Tourism in China

Tourism in China is a significant industry. The rate of tourism has greatly expanded over the last few decades since the beginning of reform and opening. The emergence of a newly rich middle class and an easing of restrictions on movement by the Chinese authorities are both fueling this travel boom. China has become one of the world's most-watched and hottest inbound and outbound tourist markets. According to Xinhuanet, the world is on the cusp of a sustained Chinese tourism boom.[1]

As of 2015, China is the fourth most visited country in the world, after France, United States, and Spain, with 56.9 million international tourists per year.[2]

In 2017, tourism contributed about CNY 8.77 trillion (USD 1.35 trillion), 11.04% of the GDP, and contributed direct and indirect employment of up to 28.25 million people. There were 139.48 million inbound trips and five billion domestic trips.[3][4] Data from 2016 indicated that the majority of China's foreign tourists came (transferred) from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. Among the number of tourist arrivals who stayed for at least a night, 27.72 million came from Hong Kong, 4.81 million from Macau and 5.09 million from Taiwan. When adjusted to exclude transfers from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, the number of tourist arrivals from foreign countries directly to China is 21.65 million.[5]

China ranked second in the world for travel and tourism's contribution to GDP in 2014 ($943.1 billion), and first in the world for travel and tourism's contribution to employment (66,086,000 jobs in 2014). Tourism, based on direct, indirect, and induced impact, accounted for 9.3 percent of China's GDP in 2013.[6]

Since 2012, tourists from China have been the world's top spender in international tourism, leading global outbound travel. In 2016, the country accounted for 21% of the world's international tourism spending, or $261 billion.[7] (Do note that the stats include journeys made to the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, as well as Taiwan; in 2017, these accounted for 69.5m of the so-called "overseas" journeys.) At the time, only 7% of Chinese had a passport, so the "potential for further growth is staggering", according to a UK news report.[8]

Tourists photographing Lujiazui from the Bund, 2013
Shanghai's skyline attracts tourists foreign and domestic to view it from the Bund


Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing, with tourists 2
Tourists inside the Forbidden City, Beijing

Between 1949 and 1974, the People's Republic was closed to all but selected foreign visitors. In the late 1970s, when Deng Xiaoping decided to promote tourism vigorously as a means of earning foreign exchange, China started to develop its tourism industry. Major hotel construction programs greatly increased the number of hotels and guest houses, more historic and scenic spots were renovated and opened to tourists, and professional guides and other service personnel were trained.

Bridge at Nanxi Street over Puhuitang River, Qibao
Bridge at Nanxi Street over Puhuitang River
Lanterns in Nanjing Fuzimiao
Lantern Festival in Nanjing

The expansion of domestic and international airline traffic and other tourist transportation facilities made travel more convenient. Over 250 cities and countries had been opened to foreign visitors by the mid-1980s. Travellers needed only valid visas or residence permits to visit 100 locations; the remaining locales required travel permits from public security departments. In 1985 approximately 1.4 million foreigners visited China, and nearly US$1.3 billion was earned from tourism.


Pudong area of Shanghai, at night
Sightseeing boats ply the river in Shanghai, providing just a tiny percent of the revenue from tourism

China has become a major tourist destination following its reform and opening to the world in the late 1970s instigated by Deng Xiaoping. In 1978, China received about 230,000 international foreign tourists, mostly because of the severe limitations that the government placed on who was allowed to visit the country and who was not.[9]

In 2016, overnight visitors increased 4.2% over the same period of 2015 to 59.27 million (of which over 60% came from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan). The corresponding income increased to USD 120 billion, an increase by 5.6% over the same period of 2015.[6]

Visitor statistics

Most visitors arriving in China were from the following areas of residence or countries of nationality:[10][11] [12] [13]

  1. ^ The number of Vietnamese visitors is calculated using the total number of visitors and the percentage of Vietnamese tourists given in the 2017 yearly report of Chinese tourism.

