Toulon

Toulon (UK: /ˈtuːlɒ̃/, US: /tuːˈloʊn, -ˈlɔːn, -ˈlɒn/,[2][3][4][5] French: [tulɔ̃]; Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm), pronounced [tuˈlun]) is a city in southern France and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department.

The Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people (2009), making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with 559,421 inhabitants (2008), the ninth largest in France.[6] Toulon is the fourth-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille, Nice and Montpellier.

Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, and electronic equipment.

The military port of Toulon is the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean coast, home of the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and her battle group. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon.

Toulon
Top left: Toulon Opera House, Top right: Mayol Stadium (Le Stade du Mayol), 2nd: Panoramic view of downtown Toulon and its port, 3rd left: Place de la Liberté, 3rd right: The beaches of Mourillon, Bottom left: The cable car to Mount Faron, Bottom right: Fort Saint-Louis
Top left: Toulon Opera House, Top right: Mayol Stadium (Le Stade du Mayol), 2nd: Panoramic view of downtown Toulon and its port, 3rd left: Place de la Liberté, 3rd right: The beaches of Mourillon, Bottom left: The cable car to Mount Faron, Bottom right: Fort Saint-Louis
Flag of Toulon

Flag
Coat of arms of Toulon

Coat of arms
Location of Toulon
Toulon is located in France
Toulon
Toulon
Toulon is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Toulon
Toulon
Coordinates: 43°07′33″N 05°55′50″E / 43.12583°N 5.93056°ECoordinates: 43°07′33″N 05°55′50″E / 43.12583°N 5.93056°E
CountryFrance
RegionProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
DepartmentVar
ArrondissementToulon
CantonToulon-1, 2, 3 and 4
IntercommunalityMétropole Toulon Provence Méditerranée
Government
 • Mayor (since 2001) Hubert Falco
Area
1
42.84 km2 (16.54 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01)[1]
171,643
 • Density4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Toulonnais
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
83137 /83000
Elevation0–589 m (0–1,932 ft)
(avg. 1 m or 3.3 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

History

Prehistory to the Roman era

Toulon Cathedral Exterior
Toulon Cathedral (11th to 18th centuries)

Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseille, show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era. Greek colonists came from Phocaea, Asia Minor, in about the 7th century BC and established trading depots along the coast, including one, called Olbia, at Saint-Pierre de l'Almanarre south of Hyères, to the east of Toulon. The Ligurians settled in the area beginning in the 4th century BC.[7]

In the 2nd century BC, the residents of Massalia (present-day Marseille) called upon the Romans to help them pacify the region. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast. A Roman settlement was founded at the present location of Toulon, with the name Telo Martius – Telo, either for the goddess of springs or from the Latin tol, the base of the hill – and Martius, for the god of war. Telo Martius became one of the two principal Roman dye manufacturing centres, producing the purple colour used in imperial robes, made from the local sea snail called murex, and from the acorns of the oak trees. Toulon harbour became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, and Toulon.

Arrival of Christianity and the Counts of Provence

Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built. Honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon (Gratien), according to the Gallia Christiana, were the first bishops of Toulon, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles.

A Saint Cyprian, disciple and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is also mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541; he converted to Catholicism two Visigothic chiefs, Mandrier and Flavian, who became anchorites and martyrs on the peninsula of Mandrier.[8] In 1095, a new cathedral was built in the city by Count Gilbert of Provence. As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was frequently attacked by pirates and the Saracens.

Royal Port (15th–18th centuries)

Tour royale
The Tour Royale (16th century)
Barbarossa fleet wintering in Toulon 1543
Barbarossa's Ottoman fleet, of the Regency of Algiers, wintering in the harbour of Toulon in 1543, with the Tour Royale (bottom right).
Opéra-Toulon
The Toulon Opera House (1862)
Université de Toulon batiment R
A view of the University campus

In 1486 Provence became part of France. Soon afterwards, in 1494, Charles VIII of France, with the intention of making France a sea power on the Mediterranean, and to support his military campaign in Italy, began constructing a military port at the harbor of Toulon. His Italian campaign failed, and 1497, the rulers of Genoa, who controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port.

