Tosa dialect

Tosa dialect (土佐弁 Tosa-ben) is spoken in the central and eastern regions of modern-day Kōchi Prefecture in Japan. This area was once known as the Tosa area and the name of the dialect still reflects this older name. The dialect itself developed from the linguistic influence of immigrants to the Tosa area from other parts of Japan and is largely a combination of the Kansai dialect and Chugoku dialects. In particular the accent system used is that of old Kansai-ben.

One of the distinctions between Tosa dialect and other Western Japanese dialects is the use of the verb suffixes -yuu and -chuu to show aspect. Grammatically, -yuu encapsulates the continuative and progressive aspects while -chuu separately encapsulates a repeated action or continuing state. In Standard Japanese both are represented by -te-iru. The respective past tense forms are -yotta and -chotta, while the negative forms are -yasen and -chasen.

Other distinctive features of Tosa dialect include its clause-ending particles, such as kendo for disjunction, ga as a question marker and ki to denote reason.

Many features of Tosa dialect are shared with neighbouring Hata dialect, spoken in the western part of Kōchi Prefecture.

Tosa dialect
Kochi dialect
Native toJapan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
hata1244  Hata-ben[1]

See also


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hata-ben". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
Classical Japanese language

The classical Japanese language (文語 bungo, "literary language"), also called "old writing" (古文 kobun), is the literary form of the Japanese language that was the standard until the early Shōwa period (1926–89). It is based on Early Middle Japanese, the language as spoken during the Heian period (794–1185), but exhibits some later influences. Its use started to decline during the late Meiji period (1868–1912) when novelists started writing their works in the spoken form. Eventually, the spoken style came into widespread use, including in major newspapers, but many official documents were still written in the old style. After the end of World War II because of the surrender of Japan, most documents switched to the spoken style, although the classical style continues to be used in traditional genres, such as haiku and waka. Old laws are also left in the classical style unless fully revised.


Dorome are a local specialty of Kōchi Prefecture in Japan. In the Tosa dialect, dorome refers to sardine fry 2–3 cm in length. They are eaten fresh, dipped in a sauce made from minced garlic greens, vinegar and miso. It is often served at bars and pubs along with alcohol.

Akaoka Town in Kōchi Prefecture has an annual Dorome Festival celebrating this local delicacy. The main event is a drinking competition between local men and women to see who can drink an oversized cup of sake they call a masu the fastest.

Igosso Kochi FC

Igosso Kōchi (アイゴッソ高知, Aigosso Kōchi) was a football (soccer) club based in Kōchi, the capital city of Kōchi Prefecture of Japan. They played in the Shikoku Adult League. The club was known as Nangoku Kōchi F.C. (南国高知FC). In December 2013 the club name changed to Igosso Kōchi. In January 2016 they came to an agreement with neighbouring club Kōchi U Torastar to form a club to represent Kōchi Prefecture in the J.League. In February 2016, the two clubs established Kōchi United SC.

Makoto (Street Fighter)

Makoto (まこと, Makoto) is a fictional character in the Street Fighter series. She made her first appearance in 1999's Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike. In the series, she is a young Japanese woman raised from the Tosa Province of Japan who utilizes her family's dojo teachings of Rindo-kan karate as her fighting style. Voiced by Makoto Tsumura in Japanese, Makoto speaks in Tosa dialect.

Shikoku dialect

The Shikoku dialects (四国方言, Shikoku hōgen) are a group of the Japanese dialects spoken on Shikoku.

The Shikoku dialects are:

Awa dialect (Tokushima Prefecture, formerly known as Awa Province)

Sanuki dialect (Kagawa Prefecture formerly known as Sanuki Province)

Iyo dialect (Ehime Prefecture, formerly known as Iyo Province)

Tosa dialect (Kōchi Prefecture, formerly known as Tosa Province)

Hata Dialect (Hata district, westernmost of Kochi)The Shikoku dialect has many similarities to Chūgoku dialect in grammar. Shikoku dialect uses ken for "because", and -yoru in progressive aspect and -toru or -choru in the perfect. Some people in Kōchi Prefecture use kin, kini, or ki instead of ken, -yō (Hata) or -yū (Tosa) instead of -yoru, and -chō (Hata) or -chū (Tosa) instead of -choru.

The largest difference between Shikoku dialect and Chūgoku dialect is in pitch accent. Except southwestern Ehime and western Kochi (yellow area on the right map), many dialects in Shikoku uses Kyoto-Osaka-type accent or its variations and are similar to Kansai dialect, but Chūgoku dialect uses a Tokyo-type accent.


Tosa can refer to:

Japanese terms:


In Kōchi Prefecture

Tosa, Kōchi (city)

Tosa, Kōchi (town), a town

Tosa District, Kōchi

Tosa province or Tosa Domain, now known as Kōchi Prefecture

Tosa dialect

Tosa school of painting, represented by:

Tosa Mitsunobu

Tosa Mitsuoki

Tosa-mi, or tataki, a cooking technique

A Japanese surname, e.g.:

Reiko Tosa, marathon runner

Tosa (dog)

Tosa-class battleship

Japanese battleship Tosa, the lead ship of the Tosa class

The Sharp Zaurus model SL-6000

Two mountains in Europe:

Cima Tosa, a peak in the Brenta Dolomites

Tosa d'Alp, or La Tosa, in the Pyrenees

The Tosa corner or hairpin of the San Marino Grand Prix race track

A clipped-form nickname for Wauwatosa, Wisconsin

A concept electric bus called TOSA

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