Diplomatic and political tensions

Diplomatic and political tensions appear to have a mixed correlation with China's inbound tourism. For the past decade, relations with Japan have been tense, resulting in a decline in the number of inbound tourists from Japan to China by almost 19 percent annually between 2004 and 2014.

However, both Vietnam and the Philippines have been embroiled in contentious territorial disputes with China, yet between 2009 and 2013 the number of inbound Vietnamese and Filipino tourists increased by 65 percent and 33 percent, respectively.[6]

In December 2017, 2018 was proclaimed as the Canada China Year of Tourism, to encourage visits to/from both countries.[14] Tensions between them increased significantly however in December 2018 after the arrest of businesswoman Meng Wanzhou by Canada in response to a U.S. warrant and the subsequent arrest of two Canadians living in China. The retaliatory move by Beijing confirmed that the previously smooth working relationship between the countries had broken down. The tension led to the cancellation of a trip to Beijing by Canada's Tourism Minister Mélanie Joly.[15]


Some form of Chinese is virtually universal in China, with Mandarin as the standard form and many other varieties also in use; some, like Cantonese and Shanghainese, have tens of millions of speakers. Although the vast majority of Chinese do not speak English, due to the educational system, many Chinese near and in urban areas can read and write it, even though they may have difficulty with spoken English.

According to research completed by The Daily Telegraph in 2017, less than 1 percent of people (some 10 million) in China speak English conversationally.[16]


Notable ancient capitals

Renowned historic cities and old towns

Canal tour boat of a traditional style, Grand Canal, Suzhou, China
Grand Canal tour boat of a traditional style
Shopping area in Shanghai's Old City (2018)
A street just outside the Old City God Temple commercial area of Shanghai
Grand Canal, tour boats, Suzhou, China
Tour boats in Suzhou, the "Venice of the East"

Famous sites

Juyongguan Great Wall
Numerous tourists visit parts of the Great Wall, including the section at Juyongguan
Hall of Supreme Harmony 2018. Forbidden City
Hall of Supreme Harmony at the Forbidden City
Sculptures at the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity
Sculptures at the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity in the Summer Palace
ICBC building on the Bund, Shanghai
The Bund after dark, Shanghai


Sunset at Sanya Bay, Hainan

Hainan Island, sometimes referred to as "Hawaii of the Orient" is located off the south coast of mainland China. It hosts most of China's tropical resorts, and because of this, is extremely popular with other Chinese, and Russian tourists as well. During the past few years, the Chinese government has heavily promoted Hainan Island as a world class resort with beaches and golf courses which are plentiful on Hainan Island. In addition, the ability to visit traditional Li and Miao cultural villages, hike among lush tropical rain forests and mountainsides, and visit significant cultural artifacts from long ago dynasties, has had a significant effect on tourism on the island. The Chinese and Hainan governments intend to continue to spend a great deal of money on infrastructure (December 2004 completion of Hainan to mainland China train; and, around the island expressways for cars and buses) and promotion of Hainan Island.

Tourist resources

Tourist resources in China can be divided into three main groups: natural sites, historical and cultural sites, and folk customs.

Natural sites

Terrace field yunnan china denoised
The terraced rice paddies of Yuanyang County, Yunnan
Zhang jia jie

China's mountains, lakes, valleys, caves and waterfalls:

Mount Tai (Tai Shan) in the east, Mount Hengshan in the south, Mount Hua in the west, Mount Hengshan in the north, and Mount Song in the center of China have been called the Five Sacred Mountains since antiquity. The Taishan massif, which snakes through central Shandong, is admired by Chinese as paramount among them. Another mountain celebrated for its beauty is Huangshan in southern Anhui, known for its graceful pines, unusual rocks, cloud seas and hot springs.

