Toryne (Ancient Greek: Τορύνη),[1] also known as Torone (Τορώνη),[2] was a city of ancient Thesprotia in ancient Epirus.[3] The fleet of Augustus was moored off Toryne a short time before the Battle of Actium, and seems from the order of the names in Ptolemy to have stood in one of the bays between the mouth of the river Thyamis and Sybota.[4] It was located on the Ionian Sea coast, and its site is tentatively placed near present Parga.[5][6]

In Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra Toryne is personally taken over by Caesar shortly after his being in Rome, showing an almost mystical speed. "Toryne" meant "ladle" in Ancient Greek, and in the play, Cleopatra puns upon this. [7] In Victor Hugo's novel of the French Revolution, Les Miserables, a character says: "Cleopatra’s pun preceded the battle of Actium, and that had it not been for it, no one would have remembered the city of Toryne".[8]

Map of ancient Epirus and environs (English)
Epirus in antiquity


  1. ^ Plutarch, Ant. 62
  2. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 3.14.5.
  3. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 349
  4. ^  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Toryne". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  5. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 54, and directory notes accompanying.
  6. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  7. ^ Foss, Michael (2014). The Search for Cleopatra. Michael O'Mara Books. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  8. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Toryne". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

See also

Coordinates: 39°17′06″N 20°24′01″E / 39.284988°N 20.400195°E

30s BC

This article concerns the period 39 BC – 30 BC.

== Events ==

=== 39 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Marcus Antonius dispatched Publius Ventidius Bassus with 11 legions to the East and drives Quintus Labienus out of Asia Minor, he retreats into Syria, where he received Parthian reinforcements. Ventidius finally defeats him in the battle at the Taurus Mountains.

Publius Ventidius defeats Pharnastanes with his cataphracts at the Amanus Gates, and goes on to reclaim Syria, Phoenicia and Judea. Labienus flees to Cilicia, where he is captured and executed.

Sextus Pompey, styled himself "son of Neptune", controlled Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Peloponnesus is recognized by the Triumvirate in the Pact of Misenum. The pact helped to assure Rome's grain supply, the blockade on Italy is lifted.

=== 38 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

January 1 – Beginning of the Hispanic era, by orders of Octavian Caesar.

January 17 – Octavian marries Livia while she is still pregnant from a recently broken marriage. Octavian gained permission from the College of Pontiffs to wed her while she was still pregnant from another husband. Three months after the wedding she gave birth to a second son, Nero Claudius Drusus, while he and his elder brother, the four-year-old Tiberius, lived in Octavian's household.

Octavian appointed Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa governor of Transalpine Gaul, where he put down an uprising of the Aquitanians. He also fought successfully against the Germanic tribes, and becoming the next Roman general to cross the Rhine after Julius Caesar.

Mark Antony, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and Marcus Lepidus sign the Treaty of Tarentum (or 37 BC), extending the Second Triumvirate until 33 BC.

Parthian invasion into Roman Syria; Publius Ventidius Bassus defeats Pacorus, at the crossing of the Euphrates in the Battle of Cyrrhestica. Ventidius lays siege to Antiochus I Theos of Commagene in Samosata until relieved by Antony.

=== 37 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Consuls: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Titus Statilius Taurus.

Agrippa created the harbour "Portus Julius" in the today submersed town of Puteoli (the modern Pozzuoli, close to Naples). The port is used to train the warships for naval battles, a new fleet is built, with 20,000 oarsmen gathered by freeing slaves. He also incorporated on quinqueremes a technical innovation the harpax ("snatcher"); a combination ballista and grappling hook, based on the corvus.

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian engineered the "Second Pact of Tarentum" which renewed the Triumvirate for an additional five years. Mark Antony exchanged 120 ships, for service against Sextus Pompeius. Octavian Caesar gives 1,000 troops from the Praetorian Guard and 20,000 legionaries for the Parthian campaign in Syria.

Antony reorganized Asia Minor under strongmen loyal to him. He raised troops from his allies Amyntas and Archelaus, kings of Galatia and Cappadocia. The old kingdom of Pontus is restored, from Armenia to the River Halys under Polemon I.

Romans conquer Jerusalem from the Parthians. Herod the Great becomes king of Judea and Ananelus is installed as High Priest, both positions seized from Antigonus II Mattathias after a five-month siege. Thousands of Jews slaughtered by Roman troops supporting Herod.

====== Asia ======

The kingdom of Goguryeo in Korea is founded by the king Dongmyeong. (traditional date)

=== 36 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Consuls: Lucius Gellius Publicola and Marcus Cocceius Nerva.

Publius Canidius Crassus invaded Armenia and Iberia (Georgia); he forced Parnavaz II into an alliance against Zober, king of Albania.

June – Mark Antony launches a major offensive against the Parthians, he marches with 10 legions and 10,000 cavalry to Carana in Anatolia.

July – Octavian's fleet (102 warships) embarked from Puteoli and tried to invade Sicily, it is caught in a storm and forced to return at Vibo.

August – Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, an admiral of Octavian Caesar, secures the Lipari Islands and harasses the coast from Mylae to Tyndaris. Octavian transports his legions via Leucopetra to Tauromenium (modern Taormina).

