Topf and Sons

J.A. Topf and Sons (German: J.A. Topf & Söhne) was an engineering company, founded in 1878 in Erfurt, Germany by Johannes Andreas Topf (1816–1891). Originally, it made heating systems and brewing and malting equipment. Later, the company diversified into silos, chimneys, incinerators for burning municipal waste, and crematoria. During World War I it made weapons shells, limbers (carts for carrying artillery) and other military vehicles. In World War II it also made weapons shells and aircraft parts for the Luftwaffe.[1]

It is now infamous as the largest of 12 companies that designed and built crematoria ovens for concentration and extermination camps during the Holocaust, planned and carried out by the Nazi regime from 1935 to 1945. The company not only made crematoria ovens, it also made ventilation systems for the gas chambers at Auschwitz II–Birkenau.[2]

Topf & Söhne's main competitor in making concentration camp ovens was the Berlin firm de:H. Kori GmbH, founded in 1887.[1]

At its peak Topf & Söhne was the largest company of its type in the world. It sold its products globally; as far afield as Russia, Asia, North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand. In the 1940s, less than 2% of its total business came from its concentration camp contracts.[3]

In addition to Auschwitz and Auschwitz II–Birkenau, Topf & Söhne also built crematoria ovens for Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen-Gusen, Mogilev ghetto, and the Gross-Rosen concentration camp. Out of the five ovens at Dachau concentration camp, four were made by H. Kori and one by Topf & Söhne. In all, Topf built 25 crematoria ovens which had a total of 76 incineration chambers (called 'muffles') for concentration camps. H. Kori built 42 single chamber ovens at various camps.[4]

Epithets such as 'the engineers of the final solution' and 'the technicians of mass murder' have been applied to Töpf & Söhne, because, to a greater extent than its competitors, it used its considerable expertise to assist the Nazi regime to make mass execution into an efficient, industrial process. Without its complicity, the SS site managers of Auschwitz would not have had the ability on their own to plan and build the crematoria, which were an essential part of the mass murder process.[2]

From 1941, Topf & Söhne used forced labour in its factory, as did many other German firms in the Nazi period. At least 620 foreigners were forced to work for the company. These people received wages, but they were paid 25–30% less than the German employees.[4] After the war, the company was confiscated and nationalised by the Soviet administration. The company's history was not fully researched until after German reunification in 1990.[5]

The site of the former factory is now a holocaust memorial site and a museum. It is the only memorial of its type relating to a civilian company's collaboration in the Holocaust.[3][6]

J.A. Topf & Söhne
IndustryMachine industry
  • nationalised (1946)
  • privatised (1993)
  • bankrupt (1996)
  • Topfwerke Erfurt VEB (1946)
  • NAGEMA VEB "Nikos Belojannis" (1952)
  • VEB EMS (1957)
FounderJohannes Andreas Topf (1816–1891)
  • Heating, brewing & incineration equipment, silos, chimneys.
  • Munitions, Luftwaffe aircraft parts.
  • Nazi concentration camp crematoria and gas chamber ventilation.
Revenue7 million RM (1941)
Number of employees
1,150 (1939)
WebsiteTopf & Söhne Memorial Site

Early history

An 1891 advert for a Topf & Söhne patented brewery heating system, listing companies who had bought some of the 600 units already sold.

When Johannes Topf founded the firm on 1 July 1878 he was already 62 years old. He owned his own brewery and had also worked in the fuel technology industry. He established the new company to sell a system for heating brewing coppers which he had invented and patented.[4]

He had four sons: Gustav (1853–1893); Albert (1857–1896); Max Julius Ernst, known as Julius (1859–1914) and Wilhelm Louis, known as Ludwig, (1863–1914). A fifth son died in childhood. He founded the firm against the advice of his sons, although the younger two sons, Julius and Ludwig, joined him. By 1885 J.A. Topf & Söhne was producing heating, brewing and malting systems and working collaboratively with other firms to sell products all over Germany and beyond. The two older brothers also joined the company in the late 1880s, but they both died by the mid-1890s; Gustav, aged 40 and Albert, aged 39. Johannes Topf died in 1891, and in 1904 Julius Topf stepped down to become a sleeping partner due to ill health, leaving Ludwig managing it on his own.[4]

