Toul

Toul (French pronunciation: ​[tul]) is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

It is a sub-prefecture of the department.

Toul
Toul Cathedral
Coat of arms of Toul

Coat of arms
Location of Toul
Toul is located in France
Toul
Toul
Toul is located in Grand Est
Toul
Toul
Coordinates: 48°40′30″N 5°53′30″E / 48.675°N 5.8917°ECoordinates: 48°40′30″N 5°53′30″E / 48.675°N 5.8917°E
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentMeurthe-et-Moselle
ArrondissementToul
CantonToul
IntercommunalityToulois
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Nicole Feidt
Area
1
30.59 km2 (11.81 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01)[1]
16,100
 • Density530/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
54528 /54200
Elevation200–400 m (660–1,310 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Geography

Toul is located between Commercy and Nancy, and situated between the Moselle River and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin.

History

Toul was known to the Romans as Tullum Leucorum, and was the capital of the Gaulish tribe of the Leuci.

In 612, King Theudebert II of Austrasia was defeated by King Theuderic II of Burgundy near Toul. By the Treaty of Meerssen of 870, Toul became part of East Francia, the later Holy Roman Empire. During the High Middle Ages, it became a Free Imperial City. Toul was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It then was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics.

Toul was the seat of the bishops of Toul; the diocese was founded around 365 and existed until 1807.

During the siege of 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, the last time that Toul's defenses were used as a classic fortress, 64 guns opened fire at 6:00 a.m. on 23 September, and the fortress surrendered at 3:00 p.m. after 2,433 shells had been fired.

The city was also the primary base of the Air Service, United States Army, a predecessor organization of the United States Air Force during World War I. As such, it was a base for many of the 45 wartime squadrons of the First Army Air Service, including the squadrons of the 1st Pursuit Group, First Army Observation Group and others. The Americans referred to the area around Toul as the Toul Sector. Two large operations were launched from this area: the St. Mihiel Offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, both in September 1918. During World War II, the American 358th Fighter Group used Toul-Croix De Metz Airfield (A-90) during the fall of 1944 and spring of 1945, and Toul-Rosières Air Base (BA 136) was an American NATO air base during the 1950s and 1960s.

Imperial City of Toul

Reichsstadt Tull (de)
Ville libre de Toul (fr)
? – 1648
StatusFree Imperial City
(State of the Holy Roman Empire)
CapitalToul
GovernmentRepublic
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Gained Reichsfreiheit
Uncertain
1648
1648
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blason Toul.png Bishopric of Toul
Early modern France

Sights

The most striking features are the impressive stone ramparts. Those that exist today are the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Louis XIV's military engineer. In 1698 he designed a new enclosure and work began in 1699-1700. Several of Vauban's fortifications in France are listed as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site. Although the fortifications at Toul are not in that list they do follow the general defiladed fortification pattern for which Vauban is known.[2] There appears to have been a fortified town at this location since the earliest recorded history. Today, the ramparts encircle and define the old town. They are built of dressed white stone, and topped with grass, and in places are over five metres high.

There is a great deal of Roman archæology in the area and allegedly some in the town. The Roman fortified town of Grand is some 30 km away, with its great amphitheatre and temple to the Cult of Apollo.

Cathédrale de Toul-Façade
Facade

The old town's architecture is dominated by past glories in various states of decay, including a major Gothic cathedral, which is in a poor condition and is being slowly restored. Many of the houses were built as canonical residences in the Late Middle Ages and bear vestiges in the form of ornamental stonework.

There is no trace of the monastery, however its wine-cellars still exist, under the shops on the north side of the Rue Gambetta. (Access is possible via the Camera Shop).

Transportation

Toul is at the intersection of the Moselle River (which divides into the river proper and the Moselle Canalisée just outside the town) with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin, and was once, consequently, an important port. The barges known as péniches still navigate these watercourses commercially, typically carrying steel, though in the summer much more of the water traffic is for pleasure.

There is a main-line railway station at Toul, the last major station before the (once vast, and still very large) marshalling yards at Nancy. However, the Paris-Strasbourg TGV line, now under construction, will pass about 20 km north of Toul, approximately midway between Metz and Nancy. Its completion will likely reduce Toul's importance as a station.

Economy

The surrounding countryside is a wine-growing region, in which the AOC Côtes de Toul vintage is produced. Particularly notable is the Gris de Toul.

Administration

Toul is the seat and part of the canton of Toul, and of the arrondissement of Toul.

Twin towns

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. ^ Griffith, Paddy (2006). The Vauban fortifications of France (1. publ. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Osprey. ISBN 1841768758.

External links

A31 autoroute

The A31 autoroute, also known as l'Autoroute de Lorraine-Bourgogne, is a French motorway. The road runs from the Franco-Luxembourg border to Beaune where it joins the A6. The northern part of the autoroute is free, as far as the town of Toul, but is a toll road south of there. The autoroute serves the cities of Metz, Nancy, and Dijon and is heavily used in the holiday season as it is a convenient route for those travelling from Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Germany to the south of France.