In 1524, as part of his longtime battle against Emperor Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire, King François I of France completed a powerful new fort, the Tour Royale, Toulon, at the entrance of the harbour. However, a few months later the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, and Toulon surrendered.

In 1543, Francis I found a surprising new ally in his battle against the Holy Roman Empire. He invited the fleet of Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa to Toulon as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance. The residents were forced to leave, and the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. See Ottoman occupation of Toulon.

In 1646, a fleet was gathered in Toulon for the major Battle of Orbetello, also known as the Battle of Isola del Giglio, commanded by France's first Grand Admiral, the young Grand Admiral Marquis of Brézé, Jean Armand de Maillé-Bréze of 36 galleons, 20 galleys, and a large complement of minor vessels. This fleet carried aboard an army of 8,000 infantry and 800 cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, shortly before a general in Spanish service.

King Louis XIV was determined to make France a major sea power. In 1660, his Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to build a new arsenal and to fortify the town. In 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Toulon successfully resisted a siege by the Imperial Army led by Duke Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia of Savoy and Prince Eugene. However, in 1720, the city was ravaged by the black plague, coming from Marseille. Thirteen thousand people, or half the population, died.

In 1790, following the French Revolution, Toulon became the administrative centre of the département of the Var. The leaders of the city, however, were largely royalists, and they welcomed the arrival of a British fleet. At the siege of Toulon, the British were expelled by a French force whose artillery was led by a young captain, Napoleon Bonaparte. To punish Toulon for its rebellion, the town lost its status as department capital and was briefly renamed Port-de-la-Montagne.

19th century

Toulon 1850
View in 1850

During the Napoleonic Wars, from 1803 until 1805 a British fleet led by Admiral Horatio Nelson blockaded Toulon.

In 1820, the statue which became known as the Venus de Milo was discovered on the Greek island of Milo and seen by a French naval officer, Emile Voutier. He persuaded the French Ambassador to Turkey to buy it, and brought it to Toulon on his ship, the Estafette. From Toulon it was taken to the Louvre.[9]

In 1820 Toulon became the base for the conquest of France's colonies in North Africa. In 1820 a French fleet with an army departed from Toulon for the conquest of Algeria.

1849, during the brief Second French Republic, Baron Haussmann was named Prefect of the Var. During his year as prefect, he began a major reconstruction of the city, similar to what he would later do in Paris. He tore down large parts of the old fortifications and built new boulevards and squares. The new Toulon Opera House, the second-largest in France, opened in 1862.

In 1867, on the orders of Napoleon III General François Achille Bazaine arrived in Toulon without an official welcome after abandoning the Mexican military campaign and Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.

20th century

During World War II, after the Allied landings in North Africa (Operation Torch) the German Army occupied southern France (Case Anton), leading French naval officers to scuttle the French Fleet based at Toulon on 27 November 1942. The city was bombed by the Allies in November of the following year, with much of the port destroyed and five hundred residents killed. Toulon was liberated by the Free French Forces of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny on 28 August 1944 in the Battle of Toulon.

In 1974 Toulon became again the préfecture, or administrative centre, of the Var. Five years later the University of Toulon opened. Toulon was one of four French cities where the extreme-right Front National won the local elections in 1995. The Front National was voted out of power in 2001.

Main sights

The Old Town

The old town of Toulon, the historic centre located between the port, the Boulevard de Strasbourg and the Cours Lafayette, is a pedestrian area with narrow streets, small squares and many fountains. Toulon Cathedral is located here. The area is also home of the celebrated Provençal market which takes place every morning on the Cours Lafayette, which features local products. The old town had decayed in the 1980s and 1990s, but recently many of the fountains and squares have been restored, and many new shops have opened.[10]

The Fountains of Old Toulon

Toulon Fountains 2

Fontaine du Dauphin, Place Paul Comte. The fountain, on the wall of the Bishop's residence, appears in the drawings of Toulon made for Louis XIV in 1668.

Toulon Place Puget Fountain

Fontaine des Trois Dauphins, Place Puget (1782)

Toulon Fountains 1

Fontaine de l'Intendance, Place Amiral Sénès, (1821)

Toulon Fountains 4

The Fontaine-Lavoir de Saint-Vincent, Place Saint-Vincent (1832), replaced the original fountain built in 1615. It had a fountain for drinking water and two basins, for washing clothes, one for washing and one for rinsing.