Jiuzhaigou, Huangguoshu Waterfall, and Guilin are all located in southwestern China. Jiuzhaigou in northern Sichuan is a beautiful "fairyland valley" running over 40 km through snow-covered mountains, lakes, waterfalls, and forest. The Huangguoshu Waterfalls in Guizhou are a group of waterfalls, 18 above-ground and four below, which can be heard from five km away. The Li River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region winds its way through karst peaks for 82 km between Guilin and Yangshuo.

On the plateau in northern China are many spectacular lakes. The Tianchi (Heavenly Pool) in the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Autonomous Region is 1,980 meters above sea level. This 105-m-deep lake is crystal clear, the high mountains surrounding it carpeted with green grass and colorful flowers.

Along the renowned Three Gorges of the Yangtze River are many scenic spots and historical sites; the Qutang Gorge is rugged and majestic, the Wu Gorge elegant, deep and secluded, the Xiling Gorge full of shoals and reefs and rolling water. The Lesser Three Gorges are lush with greenery, flanking water so clear you can see to the bottom. The Three Gorges Dam built here is China's biggest key hydro-power project.

Historical and cultural sites

Chou Fang 004
Beauties Wearing Flowers, by Zhou Fang, 8th century

China's long history has left many cultural relics and the title of "China Top Tourist City" has gone to the first group of 54 cities. The Great Wall, a symbol of the Chinese nation, is also a prime example of historical sites that have become major tourist attractions. As the greatest defense-structure project in the history of human civilization, it dates back more than 2,000 years ago to the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods - huge in its scale and grandeur. There are more than ten sections of the Great Wall open to tourists, including the passes, blockhouses and beacon towers at Badaling in Beijing, Laolongtou in Hebei and Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu.

Grottoes filled with precious murals and sculptures are concentrated along the ancient Silk Road in Gansu. The best known are the Mogao Caves, a "treasure house of oriental art", with 492 caves with murals and statues on the cliff faces. There are 45,000 sq m of murals and over 2,100 colorful statues, all of high artistry. In the south, grotto art is represented in Sichuan by the Leshan Giant Buddha, carved into a cliff face. Seventy-one meters high and 28 meters wide, it is the largest sitting Buddha in stone, showing the carving skill of ancient craftsmen.

The Shaolin Temple in Henan, the birthplace of Chinese Zen Buddhism and famous for its Shaolin Kung Fu martial arts, dates back to 495 AD. Here can be seen the Ming period Five-Hundred-Arhats Mural and Qing period Shaolin kungfu paintings. In Hubei, the beautiful Wudang Mountain, with 72 peaks covering an area of 30 km2 (12 sq mi), form a sacred site of Taoism, which preserves one of China's most complete and largest-scale ancient Taoist architecture. In western Sichuan, Mount Emei, dotted with ancient Buddhist temples and structures, is one of China's four sacred Buddhist mountains。

Most of China's 101 cities classified as famous historical and cultural cities are over 1,000 years old. South of the Yangtze River, Suzhou and Hangzhou, long known as "paradise on earth", are crisscrossed with rivers, lakes, bridges, fields and villages, as beautiful as paintings. Today's well-preserved ancient cities includes that of Pingyao in central Shanxi, but was also the site of the Neolithic era Yangshao and Longshan cultures, 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. Ancient Lijiang in Yunnan is not only the center of Dongba culture of the Nakhi ethnic group but also a meeting place for the cultures of Han, Tibetan and Bai ethnicities. Built in the Song dynasty, this city has many stone bridges, stone memorial arches and dwelling houses, which provide precious materials for architectural history and can be called a "living museum of ancient dwelling houses."

Folk customs

"March Street" celebrated by the Bai people in Dali, Yunnan, is associated with the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy suppressing a devil to help the Bai people. It became traditional to burn incense and offer sacrifices to commemorate her virtues every year and the festival has become a major annual gathering for Bai commercial, cultural and sports activities.