Antony crosses the frontier into Media Atropatene and commences the siege of Phraaspa. He established a line of circumvallation and built siege engines.

September 3 – Battle of Naulochus: Agrippa defeats Sextus Pompeius, a son of Pompeius, in a naval engagement off Naulochus. Sextus escapes with 17 ships to Messana and then to Asia Minor.

Marcus Lepidus lands 12 legions from Africa and lays siege to Lilybaeum. He loses his army to Octavian when his men mutiny. Lepidus is kept in luxurious captivity in Rome until his death.

Agrippa receives the unprecedented honor of a Naval Crown (corona navalis), wrought of gold and decorated with the prows of ships.

October – Antony abandons the siege of Phraaspa (near Maragheh, Iran). He retreats, loses many men to disease and starvation in the subsequent retreat to Egypt, marries Cleopatra VII while still married to Octavia.

Judea: Aristobulus III, the last of the Hasmoneans, becomes High Priest in Jerusalem, replaces Ananelus, who only held the position for one year.

====== Asia ======

October–December – The Han Dynasty Chinese army under General Chen Tang and General Gan Yanshou defeat the Xiongnu leader Zhizhi Chanyu in the Battle of Zhizhi. This led to half a century of peace between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu until Wang Mang enraged them in the year AD 10, resuming hostilities between both sides.

=== 35 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Illyria becomes a Roman province. Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian conducts a rendezvous with the Roman fleet under Marcus Vipsanius, which is engaged in clearing the Dalmatian coast of piracy.

Pannonia is attacked by Octavian Caesar; who conquered and sacked the stronghold Siscia (Sisak) of the Segestani, which is taken after a 30-day siege. The country is however, definitely subdued until 9 BC.

Sextus Pompeius defeats with three legions Gaius Furnius, the governor of Asia, and seized Nicaea and Nicomedia (modern Izmit).

Marcus Titius arrived in Syria with a large army and marched to Asia Minor, Sextus is caught in Miletus and executed without trial.

====== India ======

Azes I, Indo-Scythian ruler, completed the domination of the Scythians in northern India.

=== 34 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian pacified Dalmatia and Pannonia forming the province of Illyricum, while Antony regained Armenia from Parthia. Octavian reduces the outposts defending the Liburnian town of Promona, sets up siege works and forces its surrender.

Mark Antony becomes Roman Consul for the second time. His partner is Lucius Scribonius Libo. The latter is replaced with Aemilius Lepidus Paullus during the year.

Antony advances into Armenia with an expeditionary force (16 legions) and marches to the capital Artaxata. He arrests king Artavasdes II and takes him to Alexandria.

Autumn – The Donations of Alexandria: Antony distributes the eastern kingdoms as a gift to the children of Cleopatra VII of Egypt; he declared Caesarion, Caesar's illegitimate son as co-ruler of Egypt and Cyprus. Alexander Helios received Armenia and Media, to Cleopatra Selene he gives the kingdoms of Cyrenaica and Libya. His youngest son Ptolemy Philadelphus received the Egyptian possessions in Phoenicia, Syria and Cilicia. Antony established Cleopatra as a Hellenistic monarch at Alexandria and gives her the title of "Queen of Kings".

=== 33 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian becomes consul for the second time. His partner is Lucius Volcatius Tullus. Octavian delivered in the Roman Senate a speech, de summa Republica, in which he subjected the Donations.

The second term of the Second Triumvirate expired.

Marcus Vipsanius is self demoted to Aedile, built the Aqua Julia, one of the aqueducts on which Rome's water supply depended and cleaned the Cloaca Maxima sewerage system.

Mark Antony annexed the kingdom of Media and arranged the marriage of his son Alexander Helios with princess Iotapa, the daughter of king Artavasdes I.

The Kinambroi surrendered to Octavian.

====== China ======

Crown Prince Ao ascends the throne as Emperor Cheng of Han of the Han Dynasty (until 7 BC).

=== 32 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius become consuls of Rome.

Spring – Final War of the Roman Republic: Mark Antony transfers his headquarters from Samos to Athens; he assembles a fleet of 500 combat vessels and 300 transport ships, crewed by 150,000 men.

Sparta under Caius Iulius Eurycles, whose father Antony had ordered to be executed for piracy, declares his support for Octavian. Lappa (modern Argyroupoli) in Attica and Kydonia in Crete revolt against Cleopatra.

July – The Roman Senate declares war upon Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. Octavian Caesar is proclaimed dux and the West: Gallic and Spanish provinces, Africa, Sicily and Sardinia swears an oath (sacramentum) of loyalty to him. In order to assure this oath, Octavian forces the high priest of the Vestal Virgins in Rome to hand over Antony's will, which give information over the Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms and plans to build a tomb in Alexandria for him and Cleopatra.

Winter – Antony distributes garrisons along the west coast of Greece, stations the fleet at Actium and establishes his headquarters at Patrae.

Zacynthus is held by Gaius Sosius, Methone (Messenia) by Bogud of the royal house of Mauretania, driven into exile by his brother Bocchus II.