Arrondissement of Toul

The arrondissement of Toul is an arrondissement of France in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in the Grand Est region. It has 111 communes.

Blénod-lès-Toul

Blénod-lès-Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in northeastern France.

Choloy-Ménillot

Choloy-Ménillot is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

It is located 28 kilometres west of Nancy and 5 kilometres west of Toul.

Near the village is the Royal Canadian Air Force Cemetery Choloy, which contains the remains of Canadian military personnel or their family members who died while serving with the Canadian No. 1 Air Division during the Cold War period of the 1950s and 1960s. It also contains graves of Canadian and Commonwealth aircrew who died in World War II, including: RCAF pilot Andy Watson, 21, from Hamilton, Ont., who stayed with his Lancaster while the rest of the crew; Australian Hurricane pilot Leslie Clisby, who died during the Battle of France in 1940, and was the first RAF ace of the war to be lost in action; and New Zealand Hurricane pilot Cobber Kain, first RAF ace of the war, who also died during the Battle of France.

Communes of Cambodia

Communes of Cambodia (Khmer: ឃុំ, khum) are the third-level administrative divisions in Cambodia. They are the subdivisions of the districts of Cambodia. Communes can consist of as few as 3 or as many as 30 villages (phum), depending on population.

In 1998 there were a total of 1,609 communes and 13,406 villages in Cambodia. However, according to the 2008 census there are now 1,621 communes in Cambodia and 14,073 villages. As of the 2017 commune elections, the number of communes had risen to 1,646.

Dommartin-lès-Toul

Dommartin-lès-Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr

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Nancy – Ochey Air Base

Nancy-Ochey Air Base (French: Base aérienne 133 Nancy-Ochey) (ICAO: LFSO) is a front-line French Air Force base located approximately 11 km west-southwest of Neuves-Maisons in the Département de Meurthe-et-Moselle, France.

Pierre Houin

Pierre Houin (born 15 April 1994) is a French rower. He won the gold medal in the lightweight sculls at the 2015 European Championships, 2015 World Championships and 2016 Olympics.Houin took up rowing aged 11 at l'Union Sportive de Toul following his brother, who won a national title in 2004. He has a tattoo on his chest saying "amat victoria curam" (victory loves carefulness).

Pope Leo IX

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Nancy

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Nancy and Toul (Latin: Dioecesis Nanceiensis et Tullensis; French: Diocèse de Nancy et de Toul) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. After a considerable political struggle between Louis XV, Louis XVI, and the Dukes of Lorraine, the diocese was erected by Pope Pius VI on 17 December 1777. The diocese is currently suffragan to the Archdiocese of Besançon.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Toul

The Diocese of Toul was a Roman Catholic diocese seated at Toul in present-day France. It existed from 365 until 1824. From 1048 until 1552 (de jure until 1648), it was also a state of the Holy Roman Empire.

Rosières-en-Haye

Rosières-en-Haye is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.

It hosted an important Air Base (the Toul-Rosières Air Base) that has been converted in 2012 in the largest photovoltaic power plant of Europe at that time.

Toul-Croix de Metz Airfield

Toul-Croix De Metz Airfield is a former military airfield which is located approximately 1 mile northeast of Toul (Département de Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine); 160 miles east of Paris.

The airfield had its probable origins as early as 1912, as an Aéronautique Militaire airfield, later being extensively used by the United States Army Air Service. It became a permanent airfield between the wars and during the Phony War with Nazi Germany (1939–1940) was the home of G.C. II/5 (The French Air Force descendant of the World War I Lafayette Escadrille) equipped with American Curtis Hawk 75A fighters. Seized in the Battle of France, it became a Luftwaffe airfield until being captured by the United States Third Army in September 1944. It then became a United States Army Air Forces combat airfield until the end of the war.

After the war, the airfield was redeveloped into a private industrial estate.

Toul-Rosières Solar Park

The Toul-Rosières Solar Park is a 115 megawatt (MW) solar farm located at the Toul-Rosières Air Base, in France. It is the largest solar power station using photovoltaic technology in France. The project is developed by EDF Énergies Nouvelles (EDF EN).

The solar park has about 1.4 million thin-film PV panels based on CdTe technology made by the US company First Solar. It covers area of 367 hectares (910 acres).

In 2012, the Luxembourg-based Marguerite Fund acquired 36 MW stake in the solar park. 24 MW stake was sold to the independent power producer Sonnedix.

Toul Cathedral

Toul Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toul) is a Roman Catholic church in Toul, Lorraine, France. It is a classic example of Gothic architecture.

The cathedral was formerly the seat of the Diocese of Toul. Established in 365, it was annexed in 1824 to the Diocese of Nancy, which in 1777 had been formed from the Diocese of Toul. Since 1824, the diocese has been known as the Diocese of Nancy-Toul, with one of the biggest cloisters in France.

Tuol Kouk Section

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Wulfing cache

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Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department

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