The Water-Sprinkling Festival of the Dai ethnic group in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, is a lively occasion taking place in the spring. People chase and pour water (a symbol of good luck and happiness) over each other, among other activities such as dragon boat racing and peacock dance.

Lugu Lake between Sichuan and Yunnan has become a tourist destination following the building of a new highway giving access to this area. The matriarchal society of the 30,000 local Mosuo people is noted for its "no marriage" traditions and is called the last women's kingdom on the earth. Mosuo women, local dugout canoes and undulating singing style are considered unique to Lugu Lake.

Tourist themes

The China National Tourism Administration promotes a tourist theme every year; 1992 was "Friendly Sightseeing Year." Then came "Landscape Tour", "Tour of Cultural Relics and Historical Sites", "Folk Customs Tour", "Holiday Tour", and "Ecological Environment Tour." From 2000 to 2004, the themes were "Century Year", "Sports and Health of China", "Folk Arts of China", and "Culinary Kingdom of China", and "Catch the Lifestyle."

The themes for 2005 were "China Travel Year" and "Beijing 2008 -- Welcome to China." In order to strengthen exchange and cooperation with the international tourism industry, the China National Travel Administration is planning a series of related events, including the Shanghai-hosted "2005 International Tourism Fair of China", the Beijing-hosted 2005 annual meeting of the Federation of Travel Agencies of France, and "the 2005 China-Australia Tourism Symposium." The China International Online Travel Fair 2005 held in March was comprehensive, providing an online exchange and trading platform between tour companies themselves and with their customers.

Since 2013, all regions in China have had tourism publicity events under the "Beautiful China" umbrella, but with a different theme for each area. The year 2018 was declared as "Beautiful China – Year of Integrated Tourism" while 2017 was declared as "Beautiful China – Year of Silk Road Tourism".[17]

Tourist services

Norwegian tour group being led by guide at Temple of Heaven
A guide leads a group of Norwegian tourists to the Temple of Heaven in Beijing

The fast development of China's transportation infrastructure provides wide-ranging travel for domestic and overseas tourists. Throughout China a great many hotels and restaurants have been constructed, renovated or expanded to satisfy all levels of requirement, including many with five or six star ratings. All large or medium-sized cities and scenic spots have hotels with complete facilities and services for both domestic and international visitors.

China has regulated international travel agencies. On June 12, 2003, the China National Tourism Administration and the Ministry of Commerce jointly issued Interim Regulations on the Establishment of Foreign-funded or Wholly Foreign-owned Travel Agencies. On July 18, 2003, the China National Travel Administration approved the registration of JALPAK International (China) Ltd. as the first wholly foreign-owned travel company to enter China's tourist market, mainly handling Japanese tourism in China. On December 1, 2003, TUI China Travel Company was formally established in Beijing—the first overseas-controlled joint venture in China's tourism industry. The controlling party is Martin Buese China Limited and TUI Europe's largest travel group and their Chinese partner is China Travel Service.

