Topographic isolation

The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, and can even be calculated for submarine summits.

Topographic isolation and prominence
Topographic isolation and prominence

Isolation table

The following sortable table lists Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits.

The 40 most topographically isolated summits on Earth

Rank Summit Landmass Country Elevation Prominence Isolation Nearest higher neighbour
1 Mount Everest Eurasia    Nepal
 China
8848 m
29,029 ft
8848 m
29,029 ft
n/a n/a
2 Aconcagua South America  Argentina (Mendoza) 6962 m
22,841 ft
6962 m
22,841 ft
16,518 km
10,264 mi
Tirich Mir
3 Denali North America  United States (Alaska) 6194 m
20,320 ft
6149 m
20,174 ft
7,450 km
4,629 mi
Yanamax
4 Kilimanjaro Africa  Tanzania 5895 m
19,341 ft
5885 m
19,308 ft
5,510 km
3,424 mi
Tirich Mir
5 Puncak Jaya New Guinea  Indonesia 4884 m
16,024 ft
4884 m
16,024 ft
5,262 km
3,269 mi
Jade Dragon Snow Mountain
6 Vinson Massif Antarctica  Antarctica 4892 m
16,050 ft
4892 m
16,050 ft
4,861 km
3,020 mi
Risco Plateado
7 Mont Orohena Tahiti  French Polynesia 2241 m
7,352 ft
2241 m
7,352 ft
4,128 km
2,565 mi
Mount Ngauruhoe
8 Mauna Kea Hawai'i  United States (Hawai'i) 4205 m
13,796 ft
4205 m
13,796 ft
3,947 km
2,453 mi
Mount Shasta
9 Gunnbjørn Fjeld Greenland  Greenland 3694 m
12,119 ft
3694 m
12,119 ft
3,254 km
2,022 mi
The Eiger
10 Aoraki/Mount Cook South Island  New Zealand 3754 m
12,316 ft
3754 m
12,316 ft
3,140 km
1,951 mi
Mount Adam
11 Thabana Ntlenyana Africa  Lesotho 3482 m
11,424 ft
2390 m
7,841 ft
3,003 km
1,866 mi
Mount Meru (Tanzania)
12 Maunga Terevaka Rapa Nui  Chile 506 m
1,660 ft
506 m
1,660 ft
2,836 km
1,762 mi
Cerro de Los Inocentes
13 Mont Blanc Eurasia  France
 Italy
4810 m
15,781 ft
4697 m
15,410 ft
2,812 km
1,747 mi
ru:Kukurtlu Dome
14 Piton des Neiges Réunion  France 3071 m
10,075 ft
3071 m
10,075 ft
2,767 km
1,720 mi
Giant's Castle
15 Klyuchevskaya Sopka Eurasia  Russia (Kamchatka) 4750 m
15,584 ft
4649 m
15,253 ft
2,748 km
1,708 mi
Mount Foraker
16 Pico de Orizaba North America  Mexico 5636 m
18,491 ft
4922 m
16,148 ft
2,690 km
1,672 mi
Pico Cristóbal Colón
17 Queen Mary's Peak Tristan da Cunha  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 2060 m
6,759 ft
2060 m
6,759 ft
2,665 km
1,656 mi
Mount Paget
18 Mount Whitney North America  United States (California) 4421 m
14,505 ft
3072 m
10,080 ft
2,649 km