Toulon Faron3 P1440701-P1440708

View of downtown Toulon and Mediterranean Sea from Mount Faron

The Old Town of Toulon is known for its fountains, found in many of the small squares, each with a different character. The original system of fountains was built in the late 17th century; most were rebuilt in the eighteenth or early 19th century, and have recently been restored.[11]

The Upper Town of Baron Haussmann

Toulon place de la liberté-fontaine
Place de la liberté.

The upper town, between the Boulevard de Strasbourg and the railway station, was built in the mid-19th century under Louis Napoleon. The project was begun by Baron Haussmann, who was prefect of the Var in 1849. Improvements to the neighbourhood included the Toulon Opera, the Place de la Liberté, the Grand Hôtel, the Gardens of Alexander I, the Chalucet Hospital, the palais de Justice, the train station, and the building now occupied by Galeries Lafayette, among others. Haussmann went on to use the same style on a much grander scale in the rebuilding of central Paris.[12]

The Harbour and Arsenal

Toulon Rade and Arsenal
View of Toulon, the Arsenal and Mount Faron from the Harbour.

Toulon harbour is one of the best natural anchorages on the Mediterranean, and one of the largest harbours in Europe. A naval arsenal and shipyard was built in 1599, and small sheltered harbour, the Veille Darse, was built in 1604–1610 to protect ships from the wind and sea. The shipyard was greatly enlarged by Cardinal Richelieu, who wished to make France into a Mediterranean naval power. Further additions were made by Jean-Baptiste Colbert and Vauban.

Le Mourillon

Le Mourillon is a small seaside neighbourhood to the east of Toulon, near the entrance of the harbour. It was once a fishing village, and then became the home of many of the officers of the French fleet. Mourillon has a small fishing port, next to a 16th-century fort, Fort Saint Louis, which was reconstructed by Vauban.[13] In the 1970s the city of Toulon built a series of sheltered sandy beaches in Mourillon, which today are very popular with the Toulonais and with naval families. The Museum of Asian Art is located in a house on the waterfront near Fort St. Louis.

Mount Faron

Mount Faron (584 metres (1,916 feet)) dominates the city of Toulon. The top can be reached either by a cable car from Toulon, or by a narrow and terrifying road which ascends from the west side and descends on the east side. The road is one of the most challenging stages of the annual Paris–Nice and Tour Méditerranéen bicycle races.

At the top of Mount Faron is a memorial dedicated to the 1944 Allied landings in Provence (Operation Dragoon), and to the liberation of Toulon.

Vauban's fortifications

Wikipedia-porte-italie
The Porte d'Italie, built by Vauban. Napoleon departed from this gate in 1796 on his Italian campaign.

Beginning in 1678, Vauban constructed an elaborate system of fortifications around Toulon. Some parts, such as the section that once ran along the present-day Boulevard de Strasbourg, were removed in the mid-19th century, so the city could be enlarged, but other parts remain.[14] One part that can be visited is the Porte d'Italie, one of the old city gates. Napoleon Bonaparte departed on his triumphant Italian campaign from this gate in 1796.

Climate

Toulon Rade Sunset
The Harbour at Sunset

Toulon has a Mediterranean climate, characterised by abundant and strong sunshine, dry summers, and rain which is rare but sometimes torrential; and by hot summers and mild winters. Because of its proximity to the sea, the temperature is relatively moderate.

The average temperature in January, the coldest month, is 9.3 °C (49 °F), the warmest of any city in metropolitan France. In January the maximum average temperature is 12.7 °C (55 °F). and the average minimum temperature is 5.8 °C (42 °F).

The average temperature in July, the warmest month, is 23.9 °C (75 °F)., with an average maximum of 29.1 °C (84 °F). and an average minimal temperature of 18.8 °C (66 °F).

According to data collected by Météo-France, Toulon is the city in metropolitan France with the most sunshine per year: an average of 2,856 hours a year from 1999 to 2008, compared with 2,695 hours a year for Nice and 2,472 hours for Perpignan.[15] This is due to the wall of mountains that largely protects Toulon from the weather coming from north.