See also


Notes and references

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website

  1. ^ "Factbox: Basic facts about China's economy".
  2. ^ CEO, Dr Amarendra Bhushan Dhiraj (26 April 2016). "World's Top 10 Most Visited Countries By International Tourists In 2015". CEOWORLD magazine.
  3. ^ "2017 China Tourism Facts & Figures". China Travel Guide. 21 October 2018.
  4. ^ "China Inbound Tourism in 2016". China Travel News. 1 September 2018.
  5. ^ "China Inbound Tourism in 2016".
  6. ^ a b c "Is China attracting foreign visitors?".
  7. ^ News, The PIE. "China accounts for 21% of international tourism spending - UNWTO".
  8. ^ Smith, Oliver (11 April 2018). "The unstoppable rise of the Chinese traveller – where are they going and what does it mean for overtourism?". The Telegraph.
  9. ^ Lew, Alan A. 1987. The History, Policies and Social Impact of International Tourism in the People's Republic of China. Asian Profile 15(2)April:117 28.
  10. ^ "China Tourism: Statistics and Data".
  11. ^ "2015年1-12月来华旅游入境人数(按入境方式分)" [Number of tourists coming to China from January to December 2015 (by entry method)].
  12. ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局" [National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China].
  13. ^ "中国入境旅游发展年度报告2017" [China Inbound Tourism Development Annual Report 2017].
  14. ^ "2018 IS THE CANADA-CHINA YEAR OF TOURISM". Tourism Vancouver. 21 December 2017.
  15. ^ Peter Zimonjic; Catharine Tunney (14 December 2018). "U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo says China's detention of 2 Canadians is 'unlawful'". CBC News. CBC. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Joly is no longer heading to Beijing next week amidst percolating diplomatic tensions.
  16. ^ Oliver Smith (9 February 2017). "Mapped: Where to go if you can't be bothered to learn the language". Telegraph. Retrieved 3 December 2018. Around 10 million people - in a total population of 1.3 billion - speak English. That's fewer than one in 100.
  17. ^ "China to observe 2018 as "Beautiful China-Year of Integrated Tourism"". Travel Biz News. 4 February 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.

External links

AAAAA Tourist Attractions of China

Tourist attractions or scenic areas rated as AAAAA (5A) are the most important and best-maintained tourist attractions in the People's Republic of China, given the highest level in the rating categories used by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. As of 2018, there are 248 tourist attractions listed as 5A.

Beida Jade Bird Universal Sci-Tech

Beijing Beida Jade Bird Universal Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. known as Jade Bird Universal is a Chinese listed company. It manufactured electronic fire equipment, as well involved in tourism industry and other equity investments. The largest shareholder of Jade Bird Universal is the non-wholly-owned subsidiaries of Peking University.

Jade Bird Universal was a former constituent of Hang Seng China Enterprises Index from 10 August 2000 to 3 October 2001.

Beijing Tourism Group

The Beijing Tourism Group (BTG; Chinese: 北京首旅集团) is a Chinese state-owned enterprise operating in various areas of tourism, including travel agencies, dining, hotels, shopping and entertainment. It is headquartered in Chaoyang district, Beijing.

CITS Group Corporation

The CITS Group Corporation (Chinese: 中国国旅集团有限公司; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guólǚ Jítuán Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) is a state-owned leisure and tourism corporation based in Beijing, China.

With registered capital of CN¥390 million, the group is one of the largest Chinese tourism enterprises.

It is primarily engaged in travel services, duty-free trade and real estate development and management.

Among its major subsidiaries include CITS Head Office, China Duty Free Group, CITS Real Estates, etc.

The group is also the holding company of CITS Corporation Ltd, a domestically listed joint-stock corporation (SSE: 601888).

China National Tourism Administration

The China National Tourism Administration (CNTA; simplified Chinese: 国家旅游局; traditional Chinese: 國家旅游局; pinyin: Guójiā Lǚyóu Jú) is a dissolved Chinese government authority responsible for the development of tourism in the country. The CNTA was subordinate to the State Council. Its headquarters are in Beijing, with regional branches in various provinces.CNTA does not have the authority of a full department within the Chinese government to enforce regulations, but in other respects it acts as a ministry. Provincial CNTA offices in each Chinese province report to the central office in Beijing. CNTA has eighteen overseas offices called CNTO (China National Tourism Offices) that are charged with promoting tourism to China. In Europe, there are CNTO offices in London and Paris.

CNTA is unique as a tourism office in that it is also responsible for controlling the outflow of tourists from China abroad.