The company began manufacturing incinerators for burning municipal waste and, from 1914, crematoria for local authorities, due to the increasing acceptability of cremation as a means of body disposal. By 1914, it was one of the largest firms of its type in the world, employing over 500 staff and exporting to 50 countries.[3][7]

Ludwig Topf was wealthy and successful, but committed suicide in February 1914, aged 51, due to the stress of running the business. His brother Julius died of blood poisoning later the same year. With the second generation of the Topf brothers all dead, Else Topf (1882–1940), Ludwig's widow, became the owner. The firm's senior managers already had a lot independence and operations continued without any major upheaval. It prospered during World War I due to contracts for weapons shells and military vehicles.[4]

Third generation

Ludwig and Else Topf had three children: Johanna, known as Hanna, (1902–?); Ludwig (1903–1945), and Ernst Wolfgang (1904–1979). When their father died, the two sons, aged 10 and 9, were sent away to a boarding school. The brothers later became the owners and managers of the firm during the Nazi period.[1]

After leaving school, Ludwig studied machine engineering at the Technische Hochschule Hannover, now the University of Hannover. After graduating from Hannover, he spent a further five years at Leipzig, Berlin and Rostock universities, studying a wide range of subjects, including economics, law, and sociology. Ernst also studied at Hannover, but took business studies. He returned Erfurt to do two six-month internships, one in a bank and another in a malting company. He then joined Ludwig in Leipzig, studying at the Handelshochschule, now the Leipzig Graduate School of Management, graduating in 1929.[4]

In 1929, Ernst was employed at Topf & Söhne, and in 1931 Ludwig also joined the firm. In the early 1930s, due to the economic crisis of the Weimar Republic, the company lost business to such an extent that by Spring 1933 it was in danger of bankruptcy. Because of this, at the end of 1932, the brothers were made redundant. They were banned from the company site, due to a rift with their mother, who would not speak to them, and because of political problems. Elsa Topf was also estranged from her daughter, whose marriage she disapproved of.[4]

This was happening against a backdrop of rising Nazism. The Nazi party first gained seats in the German parliament in 1928. In the 1932 elections they became the second largest party; Hitler became chancellor in March 1933.[8]

The influence of Nazi staff within the firm also grew. The Topf brothers wanted to return and manage the firm, but at a company works council meeting on 30 January 1933, they were labelled "Judengenossen" (friends of Jews) and not suitable to lead the company. Else Topf supported this stance. The brothers, like their father, did have many good relationships with Jewish friends, neighbours and business contacts. However, for appearances sake, they were persuaded to join the Nazi party, in April 1933. The ambitious engineer Kurt Prüfer joined at the same time. They were then permitted to return and were appointed joint managers, with Ludwig as the technical manager, and Ernst as the business manager.[4]

Concentration camp crematoria

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-68687-0004, Gedenkstätte Buchenwald, Krematorium, Verbrennungsöfen
The crematorium at Buchenwald, showing the two, triple-muffle ovens, 1959
ASchreiben Prüfer an Topf EinäscherungsofenAuschwitz
Internal memo 8 Sep 1942, regarding an order for Auschwitz ovens. See citation for a translation.[9]

Kurt Prüfer, the head of Topf & Söhne's small crematoria department, was the main oven designer. He developed a two-muffle transportable oven in September 1939, which was delivered to Dachau concentration camp in November 1939. A 'muffle' is the incineration chamber where the body is put. In order to improve the speed at which bodies burned, the muffles were internally joined, resulting in the ashes of individual bodies being mixed. This was illegal, but all subsequent multi-muffle ovens built for the concentrations camps were designed in the same way. A further four, single-muffle ovens were built at Dachau by Topf & Söhne's competitor H. Kori.[1]

Initially, Buchenwald camp, which opened in July 1937, sent bodies to the local Weimar city crematorium. From April 1938 to March 1939, 90% of all cremations at Weimar came from Buchenwald. The unusually high numbers looked suspicious, so the SS wanted their own on-site facilities, although it was illegal for crematoria to be outside of local authority control.[10] A Topf transportable, double-muffle oven was delivered in winter 1939/40, and two, three-muffle stationary ovens were ordered. As with all Topf & Söhne stationary ovens, the parts were made in the factory in Erfurt, and the firm's staff went on site to build them, often spending months at the camps. One staff member, Martin Holich, spent almost 12 months in 1942–43 installing and repairing equipment at Auschwitz-Birkenau.[1]

