed injured Iraq War veterans and in 2010, Wartorn: 1861–2010 examining the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on soldiers and families throughout several wars in U.S. history from 1861 to 2010.

List of Indiana townships

The U.S. state of Indiana is divided into 1,008 townships in 92 counties. Each is administered by a township trustee.

List of municipalities in New Jersey

New Jersey is a state located in the Northeastern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, New Jersey is the 11th most populous state with 8,791,936 inhabitants but the 5th smallest by land area spanning 7,354.22 square miles (19,047.3 km2). New Jersey is divided into 21 counties and contains 565 municipalities consisting of five types: 254 boroughs, 52 cities, 15 towns, 241 townships, and 3 villages. The largest municipality by population in New Jersey is Newark with 277,140 residents whereas the smallest is Tavistock with 5 residents.Like most Northeastern states, every square foot of New Jersey is incorporated; every resident lives within the borders of an incorporated municipality.

Manchu people

The Manchu (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.

Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning and one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.

Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania

Mt. Lebanon is a township with home rule status in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 33,137 at the 2010 census. It is a suburb of Pittsburgh.

Established in 1912 as Mount Lebanon, the township was a farming community until the arrival of streetcar lines, first opening in 1901 Now with the ability to commute to and from Downtown Pittsburgh daily, Mount Lebanon became a streetcar suburb, with the first real estate subdivision being laid out in November 1901. Further, the opening of the Liberty Tunnel in 1924 allowed easy automobile access to Pittsburgh. In 1975, the renamed Mt. Lebanon adopted one of the first home rule charters in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania House of Representatives

The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. There are 203 members, elected for two-year terms from single member districts.Republican Mike Turzai was first elected Speaker of the House on January 6, 2015. In 2012, a State Representative district had an average population of 60,498 residents.It is the largest full-time state legislature in the country. (The New Hampshire House of Representatives is larger but only serves part-time.)

Toledo, Ohio

Toledo () is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan. The city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, and originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio.

After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; it also benefited from its position on the railway line between New York City and Chicago. The first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s, eventually earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education, healthcare, and local sports teams.

The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,128 making it the 71st-largest city in the United States. It is the fourth-most-populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio, after Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 608,145, and was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Dayton, and Akron.

Township (New Jersey)

A township, in the context of New Jersey local government, refers to one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government. As a political entity, a township in New Jersey is a full-fledged municipality, on par with any town, city, borough, or village. They collect property taxes and provide services such as maintaining roads, garbage collection, water, sewer, schools, police and fire protection. The Township form of local government is used by 27% of New Jersey municipalities; however, slightly over 50% of the state's population resides within them.

Townships in New Jersey differ from townships elsewhere in the United States. In many states, townships can be an intermediate form of government, between county government and municipalities that are subordinate parts of the township, with different government responsibilities allocated at each level. In New Jersey, there are no subordinate municipalities located within a township, as a New Jersey township is a form of municipal government within a county, equal in status to a village, town, borough, or city, all of which may coexist within a county.

Municipalities in New Jersey may be classified into one of five types, of which townships are one. Townships may retain the township form of government, or adopt one of the modern forms of government, which are not restricted to a particular type of municipality. In New Jersey, a municipality's name (such as X Township) is not necessarily an indication of its form of government.

In New Jersey, the township form of government consists of a three to five member township committee usually elected at-large in partisan elections. At its organization meeting, held after an election, the committee selects one of its elected members to serve as mayor and preside at meetings. The other members of the township committee serve as commissioners of various township departments, overseeing the work of those areas along with overall legislative issues. Some mayors in this form of government also oversee specific departments. The mayor in this form of government is primarily ceremonial and has the same power as other township committee members. The mayor does hold the powers vested in all mayors under state law. One township committee member is elected deputy mayor each year. Some towns with this form of government rotate the mayor's office each year, while others elect the same mayor for 2-3 years in a row.

On road signs, township is often abbreviated TWP or Twp. Some official documents abbreviate it as "Twsp."

Township (Pennsylvania)

A Pennsylvania township or township under Pennsylvania laws is one class (with two forms) of the three types of municipalities codified (and commonly found as towns, villages, or hamlets), in Pennsylvania—smaller municipal class legal entities providing local self-government functions in the majority of land areas in the more rural regions. Townships act as the lowest level municipal corporations of governance of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a U.S. state of the United States of America.

However, Pennsylvania townships, in seeming contradiction, often have far larger territorial area than its large cities, boroughs, and towns—because only a relatively few occupants are required to establish the mechanisms of self-government under its constitution. Larger populations are required to progress to first-class townships, boroughs (towns) and cities. Further, that constitution dates to colonial times when most of the province of Pennsylvania was owned by Indians and new counties and new settlements were brought into being with steady regularity, and the first governments defined were very large, nearly county-sized sparsely populated townships.Along with more densely populated boroughs and cities in the state, Pennsylvania townships are generally subordinate to or dependent upon the county level of government to one degree or another. Because of the way the political system progresses community growth and home rule politics under the commonwealth's constitution, it is common to have a township and borough of the same or similar name, generally abutting, and often with the 'town-like' borough partially or wholly surrounded by the remaining (and more rural original) township it has split off from.

For a general in depth overview of townships, see civil townships.

Township (United States)

A township in the United States is a small geographic area.The term is used in three ways.

A survey township is simply a geographic reference used to define property location for deeds and grants as surveyed and platted by the General Land Office (GLO). A survey township is nominally six by six miles square, or 23,040 acres.

A civil township is a unit of local government, generally a civil division of a county. Counties are the primary divisional entities created by U.S. states, thus townships vary from state to state in their powers and organizations. Civil townships are generally given a name, sometimes abbreviated "Twp".

A charter township is similar to a civil township, found only in the state of Michigan. Provided certain conditions are met, a charter township is mostly exempt from annexation to contiguous cities or villages, and carries additional rights and responsibilities of home rule.

Unincorporated area

In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country. Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are very rare; typically remote, outlying, sparsely populated or uninhabited areas.

Yangon

Yangon (Burmese: ရန်ကုန်မြို့; MLCTS: rankun mrui.; pronunciation [jàɴɡòʊɴ mjo̰], lit. 'End of Strife'), formerly known as Rangoon, is the capital of the Yangon Region and commercial capital of Myanmar (also known as Burma). Yangon served as the administrative capital of Myanmar until 2006, when the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw [nèpjìdɔ̀] in central Myanmar. With over 7 million people, Yangon is Myanmar's largest city and its most important commercial centre.

Yangon boasts the largest number of colonial-era buildings in Southeast Asia, and has a unique colonial-era urban core that is remarkably intact. The colonial-era commercial core is centred around the Sule Pagoda, which is reputed to be over 2,000 years old. The city is also home to the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda – Myanmar's most sacred Buddhist pagoda. The mausoleum of the last Mughal Emperor is located in Yangon, where he had been exiled following the Indian Mutiny of 1857.

Yangon suffers from deeply inadequate infrastructure, especially compared to other major cities in Southeast Asia. Though many historic residential and commercial buildings have been renovated throughout central Yangon, most satellite towns that ring the city continue to be profoundly impoverished and lack basic infrastructure.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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