=== 31 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the third time. His partner is Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, replacing Mark Antony

Octavian crosses the Strait of Otranto and lands with an army (15 legions) at Panormus in Dalmatia. He marches to Toryne in the south, and establishes a bridgehead at the Gulf of Ambracia.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa sails with 300 war galleys to the western Peloponnese, and occupies strategic positions around the Gulf of Corinth to cut off Antony's line of communication.

Antony, alerted by Octavian's presence, sets up camp on the southern shore, at the promontory of Actium. He dispatches a force to isolate the camp of Octavian in the valley of Louros.

Agrippa storms Leucas, giving Octavian an anchorage and a second depot for his land supplies. He seizes the garrison at Patrae, and takes Antony's headquarters.

Amyntas, king of Galatia, deserts with 2,000 cavalry to Octavian. One-third of Antony's oarsmen are lost to malnutrition, disease and desertion.

September 2 – Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium: Off the western coast of Greece, Octavian Caesar defeats naval forces under Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.

The Egyptian fleet (60 warships), including Cleopatra's treasure ship retreats to Taenarus, Antony transfers his flag to a smaller vessel and breaks through Octavian's line.

Winter – Octavian (32 years old) takes court at Samos. After his decisive victory at Actium he builds Nicopolis; the city is populated by Greeks from settlements further inland.

====== Roman Palestine ======

In the Judean Desert on an isolated rock plateau, fortress Masada is completed. Herod the Great builds an armory, barracks, storehouses and a palace.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

The Hellenistic period ends (or AD 14 by some scholars).

=== 30 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Republic ======

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian becomes consul for the fourth time. His partner is Marcus Licinius Crassus the Younger.

Spring – Octavian leads his army to the Dardanelles, ships them across to Asia Minor and marches into Syria where Herod the Great sends him vows of loyalty and thousands of his own troops in support.

Summer – Cornelius Gallus lands in Cyrene and occupies Paraetonium. Mark Antony storms the city walls and blockades the harbour, then retreats his army (7 legions) to Egypt and receives the news that Pelusium has opened its gates to Octavian without resistance.

July 31 – Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian's forces, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to his suicide.

August 1 – Octavian Caesar captures Alexandria. This marks the official annexation of Ancient Egypt to the Roman Republic.

Cleopatra evacuates her court and treasury to Berenice on the west coast of the Red Sea, but king Malchus of Nabatea attacks from the desert and burns the Egyptian ships.

August 10 or 12 – With the death of Cleopatra and the execution of her son Caesarion, the Ptolemaic dynasty, the last of Ancient Egypt, comes to an end. The first year of Octavian's reign in Egypt.

The children of Cleopatra are spared by Octavian and taken back in triumph; Octavia Minor raises Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene and Ptolemy Philadelphus in her household in Rome.

Octavian claims Cleopatra's treasure in the mausoleum at the Taposiris Magna (Temple of Isis); he pays the salaries of his veteran legionaries and gives them land in Italy.

====== Asia ======

Possible date of composition of the Tirukkuṛaḷ, attributed to Thiruvalluvar.

First possible date for the invention of the wheelbarrow in history; as the 5th century Book of the Later Han states that the wife of the once poor and youthful imperial censor Bao Xuan of the Chinese Han dynasty helped him push a lu che back to his village during their feeble wedding ceremony, around this year.

31 BC

Year 31 BC was either a common year starting on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday or a leap year starting on Tuesday or Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Antonius and Octavianus (or, less frequently, year 723 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 31 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

List of Shakespearean characters (L–Z)

This article is an index of characters appearing in the plays of William Shakespeare whose names begin with the letters L to Z. Characters with names beginning with the letters A to K may be found here.

NOTE: Characters who exist outside Shakespeare are marked "(hist)" where they are historical, and "(myth)" where they are mythical. Where that annotation is a link (e.g. (hist)), it is a link to the page for the historical or mythical figure. The annotation "(fict)" is only used in entries for the English history plays, and indicates a character who is fictional.

Contents: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Sources | Links

List of cities in ancient Epirus

This is a list of cities in ancient Epirus. These were Greek poleis, komes or fortresses except for Nicopolis, which was founded by Octavian. Classical Epirus was divided into three regions: Chaonia, Molossia, Thesprotia, each named after the dominant tribe that lived there. A number of ancient settlements in these regions remain unidentified.


Parga (Greek: Πάργα [ˈpaɾɣa]) is a town and municipality located in the northwestern part of the regional unit of Preveza in Epirus, northwestern Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Kanallaki. Parga lies on the Ionian coast between the cities of Preveza and Igoumenitsa. It is a resort town known for its natural environment.


The Thesprotians (Greek: Θεσπρωτοί, Thesprōtoí) were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom of Thesprotis, Epirus, akin to the Molossians. The poet Homer frequently mentions Thesprotia which had friendly relations with Ithaca and Doulichi. On their northeast frontier they had the Chaonians and to the north the kingdom of the Molossians. The Thesprotians originally controlled the Dodona oracle, the oldest in Greece. Later, they were part of the Epirus until they were annexed into the Roman Empire.


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