Average rainfall is 665 millimetres per year. The driest month is July with 6.6 mm (0.26 in)., and the wettest is October, with 93.9 mm (3.70 in). It rains on less than 60 days per year (an average of 59.7 days) and the amount of precipitation is very unequal in the different seasons. In February, the month with the most rain, it rains 7.1 days, but with only 88.3 millimetres (3.48 inches) of rain, while in October there are 5.9 days of rain. July, with 1.3 days of rain, is usually the driest month, but the driest month can fall anywhere between May and September. Autumn is characterized by torrential but brief rains; in winter there is more precipitation, spread out over longer periods.

Because of the proximity to the sea, freezing temperatures are rare; an average of 2.9 days a year, and lasting frosts (when the maximum temperature remains less or equal to zero) are non-existent. Snow is also very rare (barely 1.5 days per year on average) and it is even more rare for the snow to last during the day (0.3 days a year on average).

One distinctive feature of the Toulon climate is the wind, with 115 days a year of strong winds; usually either the cold and dry Mistral or the Tramontane from the north, the wet Marin; or the Sirocco sometimes bearing reddish sand from Africa; or the wet and stormy Levant from the east. (See Winds of Provence.) The windiest month is January, with an average of 12.5 days of strong winds. The least windy month is September, with 7 days of strong winds. In winter, the Mistral can make the air feel extremely cold, even though the temperature is mild.

The climate is dry and the humidity in Toulon is usually low. The average humidity is 56 percent, with little variation throughout the year; the driest months are July and August with 50 percent, and the most humid months are November and December with 60 percent.

Museums

Toulon has a number of museums.

The Museum of the French Navy (Musée national de la marine) is located on Place Monsenergue, next on the west side of the old port, a short distance from the Hotel de Ville. The museum was founded in 1814, during the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. It is located today behind what was formerly the monumental gate to the Arsenal of Toulon, built in 1738. The museum building, along with the clock tower next to it, is one of the few buildings of the port and arsenal which survived Allied bombardments during World War II. It contains displays tracing the history of Toulon as a port of the French Navy. Highlights include large 18th-century ship models used to teach seamanship and models of the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle.

The Museum of Old Toulon and its Region (Musée du vieux Toulon et de sa région). The Museum was founded in 1912, and contains a collection of maps, paintings, drawings, models and other artifacts showing the history of the city.

The Museum of Asian Arts (Musée des arts asiatiques), in Mourillon. Located in a house with garden which once belonged to the son and later the grandson of author Jules Verne, the museum contains a small but interesting collection of art objects, many donated by naval officers from the time of the French colonization of Southeast Asia. It includes objects and paintings from India, China, Southeast Asia, Tibet and Japan.

The Museum of Art (Musée d'art) was created in 1888, and contains collections of modern and contemporary art, as well as paintings of Provence from the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. It owns works by landscape artists of Provence from the late 19th century (Paul Guigou, Auguste Aiguier, Vincent Courdouan, Félix Ziem), and the Fauves of Provence (Charles Camoin, Auguste Chabaud, Louis Mathieu Verdilhan). The contemporary collections contain works from 1960 to today representing the New Realism Movement (Arman, César, Christo, Klein, Raysse); Minimalist Art (Sol LeWitt, Donald Judd); Support Surface (Cane, Viallat côtoient Arnal, Buren, Chacallis) and an important collection of photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson, Dieuzaide, Edouard Boubat, Willy Ronis and André Kertész).[19]

The Memorial Museum to the Landings in Provence (Mémorial du débarquement de Provence) is located on the summit of Mount Faron, this small museum, opened in 1964 by President Charles De Gaulle, commemorates the Allied landing in Provence in August 1944 with photos, weapons and models.

The Museum of Natural History of Toulon and the Var (Musée d'histoire naturelle de Toulon et du Var) was founded in 1888, has a large collection of displays about dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and minerals, mostly from the region.

The Hôtel des arts was opened in 1998, presents five exhibits a year of works by well-known contemporary artists. Featured artists have included Sean Scully, Jannis Kounellis, Claude Viallat, Per Kirkeby, and Vik Muniz.[20]

Education

Toulon has a conservatory (Conservatoire TPM, part of Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Toulon) which taught music, theater, dance and circus and an art academy called École supérieure d'art et de design Toulon Provence Méditerranée. Toulon is also home to a number of institutes of the University of Toulon, known until 2013 as University of the South, Toulon-Var.