The muffles of the concentration camp ovens were smaller than those for civil crematoria, because no space for a coffin was needed, which saved both space and fuel. Prüfer later designed ovens with muffles large enough for multiple bodies to be burned simultaneously. Later, in Topf & Söhne's instructions on using the ovens, they advised adding bodies to the muffles at 20 minute intervals as the previous body burned down. Bodies were often pushed in four, five or even six at once.[11]

In addition to making ovens for Buchenwald, Auschwitz and Dachau, Topf & Söhne also supplied a transportable double-muffle oven and a stationary double-muffle oven for Mauthausen-Gusen, a triple-muffle oven at Groß-Rosen and a four-muffle oven at Mogilev ghetto. It is also thought that they supplied transportable ovens to at least one of the Nazi euthanasia institutions, in which a total of over 70,000 physically and mentally disabled people were murdered in 1940 and 1941.[4]

Auschwitz I and II

From August 1940 to May 1942, Topf & Söhne built three double-muffle ovens at Auschwitz Camp I. In October 1941, the SS placed an order for five three-muffle ovens for the new Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp (Auschwitz II), where it was initially estimated that over 1000 people per day would die. The SS were holding 125,000 Soviet prisoners of war in Auschwitz II, and it was calculated that with the use of the new ovens, they could all be killed and disposed of in about four months.[10]

The first transport of Jews arrived at Auschwitz II on 15 February 1942. To deal with the increased demand for body disposal, Topf & Söhne installed a further two 8-muffle ovens in September 1942.[9] An additional five triple-muffle ovens were installed at Auschwitz II by mid-March 1943.[12][6]

It was calculated that all four of Auschwitz II's crematoria had the capacity to cremate a total of 8000 bodies per day, although the actual numbers were usually lower. From 1942 until spring 1944 about 1000 people per day were transported to Auschwitz, although not all of them were killed. In the summer of 1944, almost 440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to the camp and during this period up to 9,000 bodies per day, and sometimes as many as 10,000 per day, were cremated in the ovens, as well as in outdoor burning pits. Crematorium IV was out of use from May 1943, after only two months of service, because it developed cracks. From March 1943 until November 1944, nearly 1 million people were murdered and disposed of at the camp.[1]

Observations, innovations and patent applications

In December 1939, a patent application was made for Prüfer's double-muffle transportable cremation unit, although it wasn't approved, possibly because of the legal problem of ash mixing.[1]

On 26 October 1942, the engineer Fritz Sander, Prüfer's manager, applied for a patent for what he called a "continuous operation corpse incineration oven for mass use". This was a four-storey oven designed for Auschwitz II. The idea was that the bodies would be loaded by a type of conveyor belt and the heat of the bodies already in the oven would ignite them, thus, after an initial heating period, it would remain in continuous operation without the need for any further fuel – the heat of burning corpses would keep the apparatus running. Prüfer and Sander, who disliked each other and competed with one another, disagreed about how well the device would work in practice. It was never built.[13][14]

Gas chamber exhaust fans

KL Auschwitz I Crematorium I gaschamber
Auschwitz gas chamber, 2003

In early 1943, the Topf & Söhne fitter Heinrich Messing installed exhaust fans in the Auschwitz II crematoria and also in the gas chambers.[15] Initially, the process of gassing prisoners and then letting fresh air into the gas chambers lasted several hours, but after the exhaust fans were installed this was reduced to about an hour, thus reducing the turn around time.[12]

On site observations

Topf & Söhne engineers and other staff visited the concentration camps many times, not only to install and repair equipment, but also to observe processes to help make them more efficient. Before crematoria II, III and IV at Auschwitz II were officially put into operation, on 5 March 1943, in the presence of high-ranking SS officers from Berlin, camp authorities and Topf & Söhne staff, a test of crematorium II was held to measure the speed at which bodies could be disposed of. Those present observed the bodies being put in the ovens and burned. They used stop-watches to time the process and took notes.[12][14]

On 13 March 1943 the engineer Karl Schultze and Heinrich Messing witnessed a test sample of 1,492 Jews from Kraków Ghetto being killed in the gas chambers at Auschwitz II and then cremated. Karl Schultze later gave a full report about this to Ludwig Topf.[1][14] Messing, who was a communist, not a Nazi, spent from January to June 1943 working at the camp. In an interview given in 2005, his daughter Hildegard who was 16 in 1943, said she would never forget him saying on his return, "If what I have seen comes out, we will all be wading up to our knees in blood".[16]