The CNTA is dissolved on March 19, 2018; the duties are merged to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

China Tourism Academy

China Tourism Academy (CTA) is a Beijing-based research institution with a focus on studies in tourism industry. Under the Document No. [2007] 98 released by the State Commission for Public Sector Reform, it was established in 2008, directly affiliated with the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA).The Academy is organised into academic and administrative divisions. For the academic part, it comprises four individual Institutes looking to Tourism Policy and Strategy Studies, Tourism Industry and Enterprise Development, Regional Tourism Planning and Development, and International Tourism Development respectively. In addition, there are twelve independently run subsidiaries affiliated to CTA, including two branch offices located in Kunming and Wuhan, two targeted research centers for Tourism in Taiwan and Western China, along with seven specialised institutions exploring topics including tourism theories, tourism standardisation, hospitality, market development and destination marketing, tourism safety and security, tourism impact analysis, urban tourism and tourism vocational education.The scope of CTA's research activities is quite broad, partly due to its position as the research arm of the National Tourism Administration. It regularly hosts national conferences and forums, inviting both scholars and businesses related to the industry. It is also capable of conducting surveys on national bases, which very much facilitates its annually issued Annual Development Report of China's Tourism.In 2013, CTA partnered with the Italian marketing and communications firm Select Holding. This led to the establishment of the necessary basis for the constitution of Welcome Chinese, an hospitality standard, brand and company with the goal to help Chinese tourists feel more comfortable, easier to travel and feel welcome overseas. CTA agreed to promote the Welcome Chinese project and to privilege participants who have implemented the standard by recommending them to the Chinese travel industry.

China Tourism Association

China Tourism Association is a Chinese industry association affiliated with China National Tourism Administration.

The Chinese tourism industry is jointly represented by the China Tourism Association and the National Travel Trade Association.

It runs a subordinate educational organisation, the China Tourism Education, associating the tertiary and secondary education providers who offers tourism-related courses in China.

Cross-Strait Tourism Exchange Association

The Cross-Strait Tourism Exchange Association (CSTEA; simplified Chinese: 海峡两岸旅游交流协会; traditional Chinese: 海峽兩岸旅遊交流協會; pinyin: Hǎixiá Liǎng'àn Lǚyóu Jiāoliú Xiéhuì) or Association for Tourism Exchange across the Taiwan Straits (ATETS) is a semi-official representative office of the People's Republic of China in Taiwan handling tourism-related affairs. Its counterpart body in Mainland China by the Republic of China is the Taiwan Strait Tourism Association.

The CSTEA office is located in Ruentex Tower at Daan District, Taipei.

Jackson Hole, China

Jackson Hole, China is a resort town in Hebei Province, China about 2 hours north of Beijing, wedged between Taihang and Yan mountain ranges. Its translated Chinese name is "Hometown, U.S.A" (Chinese: 家乡; pinyin: jiā xiāng,美国) according to another article, which says that resort towns in the countryside of China are rare and are usually associated with being "agrarian." The locale contains spacious backyards that make the location feel like one from America away from the hustle and bustle of Chinese city life.

List of tourism-related institutions in China

This is a list of government bodies, agencies, institutions and other corporations related to the tourism in China.

Miyun District

Miyun District (simplified Chinese: 密云区; traditional Chinese: 密雲區; pinyin: Mìyún Qū) is situated in northeast Beijing. It has an area of 2,227 square kilometres (860 sq mi) and a population of 460,800 (2010 Census).

Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian

The modern buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian refer to the buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, built mostly in the first half of the twentieth century, during which time Dalian was Japan's leased territory.

These buildings were declared the "Cultural Heritage Sites under Protection by the Chinese State Government" in 2001 and the "Heritage Buildings under Protection by the Dalian Municipal Government" in 2002. The scene of this area with the modern buildings of the first half of the 20th century in China is comparable, in a smaller scale, to that of The Shanghai Bund.

People's Square (Dalian)

People's Square (Chinese: 人民广场; pinyin: Rénmín Guǎngchǎng) is a city square in Dalian, Liaoning province, China.