Literature

Toulon figures prominently in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables. It is the location of the infamous prison, the bagne of Toulon, in which the protagonist Jean Valjean spends nineteen years in hard labour. Toulon is also the birthplace of the novel's antagonist, Javert.

One portion of the wall of the old bagne, or prison, where Jean Valjean was supposedly held still stands to the right of the entrance of the Old Harbour.

In Anthony Powell's novel What's Become of Waring the central characters spend a long summer holiday in Toulon's old town. Powell himself stayed at the Hotel du Port et des Negociants on two occasions in the early 1930s and writes in the second volume of his memoirs The naval port, with its small inner harbour, row of cafés along the rade, was quite separate from the business quarter of the town. A paddle steamer plied several times a day between this roadstead and the agreeably unsophisticated plage of Les Sablettes.

Joseph Conrad's last novel, 'The Rover', is also set around Toulon.

The last half of Dewey Lambdin's historical fiction novel, H.M.S. Cockerel, (the sixth novel in his Alan Lewrie naval adventure series) details the Siege of Toulon from Lewrie's perspective, as he commands a commandeered French barge carrying sea mortars against Lieutenant-Colonel Bonaparte's forces.

Transport

2016 Toulon - Hafen
Harbor with ferry

Toulon is served by the Gare de Toulon railway station, offering suburban services to Marseille (1 train every 15minutes during rush hour), Nice, Paris and regional destinations. The port of Toulon is the main port of departure for ferries to Corsica. The nearest airport is the regional Toulon-Hyères Airport. The A50 autoroute connects Toulon to Marseille, the A57 autoroute runs from Toulon to Le Luc, where it connects to the A8 autoroute.

Points of interest

Gastronomy

Local food highlights include:

  • cuisine from the Mediterranean and from Provence
  • the cade toulonnaise, a local speciality composed of chickpea flour and which is equivalent to the Socca of Nice
  • the Chichi Frégi, a type of donut from Provence.
  • Smash Sandwiches, a common sandwich available from street vendors throughout Toulon.

Sport

The most successful of the city's clubs are the rugby union team RC Toulon and the women's handball team Toulon St-Cyr Var Handball, both playing in the top division of their respective sports. The basketball team Hyères-Toulon Var Basket play in the second division of the French championship.

The city hosts the final four of the annual Toulon Tournament – an international under 21 football tournament.

The top soccer club is the Sporting Toulon Var, currently playing at the fourth level of French Football (Championnat de France Amateurs). Famous players such as Delio Onnis, Jean Tigana, Christian Dalger, David Ginola and Sébastien Squillaci have played for Sporting.

The city has been chosen by Groupama Team France as the venue for the fifth event in the Americas Cup World Series 2016, alongside international cities such as Portsmouth & New York.

Club Sport League Stadium
RC Toulon Rugby union Top 14 Stade Mayol
Toulon St-Cyr Var Handball Handball Championnat de France de handball féminin Gymnase Vert Coteau
Hyères-Toulon Var Basket Basketball LNB Pro A Palais des Sports and Espace 3000
Sporting Club Toulon Football Championnat de France Amateurs Stade de Bon Rencontre
Sporting Treiziste Toulonnais Rugby league National Division 1 Stade Delaune

Notable residents

Toulon is the birthplace of:

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Toulon is twinned with:[21]

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon – Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002.
  • Aldo Bastié, Histoire de la Provence, Editions Ouest-France, 2001.
  • Cyrille Roumagnac, L'Arsenal de Toulon et la Royale, Editions Alan Sutton, 2001
  • Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Le Chevallier à découvert, Paris, Laurens, 1998
  • Maurice Arreckx, Vivre sa ville, Paris, La Table ronde, 1982 ; Toulon, ma passion, 1985