1,646 mi
Nevado de Toluca
19 Gunung Kinabalu Borneo  Malaysia 4095 m
13,435 ft
4095 m
13,435 ft
2,538 km
1,577 mi
Ngga Pilimsit
20 Mount Elbrus Eurasia  Russia 5642 m
18,510 ft
4741 m
15,554 ft
2,473 km
1,536 mi
Pik Agasis
21 Pico da Bandeira South America  Brazil 2897 m
9,505 ft
2647 m
8,684 ft
2,393 km
1,487 mi
Cerro Naranjos
22 Mont Cameroun Africa  Cameroon 4040 m
13,255 ft
3901 m
12,799 ft
2,338 km
1,453 mi
Mikeno
23 Mount Paget South Georgia  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 2915 m
9,564 ft
2915 m
9,564 ft
2,269 km
1,410 mi
Welch Mountains
24 Mauga Silisili Savai'i  Samoa 1858 m
6,096 ft
1858 m
6,096 ft
2,245 km
1,395 mi
Tabwemasana
25 Nevado Huascarán South America  Peru 6746 m
22,133 ft
2776 m
9,108 ft
2,196 km
1,365 mi
Tres Cruces
26 Anamudi Eurasia  India 2695 m
8,842 ft
2480 m
8,136 ft
2,115 km
1,314 mi
Machapuchare
27 Jebel Toubkal Africa  Morocco 4167 m
13,671 ft
3755 m
12,320 ft
2,078 km
1,291 mi
Picco Luigi Amedeo
28 Mount Fuji Honshu  Japan 3776 m
12,388 ft
3776 m
12,388 ft
2,077 km
1,291 mi
Ch'ih-k'e Shan
29 Emi Koussi Africa  Chad 3445 m
11,302 ft
2934 m
9,626 ft
2,001 km
1,243 mi
Mount Cameroon
30 Mawson Peak Heard Island  Heard Island and McDonald Islands 2745 m
9,006 ft
2745 m
9,006 ft
1,922 km
1,194 mi
Mount McMaster
31 Mount Mitchell North America  United States (North Carolina) 2037 m
6,684 ft
1857 m
6,091 ft
1,913 km
1,189 mi
Lone Butte
32 Gunung Kerinci Sumatra  Indonesia 3805 m
12,484 ft
3805 m
12,484 ft
1,905 km
1,184 mi
Gunung Kinabalu
33 Agrihan High Point Agrihan  Northern Mariana Islands 965 m
3,166 ft
965 m
3,166 ft
1,902 km
1,182 mi
Mount Amagi
34 Mount Kosciuszko Australia  Australia 2228 m
7,310 ft
2228 m
7,310 ft
1,895 km
1,177 mi
Tutoko
35 Olavtoppen Bouvet Island  Bouvet Island 780 m
2,559 ft
780 m
2,559 ft
1,856 km
1,153 mi
Edinburgh Peak
36 Jarvis High Point Jarvis Island  United States Minor Outlying Islands 7 m
23 ft
7 m
23 ft
1,852 km
1,151 mi
Lata Mountain
37 Mascarin Peak Marion Island  South Africa 1230 m
4,035 ft
1230 m
4,035 ft
1,848 km
1,148 mi
Cockscomb
38 Green Mountain Ascension Island  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 859 m
2,818 ft
859 m
2,818 ft
1,842 km
1,145 mi
Mont Richard-Molard
39 Gora Narodnaya Eurasia  Russia 1895 m
6,217 ft
1772 m
5,814 ft
1,836 km
1,141 mi
Kattotjåkkå
40 Yushan Taiwan  Taiwan 3952 m
12,966 ft
3952 m
12,966 ft
1,815 km
1,128 mi
Peak 4030, China