Use of forced labour

From 1941 until the end of the war at least 620 people were engaged as forced labour (German:Zwangsarbeiter). Most of them came from France, Italy, the Soviet Union and Belgium. There were also small numbers of Poles, Dutch, Croatians and Czechs. The majority of the French, Soviets and Italians were prisoners of war. Barracks that could accommodate 52 Zwangsarbeiter were built on the Topf & Söhne factory site. The Zwangsarbeiter had to work 56 hours per week in comparison with the 42 hours worked by German employees, although they were paid 25–30% less. In addition, deductions were made for food and accommodation, and other costs. Abuse is known to have occurred; the camp manager, Wilhelm Buchröder, a Nazi, was dismissed in 1944 by Ernst Topf for beating Zwangsarbeiter, although it is reported that his successor also mistreated them.[1]

End World War II and afterwards

U.S. Army soldiers make the citizens of Weimar view Buchenwald concentration camp.

Auschwitz and Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camps were liberated by the Red Army on the 26 and 27 January 1945.[17] To try to conceal what had been going on, the SS blew up the crematoria and gas chambers before the Soviet troops arrived. However, in an administration office at Birkenau camp, the Soviets found documentation relating to Topf & Söhne, detailing "the construction of the technology of mass death, complete with the precise costs of crematoria and calculations of the number of corpses each could incinerate in a day".[18][19]

In April 1945, Erfurt and Buchenwald were liberated by the US Army. It had already been agreed in the Yalta Conference, held in February 1945, that the area would come under Soviet control after the Germans had been defeated. It was handed over on 3 July 1945. In 1949 the Soviet Occupied Zone became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).[20]

At Buchenwald, liberated on 11 April, the crematoria ovens remained intact. The Americans forced the citizens of nearby Weimar to walk through the camp to witness what had been going on. They also filmed the camp, including the crematoria, with the camera pointedly focusing on the J.A. Topf & Söhne logo and manufacturer's name plate attached to the ovens. The film and still photographs of the camp were shown around the world. Film from Buchenwald and other concentration camps was used as evidence at the Nuremberg Trials.[14][21]

The US Army's Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) started to investigate Topf & Söhne within a few days of the Buchenwald liberation, and took company documents.[20]

Ludwig Topf

On 27 April 1945, Ludwig Topf organised a meeting with company's works council at which it was agreed that the line to be taken with investigators was that workers and management knew that the ovens were delivered to concentration camps, but that they did not know the details of what was going on. Topf committed suicide on 31 May 1945, by cyanide poisoning. A senior engineer, Kurt Prüfer, was arrested the day before, and Topf was warned that he was about to be arrested himself.[5] He left a suicide note claiming that he and his brother were innocent and that he was the 'opposite' of a Nazi, but he thought he would be used as a scapegoat anyway. He was unmarried and had no children. He had a reputation as a womaniser and was living with his secretary, 19 years his junior, at the time of his death.[14]

Ernst Wolfgang Topf

At the end of June 1945, Ernst Topf travelled to an insurance company in Stuttgart, then in the French occupied zone, to collect a 300,000 Reichmark life insurance payout that was due following his brother Ludwig's death. Erfurt was handed over to the Soviet administration on 3 July, and Soviets would not give Topf permission to return. From October 1945 he went to live in the town of Gudensberg, in the district Fritzlar-Homberg, in the American zone, where his niece, the daughter of his sister Hanna, was working for the American military administration.[1]

In 1951 Topf founded a new company, in Wiesbaden, to make crematoria and refuse incinerators. He used the old family firm's name, J.A. Topf & Söhne, hoping to capitalise on its good reputation prior to World War II. However, his business never did well. After the truth about the concentration camps was exposed, Topf & Söhne's involvement was quite widely known. Topf moved the company to Mainz in 1954. There was further bad publicity when the book Macht ohne Moral ('Power without Morals') was published in 1957.[22] The book contains photographs of piles of bodies and crematoria at various concentration camps. It also includes transcripts of two documents from the original Topf company, making its collaboration with the SS clear. The company went bankrupt in May 1963. Topf's wife Erika, aged 52, died in April 1963. They had two children.[5][4]