Notes

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. ^ "Toulon". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Toulon". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  4. ^ "Toulon" (US) and "Toulon". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Toulon". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  6. ^ Insee - Résultats du recensement de la population de 2008 - Unité urbaine de Toulon, Retrieved 22 October 2011
  7. ^ Aldo Bastié, Historie de la Provence, Éditions Ouest-France, 2001.
  8. ^ A legend which states that a certain Cleon accompanied St. Lazarus to Gaul and was the founder of the Church of Toulon, is based on a 14th-century forgery that was ascribed to a 6th-century bishop named Didier.
  9. ^ Cyrille Roumagnac, L'Arsenal de Toulon et la Royale. pg. 43
  10. ^ for the history of the Old Town, see Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon – Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002.
  11. ^ André-Jean Tardy, Fontaines Toulonnaises, Les Editions de la Nerthe, Toulon, 2001.
  12. ^ Haussmann was only prefet of the Var for one year, but his prototypes for boulevards, apartment buildings and parks that he built in Paris were copied not only in Toulon, but in other large cities around France.
  13. ^ Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon – Port Royal (1481–1789. Tallandier: Paris, 2002.
  14. ^ Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon – Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002.
  15. ^ Lameteo.org comparative climate statistics for cities of France. See also: http://climat.meteofrance.com
  16. ^ "Moyennes 1981/2010: Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  17. ^ "STATION Toulon" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Toulon - La Mitre (83) - altitude 24m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  19. ^ See the page about the Museum on the official site of the Museums of the Var Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  20. ^ See the site of the Museums of Toulon on the Toulon City Web Site (in French) Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Jumelages: Toulon et ses villes jumelées" (in French). Mairie d'honneur de Toulon. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013.

External links

HTV Basket

Hyères-Toulon Var Basket, also referred to as simply Hyères-Toulon or HTV, is a basketball club based in Hyères and Toulon, France.Created by the merger of Omni Sport Hyerois and Club Sportif Toulonnais, the club shares its home games between the Espace 3000 in Hyères and the Palais des Sports in Toulon.

After several years in the LNB Pro A and LNB Pro B, the professional section of the club was dissolved in 2018.

Le Zénith

Le Zénith is the name given to a series of indoor arenas in France. The first arena, the "Zénith Paris" is a rejuvenation of the Pavillon de Paris. In French culture, the word "zénith" has become synonymous with "theater". A zénith is a theater that can accommodate concert tours, variety shows, plays, musicals and dance recitals. All zeniths carry a similar internal design of an indoor amphitheater that can seat at least 3,000 spectators.

A venue was planned to open in Saint-Denis, Réunion entitled Zénith du Port. The arena was proposed in 2005 by the city council. Planned to open in 2008 with a capacity of 6,000, the construction of the arena was shut down. It was determined the venue would not be profitable as there was no research done to see which events the arena could house. They also felt the venue would be a hard sell to bring in international talent. Kabardock was built on the proposed site of the zenith.

RC Toulonnais

Rugby Club Toulonnais (French pronunciation: ​[ʁyɡbi klœb tulɔnɛ]), also known as RCT but usually Toulon; Occitan: Rugbi Club Tolonenc) is a French professional rugby union club based in Toulon in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. A current participant in the first-tier Top 14 competition, they have won the national competition on four occasions.

Established in 1908, Toulon currently play their home games at the Stade Mayol, although they have begun to take high-profile matches to the 60,000-seat Stade Vélodrome in Marseille, playing one match there in 2008–09 and two in both 2009–10 and 2010–11. The club colours are red and black. Toulon were Pro D2 champions in 2005, but after finishing 14th in the 2005-06 Top 14 season, they were relegated back down. After signing a number of high-profile players, the club made a strong run at promotion in the 2006–07 season, and succeeded in their promotion quest in 2007–08, winning that season's Pro D2 crown with two rounds to spare. They struggled to avoid relegation for much of the 2008–09 Top 14 season, but a late-season surge brought them to ninth place and safety.

Their 2009–10 Top 14 season was more successful, with a second-place regular-season finish and a semi-final place domestically and a runner-up finish in the 2009–10 European Challenge Cup. In 2012, they again advanced to the Challenge Cup final, losing to Biarritz, and advanced to the Top 14 final, losing to Toulouse. In May 2013 Toulon won the 2013 Heineken Cup Final by 16–15 against Clermont Auvergne, and lost the Top 14 Final against Castres in June. They retained the Heineken Cup with a 23–6 win over Saracens in May 2014. They added a historic 3rd win in a row with a 24–18 win over Clermont in the 2015 final.