Examples

  • The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel (2,988 m) in Austria's Stubai Alps. The distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km; the Zugspitze is thus the highest peak for a radius of 25.8 km around. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km.
  • Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference.
  • After Mount Everest, Aconcagua, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains. There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush.
  • Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps. The geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu (4,912 m), which rises near Mount Elbrus (5,633 m), is the reference peak for Mont Blanc.
  • Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, and also in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m (9,596 ft) it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.[1]. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is also the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe.[2]

Gallery

Everest kalapatthar crop

1. Mount Everest is the highest mountain peak on Earth.

Monte Aconcagua

2. Aconcagua is the highest peak in both the Southern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere.

Denali Mt McKinley

3. Denali is the highest peak of North America.

Glacier at summit of Mt Kilimanjaro 001

4. Kilimanjaro is the highest peak of Africa.

Puncakjaya

5. Puncak Jaya on New Guinea is the highest peak on any ocean island.

Vinson-Massif

6. The Vinson Massif is the highest peak of Antarctica.

Mont.Orohena

7. Mont Orohena on Tahiti is the highest peak of French Polynesia.

KeckObservatory

8. Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaiʻi is the tallest mountain on Earth as measured from base to summit.

GunnbjornFromAboveABC

9. Gunnbjørn Fjeld on Greenland is the highest peak of the Arctic.

Mt Cook LC0247

10. Aoraki, or Mount Cook, on the South Island is the highest peak in New Zealand.

Monte Bianco dal Dome du Gouter

11. Mont Blanc is the highest peak of Western Europe.

Piton des neiges

12. Piton des Neiges is the apex of Réunion.

Ključevskaja za východu slunce

13. Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the highest peak of Kamchatka.

Pico Orizaba1

14. Pico de Orizaba is the highest peak of Mexico.

Mount Whitney 2003-03-25

15. Mount Whitney is the highest peak of the contiguous United States.

Summit of Mount Kinabalu

16. Gunung Kinabalu is the apex of Borneo.

Elbrus North 195

17. Mount Elbrus is the highest peak of Europe.

Pico da bandeira

18. Pico da Bandeira is the third highest peak of Brazil.

Mt. Cameroon old lava flows 2

19. Mount Cameroon is the highest peak of Cameroon.

Mount Paget.jpeg

20. Mount Paget on South Georgia is the highest peak in the South Atlantic Ocean.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences". Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015.

External links

Anamudi

Anamudi (Malayalam pronunciation: ​[aːnɐmʊɖi], ആനമുടി) is a mountain located in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the highest peak in the Western Ghats and South India, at an elevation of 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) and a topographic prominence of 2,479 metres (8,133 ft). It lies on the border of Devikulam Taluk, Idukki district and Kothamangalam Taluk, Ernakulam district. The name Anamudi literally translates to "elephant's forehead," a reference to the resemblance of the mountain to an elephant's head.The first recorded ascent of Anamudi was by General Douglas Hamilton of the Madras Army on 4 May 1862, but it is likely that there had been earlier ascents by local people.

Anamudi peak is one of only three ultra prominent peaks in South India. It is also the peak with the greatest topographic isolation within India.It is the highest point in India south of Himalayas. Thus it is known as "Everest of South India".

Blackjack Mountains, Arizona

The Blackjack Mountains are a mountain range located in Gila County, Arizona. They have a maximum elevation of 6,942 ft (2,116 m) at Apache Peaks and a prominence of 2,580 ft (790 m). The peak has a topographic isolation of 17.88 miles (29 km), with the nearest higher peak lying to the south in the Pinal Mountains. The Blackjack mountains are located within the Tonto National Forest and are north of Globe, Arizona. The high point of the range, Apache Peaks, is ranked 36th in prominence for Arizona's most prominent peaks.

Bloße Zelle

The Bloße Zelle is, at 480 m, the highest elevation on the Hils and in the Alfeld Uplands (Ith-Hils Upland). It lies on the boundary of the districts of Holzminden and Hildesheim, a good 4 kilometres northeast of Eschershausen.

With a topographic isolation of 18 kilometres and a prominence of about 235 metres the Hils and the Blöße are among the loftiest ridges and summits, respectively, in the Lower Saxon Hills.

Cerro de las Mitras

The Cerro de las Mitras (Spanish for “Miter's Hill”), is a mountain and a protected area in the Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Santa Catarina and García municipalities; state of Nuevo León, México. The mountain is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the summit reaches 2,058 MASL, and has 1,303 meters of prominence, the topographic isolation is about 14.48 km. The ridge is about 21 km long stretching east to west. The name comes from the resemblace of the peaks in the ridge with a bishop's mitre.The Cerro de las Mitras is a popular hiking destination despite its difficulty. Several quarries dedicated to the extraction of limestone to produce concrete operate in the mountain despite its protected area designation.

Hochgolling

The Hochgolling (2,862 m) is a mountain of the Eastern Alps, located on the border of Steiermark and Salzburg, Austria, near the ski resort of Schladming. It is the highest peak of the Lower Tauern range.

A hiking rather than a climbing peak, the mountain is relatively low by alpine standards, but still towers over all of its neighbours. Its northern face is a 1,200 m high wall, while its other slopes are more gentle. A long ridge slopes south from the summit, dividing the Göriach Valley from the Lessach Valley.

Due to Hochgolling's topographic isolation the views from its summit are panoramic, stretching from the glaciated peaks of the vast High Tauern in the west to the lower Gurktal Alps to the east, and including the Julian Alps, Kamnik Alps and Karawanks to the south.