Investigations into Ernst Topf

A poster from the North Rhine-Westphalia state elections 1947, with the slogan "For a quick and just denazification vote CDU"

Topf, now living in the American occupied zone, was arrested by the American CIC on 25 March 1946. He was held in custody and interrogated for two or three weeks and then let go. He maintained that the ovens they had delivered to the concentration camps were standard equipment, of the same type that they made for city crematoria for civilian use and claimed that if they had refused to work with the SS they would have been severely punished.[1]

Later, in December 1946, because of his membership of the Nazi party, the Fritzlar-Homberg Spruchkammer, a German civilian denazification court, started investigating Ernst Topf. About 8.5 million Germans had been members of the party and the Spruchkammer were set up to investigate them. Topf was required to provide two sworn witness statements regarding his non-Nazi political leanings – two employees of Topf & Söhne provided these and vouched for him. The Spruchkammer had difficulties in getting evidence, partly due to a lack of co-operation between American officials and officials in Soviet occupied Erfurt.[1]

In March 1948 the Spruchkammer in Wiesbaden, where Topf had moved to, took over his files. This closed at the end of 1949 and Topf's file was handed over to the Wiesbaden state prosecutors office, where investigations into him as an accessory to murder for his role in the Holocaust began. However, important witness statements were lost and Soviet authorities in Erfurt were no longer interested in assisting with the case. The investigation was suspended in 1951.[5][1]

In 1959 the state prosecutors in Frankfurt reopened investigations into Topf. Two further legal proceedings followed in 1962 but neither resulted in a formal charge. Topf died in 1979. He never made any apology for Topf & Söhne's involvement with the Nazi regime.[4]


Kurt Prüfer (1891–1952), a senior engineer and the main designer of the ovens, was initially arrested by the American CIC on 30 May 1945 and interrogated. He was released three weeks later and returned to work.[4]

On 1 March 1946 the firm was given a large contract for malting and brewing equipment by the reparations department of the Soviet military, however a few days later, four engineers of the firm were arrested. These were Kurt Prüfer, Fritz Sander (1876–1946), Karl Schultze (1900-died after 1955) and Gustav Braun (1889–1958). Braun, also a qualified engineer, was the factory's production manager.[4][23]

Fritz Sander, Prüfer's manager, who was 70, died of heart failure on 26 March 1946 in Berlin, three weeks after his arrest and after four interrogation sessions.[1][15] He is quoted as saying during the interrogations "I was a German engineer and key member of the Topf works and I saw it as my duty to apply my specialist knowledge in this way in order to help Germany win the war, just as an aircraft construction engineer builds airplanes in wartime, which are also connected with the destruction of human beings."[23]

Over the next two years, the other three men remained in custody and were interrogated in Germany and in Moscow, where, on 17 April 1948, they were sentenced to 25 years in a Russian labour camp. That was the highest sentence that could be given without having a full trial. Prüfer died in October 1952 of a stroke while in prison. In 1955 Schultze and Braun were released early.[3]

Nationalisation of company

As Ernst Topf was now in western Germany and his brother Ludwig was dead, Topf & Söhne was declared an "ownerless company" and in 1946 it was taken over by the state and renamed "Topfwerke Erfurt VEB". It was made a subsidiary of VVB NAGEMA, a group of East German state-owned engineering companies. In 1952 it was renamed "NAGEMA VEB Maschinenfabrik "Nikos Belojannis", after a Greek communist who had been an inmate in a German concentration camp in Greece. The company's crematoria department was closed in 1955 and in 1957 it stopped production of all forms of combustion machinery and was renamed VEB Erfurter Mälzerei- und Speicherbau (VEB EMS), (Erfurt Oasthouse and Granary Construction). It was privatised in 1993 after German reunification and it went bankrupt in 1996.[5]

After German reunification

Property claim

After German reunification in 1990, over 2.5 million claims were made for restitution of property that had been confiscated during the Nazi period, or by the East German government.[24] Some descendants of the Topf family made a claim for the former family villa and factory in Erfurt which had been made state property. It was refused in 1992, because property confiscated during the Soviet occupation period could not be claimed. However, the family made a further claim for financial compensation. In 1994 Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger, the German Justice Minister, also refused that claim because, she said, the factory was used to manufacture the "murder machinery of the extermination camp."[25]