Rolland Courbis

Rolland Courbis (French pronunciation: ​[rɔlɑ̃ kuʁˈbis]; born 12 August 1953) is a French football manager and former defender. He was most recently manager of Stade Rennais F.C., having replaced Philippe Montanier on 20 January 2016.

Scuttling of the French fleet at Toulon

The scuttling of the French fleet at Toulon was a deliberate act orchestrated by Vichy France on 27 November 1942 to avoid the fleet's capture by Nazi German forces. The Allied invasion of North Africa had provoked the Germans into invading the zone libre, officially neutral according to the Armistice of 22 June 1940. Vichy Secretary of the Navy, Admiral François Darlan, defected to join Charles de Gaulle and the Free French, who were gaining increasing support from both servicemen and civilians. His replacement, Admiral Gabriel Auphan, guessed correctly that the Germans were aiming to seize the large fleet at Toulon, and issued orders for scuttling these vessels.

The Germans launched a heavy assault, but the naval crews used deception tactics to delay the enemy until scuttling could be carried out. The German operation was judged a failure, with the capture of 39 small ships, while the French destroyed 77 vessels, and several submarines escaped to French North Africa. It marked the end of Vichy France as a credible power.

Siege of Toulon

The Siege of Toulon (29 August – 19 December 1793) was a military operation by Republican forces against a Royalist rebellion in the southern French city of Toulon.

Sporting Club Toulon

Sporting Club Toulon is a football club from Toulon, France, who currently play in the French fourth division ( National 2 ). The club was founded in 1944 and played under that name until the 1999–2000 season when they were administratively reformed as Sporting Toulon Var. In 2016 Sporting Toulon Var merged with SC Toulon-Le Las and became Sporting Club Toulon once again.

Stark County, Illinois

Stark County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 5,994. Its county seat is Toulon.Stark County is part of the Peoria, IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Top 14

The Top 14 (French pronunciation: ​[tɔp katɔʀz]) is a professional rugby union club competition that is played in France created in 1892. The Top 14 is at the top of the national league system operated by the French National Rugby League, also known by its French initialism of LNR. There is promotion and relegation between the Top 14 and the next level down, the Rugby Pro D2. The fourteen best rugby teams in France participate in the competition, hence the name Top 14. The competition was previously known as the Top 16.

The first ever final took place in 1892, between two Paris-based sides, Stade Français and Racing Club de France, with the latter becoming the inaugural champions. The competition has been held on an annual basis since, except from 1915 to 1919—because of World War I—and from 1940 to 1942—because of World War II. Toulouse is the most successful club in the competition with 19 titles.

Toulon-sur-Allier

Toulon-sur-Allier is a commune in the Allier department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France.

Toulon-sur-Arroux

Toulon-sur-Arroux is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.

Toulon (horse)

Toulon (1988–1998), was a Thoroughbred racehorse and sire who was bred in Britain and trained in France. In a career which lasted from October 1990 until October 1992, he ran eleven times and won four races. He recorded his most important success when winning the Classic St. Leger Stakes as a three-year-old in 1990, the same year in which he won the Chester Vase and the Prix Maurice de Nieuil as well as finishing fourth in the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. In the following season he failed to win in four races in Europe and had limited success when racing in California in 1993. He was then retired to stud, where he proved to be a successful sire of National Hunt horses.

Toulon Tournament

The Toulon Tournament (officially the Festival International "Espoirs" - Tournoi Maurice Revello) is a football tournament which traditionally features invited national teams composed of under-21 players. The tournament is named after Maurice Revello, who started the tournament in 1967 and died in 2016. Although the first tournament in 1967 featured club teams, it has been limited to national teams since 1974. The tournament is held around the Region-du-Var, with the final usually being held in Toulon itself.

Toulon–Hyères Airport

Toulon–Hyères Airport (French: Aéroport de Toulon – Hyères, IATA: TLN, ICAO: LFTH) is an airport serving Toulon, a commune in the Var department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in France. The airport is located 3 kilometres (2 mi) southeast of Hyères, and 19 kilometres (12 mi) east of Toulon. It is also known as Hyères Le Palyvestre Airport. In 2010, the airport served 502,974 passengers.. The airport opened in 1966.