List of Ultras of Central America

The following sortable table comprises the 23 ultra-prominent summits of Central America. Each of these peaks has at least 1500 meters (4921 feet) of topographic prominence. This article defines Central America as the seven nations of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panamá.

The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation.

List of Ultras of Greenland

The following sortable table comprises the 38 ultra-prominent summits of the nation of Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat). Each of these peaks has at least 1500 meters (4921 feet) of topographic prominence.The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation.

List of Ultras of the Caribbean

The following sortable table comprises the seven ultra-prominent summits on the islands of the Caribbean Sea. Each of these peaks has at least 1500 meters (4921 feet) of topographic prominence. Five of these peaks rise on the island of Hispaniola and one each on Jamaica and Cuba.

Topographic elevation is the vertical distance above the reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface. The topographic prominence of a summit is the elevation difference between that summit and the highest or key col to a higher summit. The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation.

This article defines a significant summit as a summit with at least 100 meters (328.1 feet) of topographic prominence, and a major summit as a summit with at least 500 meters (1640 feet) of topographic prominence. An ultra-prominent summit is a summit with at least 1500 meters (4921 feet) of topographic prominence.

If an elevation or prominence is calculated as a range of values, the arithmetic mean is shown.

List of extreme summits of Central America

This article comprises four sortable tables of mountain summits of Central America that are the higher than any other point north or south of their latitude or east or west their longitude in the region.

The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation.

List of mountain peaks of Arizona

This article comprises three sortable tables of major mountain peaks of the U.S. State of Arizona.

The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table below ranks the 20 highest major summits of Arizona by elevation.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings. The second table below ranks the 20 most prominent summits of Arizona.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. The third table below ranks the 20 most isolated major summits of Arizona.

List of mountain peaks of Hawaii

This article comprises three sortable tables of the 13 major mountain peaks of the Hawaiian Islands and the U.S. State of Hawaiʻi. Each of these 13 major summits has at least 500 meters (1640 feet) of topographic prominence.

The summit of a mountain or hill may be measured in three principal ways:

The topographic elevation of a summit measures the height of the summit above a geodetic sea level. The first table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic elevation.

The topographic prominence of a summit is a measure of how high the summit rises above its surroundings. The second table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic prominence.

The topographic isolation (or radius of dominance) of a summit measures how far the summit lies from its nearest point of equal elevation. The third table below ranks the 13 major summits of Hawaiʻi by topographic isolation.

Mescal Mountains

The Mescal Mountains (in Western Apache language: Nadah Choh Dasán - "Big Mescal Sitting There") are a series of connected mountain ridges in southern Gila County, Arizona. Their highest point is El Capitan Mountain, which has an elevation of 6,568 ft ( 2,002 m) and a prominence of 1,828 ft ( 557 m ). The highest point has a topographic isolation of 5.98 miles (10 km), with the nearest point of equal or greater elevation being to the north west in the Pinal Mountains (in Apache: ). The mountain ridges are visible in the east from Arizona State Route 77 between Globe and Winkelman.The range is approximately 10 miles west of San Carlos Lake, which lies in the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation; the ridges themselves also mostly fall within the boundary of the reservation, with the exception of the western section and the high point. As such, hiking the ridge may require special permission from San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, although no trails exist on the mountains themselves or leading to them. The ridge's relative proximity to the more visually dominant Pinal Mountains, (which are also visible from the same section of the AZ 77 highway) make it an often-overlooked feature. The range is one of many to occur in the Arizona transition zone.

Pico Naiguatá

Pico Naiguatá is the summit of a mountain in South America near Caracas, Venezuela, part of the Venezuelan Coastal Range, of which it is the highest peak. It is situated on the border of the Venezuelan states Miranda and Vargas. With a summit elevation of 2,765 metres (9,072 ft) and a topographic isolation of 2,455 metres (8,054 ft) above sea level, it is the highest point in both of these states and the fourth highest of the Caribbean after Pico Simón Bolivar and Pico Cristóbal Colón of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range in Colombia and Pico Duarte in the Dominican Republic.

Pico da Bandeira

Pico da Bandeira, or Bandeira Peak (Portuguese for Flag Peak, pronounced [ˈpiku dɐ bɐ̃ˈdejɾɐ]) is the third highest mountain in Brazil, situated on the border of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. It is the highest point in both states. It was historically considered the highest mountain in Brazil until 1965, when Pico da Neblina and Pico 31 de Março, next to the Venezuelan border, were explored, measured, and both found to be higher. The peak is said to have been so named after Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, ordered a flag to be flown on top of it.