Hartmut Topf (born 1934), a grandson of Julius Topf, publicly criticised the attempt to claim back the property, saying that they shouldn't profit from Holocaust crimes. He was later involved with researching the history of the firm and in setting up the memorial site and museum.[26][27]

Site occupation

Raeumung Topf und Soehne-09
Police during eviction, 16 April 2009

Squatters moved onto part of the site of the former factory on 12 April 2001 and set up an independent culture centre known as Das Besetzte Haus (the occupied house). They ran social and cultural projects, and organised events and guided tours which drew attention to the history of Topf & Söhne during the Nazi period, which had been largely forgotten. The occupation was one of the most well known actions of left-radicals of that period in Germany. A book about the occupation was published in 2012, titled Topf & Söhne – Besetzung auf einem Täterort (Topf & Söhne – Occupation of a crime scene).[28] About 30 remaining squatters were evicted by the police on 16 April 2009.[5]

Museum and memorial site

Außenansicht der Gedenkstätte "Topf und Söhne" in Erfurt
Memorial site Topf & Söhne, Erfurt

After falling into decay for many years, the former Topf & Söhne site was given historic monument protection status by the state of Thuringia in 2003.[26]

The factory workshops no longer remain, but a museum and education centre opened in the former administration building on 27 January 2011, Holocaust Memorial Day.[29] The Topf brothers and the design engineers worked from this building. The site of Buchenwald concentration camp can still be seen in the distance from the window where engineer Kurt Prüfer's desk stood. The state of Thuringia contributed over one million euros to establishing the museum.[30] The museum documents the history of Topf & Söhne and its collaboration with the Nazi regime using material from the company's archives, oral history and items found at the Buchenwald concentration camp site. It also has changing exhibitions, film viewings, talks, etc. on Holocaust related topics.[5]

The motto "Stets gern für Sie beschäftigt, ..." ("Always happy to be at your service, ...") is painted in large letters on the outside of the restored building. This bland valediction (complimentary close) was often used at the end of letters Topf & Söhne sent to the SS, in which details of orders for concentration camp ovens were discussed.[30]


The Big Denial documentary

In 2007 the Dutch broadcaster VPRO made a television documentary about Topf & Söhne called The Big Denial as part of the In Europe series. It includes archival footage from the 1930s and 40s, and footage of the ruins of the Topf family villa in 2007 and the Erfurt factory site and administration building before it was restored as a memorial site. It is available on YouTube, non-professionally cut into three parts. It is in Dutch and German, with English subtitles.

Das Besetzte Haus

External video
Besetztes Haus Erfurt in Aktion: Widerstand gegen Räumung UNIcut, March 2009 (4:02 min) (in German)
Die Räumung des Besetzten Hauses in Erfurt am 16.04.2009 (6.24 min) (no commentary)

On 16 April 2009 about 30 remaining squatters who occupied part of the Topf & Söhne site from 2001 to 2009 were evicted by the police. The occupation was known throughout Germany simply as "Das Besetzte Haus" (the occupied house).[28] The University of Erfurt's television channel, UNIcut,[31] made a short report about the occupation shortly before the eviction.

Further reading

  • Knigge, Volkhard, et al. (2005) Engineers of the "final solution": Topf & Sons, builders of the Auschwitz ovens. Book accompanying an exhibition. [Weimar]: Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora. (English translation of the original German book). ISBN 3-935598-10-6
  • Schule, Annegret (ed.) (2017) Industrie und Holocaust: Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz = Industry and the Holocaust: Topf & Sons – Builders of the Auschwitz ovens. Berlin: Hentrich und Hentrich Verlag. ISBN 978-395-565223-4 (Book to accompany an international travelling exhibition.) (In English and German).