Turkey national under-21 football team

Turkey's national Under-21 football team (Turkish: Ümit Milli Futbol Takımı), also known as Turkey Under-21s or Turkey U-21s, is the Under-21 years of age team of the Turkey national football team.

University of Toulon

The University of Toulon (French: Université de Toulon or UTLN) is a French university located in Toulon, France and neighboring areas (La Garde, Saint-Raphaël, La Valette and Draguignan). It was founded in 1968 and is organized in 6 faculties, 2 autonomous institutes, an institute of business management and an engineering school.

Var's 1st constituency

The 1st constituency of the Var (French: Première circonscription du Var) is a French legislative constituency in the Var département. Like the other 576 French constituencies, it elects one MP using the two-round system, with a run-off if no candidate receives over 50% of the vote in the first round.

Var (department)

Var (French pronunciation: ​[vaʁ]) is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. It takes its name from the river Var, which flowed along its eastern boundary, until the boundary was moved in 1860. The Var department is bordered on the east by the department of Alpes-Maritimes, to the west by Bouches-du-Rhône, to the north of the river Verdon by the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and to the south by the Mediterranean Sea.

Toulon is the largest city and administrative capital of Var. Other important towns in Var include Fréjus, Saint-Raphaël, Draguignan, Brignoles, Hyères and La Seyne-sur-Mer. Var is known for the harbour of Toulon, the main port of the French Navy, for its seaside resorts, the most famous of which is Saint-Tropez, for some fine examples of Romanesque and medieval architecture, such as Le Thoronet Abbey and the Fréjus Cathedral, for its wines, particularly the wines of Bandol, as well as for its motorsport race track Circuit Paul Ricard, located in Le Castellet.

Vert-Toulon

Vert-Toulon is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France. There are 303 residents that live in the village, which are living in 133 homes. There are 159 houses in all, however, the remainder of which are either vacant or vacation housings.

Climate data for Toulon (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
22.5
(72.5)
25.9
(78.6)
28.1
(82.6)
31.6
(88.9)
34.9
(94.8)
40.1
(104.2)
37.0
(98.6)
34.7
(94.5)
29.3
(84.7)
24.2
(75.6)
21.9
(71.4)
40.1
(104.2)
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.5
(56.3)
15.8
(60.4)
18.0
(64.4)
22.0
(71.6)
26.1
(79.0)
29.4
(84.9)
29.3
(84.7)
25.7
(78.3)
21.3
(70.3)
16.5
(61.7)
13.6
(56.5)
20.4
(68.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
9.5
(49.1)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57.0)
17.7
(63.9)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.5
(63.5)
13.0
(55.4)
10.2
(50.4)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.6
(42.1)
7.5
(45.5)
9.7
(49.5)
13.3
(55.9)
16.6
(61.9)
19.3
(66.7)
19.3
(66.7)
16.5
(61.7)
13.6
(56.5)
9.4
(48.9)
6.8
(44.2)
12.0
(53.6)
Record low °C (°F) −7.2
(19.0)
−9
(16)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.1
(34.0)
4.6
(40.3)
9.0
(48.2)
10.9
(51.6)
10.8
(51.4)
7.3
(45.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−2.8
(27.0)
−9
(16)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.4
(2.93)
47.6
(1.87)
36.3
(1.43)
56.0
(2.20)
35.8
(1.41)
28.6
(1.13)
5.5
(0.22)
21.2
(0.83)
53.4
(2.10)
99.3
(3.91)
71.7
(2.82)
66.9
(2.63)
596.8
(23.50)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.03 5.04 4.27 6.03 4.37 2.83 1.03 1.83 4.33 6.23 6.90 6.83 55.74
Average snowy days 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.5
Average relative humidity (%) 59 58 55 55 56 53 50 50 56 59 60 60 55.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 155.8 171.5 227.8 244.8 286.9 328.6 367.3 334.3 261.2 191.6 149.7 134.6 2,854.1
Source #1: Meteo climat[16][17]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days 1961–1990)[18]
Communes of the Var department

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