Pico da Bandeira is also remarkable for being the Brazilian mountain with the greatest topographic isolation: 2,344 km (1,457 miles). This means that at less than that distance, there is no other point on the surface of the Earth at equal or greater elevation. In the Americas, only Aconcagua, Denali, Pico de Orizaba and Mount Whitney are more topographically isolated than Pico da Bandeira, and in the entire world, there are only 20 more isolated mountains.It is one of the major attractions of Caparaó National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional do Caparaó), accessible from the nearby town of Alto Caparaó. That town and the entrance to the park lie in Minas Gerais, but the summit of Pico da Bandeira lies in Espírito Santo.

The summit is accessible to hikers of most age groups, with only very limited fitness requirements. The track from the park entrance to the summit track [8 km (5.0 mi)] can be driven by most vehicles, and the summit track itself runs for approximately 9 km (5.6 mi), with a further 1,000 m (3,280 ft) climb.

Pinal Peak

Pinal Peak, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is the highest point in the Pinal Mountains, with an elevation of 7,848 feet (2,392 m). It is the highest point of land located in between the Salt and Gila rivers in Arizona before they merge, making it visible from miles away on a clear day. The peak ranks as the 11th most prominent in Arizona and has a topographic isolation of 35 miles (56 km), with the nearest point of land of equal or greater elevation being to the southeast in the Santa Teresa Mountains. Pinal Peak is slightly east of the approximate center of the Pinal Mountains. Despite being the most prominent peak in Gila County, it is not the highest point in the county. That title goes to Myrtle Point with an elevation between 7,963 and 8,003 feet (2,427–2,439 m), which lies atop the edge of the Mogollon Rim which forms the county line with Coconino County. The nearest population is in the Globe/Miami, Arizona area, just a few miles north of the range and peak.

Ruten (Hemne)

Ruten is a mountain in Trøndelag county, Norway. The 1,040-meter (3,410 ft) tall mountain is located on the border of the municipalities of Hemne and Rindal. The mountain stands about 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) southeast of the village of Vinjeøra in Hemne. This is the highest point in the municipality of Hemne. The mountain has a topographic prominence of 742 meters (2,434 ft) and a topographic isolation of 23.91 kilometers (14.86 mi).

Sevenmile Mountains

The Sevenmile Mountains are a mountain range in central Gila County in the U.S. state of Arizona. The range has a maximum elevation of 6,629 ft (2,021 m) and a prominence of 989 ft (301 m). The unnamed peak has a topographic isolation of 13.35 miles (21 km). The majority of the southern end of the range is located on the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. While the high point and the northern tip of the range is in the Tonto National Forest and is open to free range hiking (hiking without any trails). The mountains' high point is located just 3 miles east from a section of the U.S. Route 60 in Arizona in between Globe, Arizona and Show Low, Arizona. The southern end of the range (which encompasses most of the entire range) that is inside the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation should only be hiked with permission from the Reservation. The range is one of many that occur in the Arizona transition zone.

Sierra del Fraile

The Sierra del Fraile (Spanish for "Friar's range"); also known as "Cerro del Fraile", is a mountain and a protected area located on the García, Abasolo, Hidalgo, General Escobedo, El Carmen y Mina municipalities; in the state of Nuevo León, México. The mountain is part of Sierra Madre Oriental, its summit elevation is 2,392 MASL, and its prominence is 1,592 meters (Line parent: Cerro de la Viga), it is an ultraprominent peak, its topographic isolation is about 23.5 km (Nearest highest neighbor: Sierra de San Urbano).

Soltindan

Soltindan is the highest mountain on the island of Ringvassøya which is located in Karlsøy Municipality in Troms county, Norway. It is located just north of the border with Tromsø Municipality, about 14 km (8.7 mi) southwest of the village of Hansnes. The 1,051-metre (3,448 ft) mountain has a topographic prominence of 1,051 metres (3,448 ft) and a topographic isolation of 16 kilometres (9.9 mi). Just to the north of the peak is the small glacial lake, Brevatnet.

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