It was initially built as the Dairen Tyouja Square (Chinese: 大连长者广场) by the occupying Japanese in 1914, changed to Dairen Government Square in 1945, renamed Dairen Vissarionovich Square (Chinese: 大连斯大林广场) by the occupying Soviets in 1949, and finally renamed the People's Square in April 1999. It was the largest square in Dalian from 1914 to 1997, until the Xinghai Square was opened.

Taiwan Strait Tourism Association

The Taiwan Strait Tourism Association (TSTA; Chinese: 台灣海峽兩岸觀光旅遊協會; pinyin: Táiwān Hǎixiá Liǎng'àn Guānguāng Lǚyóu Xiéhuì) is a semi-official representative office of the Republic of China in Mainland China handling tourism-related affairs. Its counterpart body in Taiwan by the People's Republic of China is the Cross-Strait Tourism Exchange Association.

Tourism Education Press

Tourism Education Press (TEP) is a university press affiliated to Beijing International Studies University (BISU) of China. It was founded in November 1987 as part of the national initiative to promote the domestic tourism industry and tourism education.

Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China

Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China (Chinese: 旅游景区质量等级) is a rating system used by the Chinese authorities to determine the quality of the attraction relative to its peers in terms of safety, cleanliness, sanitation and transportation. It is broken up into five categories which are A (or 1A, the lowest level), AA (2A), AAA (3A), AAAA (4A) and AAAAA (5A, the highest level).

Visa policy of China

Visitors to the Mainland of the People's Republic of China must obtain a visa from one of the Chinese diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. The two Special Administrative Regions – Hong Kong and Macau – maintain their own independent border control policy and thus have their own visa requirements.Chinese visas are issued both outside China, by the Chinese diplomatic missions, and in China, by the Exit and Entry Administrations (EEAs) of the county-level Public Security Bureaus (PSBs). In order to enter China, however, a non-Chinese national should apply to the visa-issuing authorities outside China for a Chinese visa. Because Hong Kong and Macau maintain their independent border control policies, ordinary Chinese visas are valid for Mainland China only and are not valid for Hong Kong or Macau, so travelers must apply for separate visas for Hong Kong or Macau should they require one for traveling to these regions.

The government of the People's Republic of China allows holders of normal passports issued by some countries to travel to Mainland China for tourism or business purposes for up to 15, 30 or 90 days without having to obtain a visa. Visitors of other nationalities, as well as residents of Hong Kong and Macau, are required to obtain either a visa or a permit prior to arrival, depending on their nationality. In order to increase the numbers of tourists visiting the country, some ports of entry of China allow nationals of certain countries to visit specified regions within 72 or 144 hours if they are in transit to a third country. In 2014 the PRC government announced its intention to sign mutual visa facilitation and visa-free agreements with more countries in the future. Since then, a number of such agreements were concluded with some countries.

All non-Chinese travelers as well as Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents who stay in Mainland China for more than 24 hours must register with the local PSBs. When staying in a hotel, the registration is usually done as a part of the check-in process. When staying in a private home, however, the visitor must physically report to the local PSB within 24 hours of arrival for cities or 72 hours for rural areas. All visa-free passengers, including those in transit who stay for more than 24 hours, must adhere to the rule, as failure to comply can result in a fine or being detained by PSB for up to 15 days. Since January 2018, persons who failed to register with the local PSBs will be banned from using visa-free transit for a period of 2 years from the day the offence was recorded.Starting from 9 February 2017, holders of non-Chinese travel documents aged between 14 and 70 will be fingerprinted upon entry, with the exception of holders of diplomatic passports. This new policy has started in Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport and will gradually roll out in all border checkpoints and international airports before the end of 2017.

Young Mao Zedong statue

The Young Mao Zedong statue is located in Orange Isle (Júzi zhōu), Changsha, Hunan, China. The monument stands 32 metres (105 ft) tall and depicts Mao Zedong's head. The Hunan People's Government began building it in 2007 and it was completed two years later, in 2009. It took more than 800 tons of granite, which were mined from Fujian.

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