In German

  • Assmann, Aleida; Hidderman, Frank (eds) (2002) Firma Topf & Söhne – Hersteller der Öfen für Auschwitz: Ein Fabrikgelände als Erinnerungsort? Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag. ISBN 3-593-37035-2
  • Meyerbeer, Karl; Späth, Pascal (eds) (2012) Topf & Söhne – Besetzung auf einem Täterort. Heidelberg: Graswurzel-Verlag. ISBN 978-3939045205
  • Pressac, Jean Claude (1994) Die Krematorien von Auschwitz. Die Technik des Massenmordes. Munich: Piper Verlag. ISBN 978-3492121934
  • Saupe, Bianca (2010) Die Firma Topf und Söhne. Munich: GRIN Publishing. ISBN 978-3640694952
  • Schüle, Annegret (2017) J.A Topf & Söhne: ein Erfurter Familieunternehmen und der Holocaust. Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen. ISBN 978-3-943588-99-6
  • Schüle, Annegret; Sowade, Tobias (2015) Willy Wiemokli: Buchhalter bei J. A. Topf & Söhne – zwischen Verfolgung und Mitwisserschaft. Berlin: Hentrich & Hentrich. ISBN 978-3-955651008

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Schüle, Annegret (2017) J.A Topf & Söhne: ein Erfurter Familieunternehmen und der Holocaust. Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen
  2. ^ a b Stutz, Rüdiger (2002) "Saubere Ingenieursarbeit": Moderne Technik für Himmlers SS-drei Thüringer Unternehmen im Bannkreis von Vernichtung und Vertreibung (1940–1945) in Firma Topf & Söhne – Hersteller der Öfen für Auschwitz Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag.
  3. ^ a b c d Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora (2005)The engineers of the "final solution". Topf & Sons – Builders of the Auschswitz Ovens . Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Schule, Annegret (ed.) (2017) Industrie und Holocaust: Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz. Berlin: Hentrich und Hentrich Verlag.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Topf and Sons memorial site. The site and its history Archived 2014-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 July 2017
  6. ^ a b Analyzing and documenting the history of the J. A. Topf & Söhne company. Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora Memorials Foundation. Retrieved 12 July 2017
  7. ^ Montag, Andreas (27 January 2016) Erfurter Firma Topf & Söhne Techniker der Todesfabrik in Mitteldeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  8. ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005) The Weimar Republic. London/New York: Routledge
  9. ^ a b 80,000 Cremation Capacity Per Month Not Sufficient for Auschwitz, (16 December 2004). Transcription and translation of document. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  10. ^ a b Zimmerman, John C. (1999)Body Disposal at Auschwitz: The End of Holocaust Denial. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  11. ^ Auschwitz-Birkenau Crematoria: Civilian Ovens Comparison (2016). Emory Center for Digital Scholarship. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (2007)Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The Gas Chambers & Crematoria Mass Extermination. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  13. ^ Topf & Sons as Partners of the SS. The Patent Application on Topf & Sons Remembrance Site website Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e The Big Denial. In Europa television series. VPRO, 2007
  15. ^ a b Kellerhoff, Sven (24.01.2011) Die Ingenieure des Todes kamen aus Erfurt in Welt N24. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  16. ^ Hillebrand, Peter (13 June 2005) Auf Montage in Auschwitz in taz.archiv. Retrieve 7 August 2017.
  17. ^ Steinbacher, Sybille (2005). Auschwitz: A History. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck
  18. ^ The Holocaust Chronicle (2009)The technology of death.Retrieved 22 July 2017
  19. ^ Lachendro, Jacek (2017) 27 January 1945. Evacuation and Liberation of the Auschwitz camp. Research Centre, Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum. Retrieved 13 July 2017
  20. ^ a b Erinnerungsort Topf & Söhne, 12 July 2017
  21. ^ Concentration camps shown as film evidence during the Nuremberg Trials. United States Holocause Memorial Museum. Retrieved 12 July 2017
  22. ^ Schnable, Raimund (1957) Macht ohne Moral. Eine Dokumentation über die SS. Frankfurt-am-Main: Röderberg-Verlag
  23. ^ a b The Technology of Murder on Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  24. ^ Blacksell, M. (1996) Settlement of property claims in former East Germany. New York: Geographical Review, vol.2, 1986 (Apr 1996) p. 198-215.
  25. ^ German Minister Says Heirs of Crematorium Maker Won’t Be Compensated in JTA, 6 December 1994. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  26. ^ a b Assmann, Aleida; Hidderman, Frank (eds)(2002) Firma Topf & Söhne – Hersteller der Öfen für Auschwitz: Ein Fabrikgelände als Erinnerungsort? Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag.
  27. ^ Gromes, Dörthe (20 January 2011) Ingenieure des Mordens in Die Zeit. Retrieved 7 July 2017
  28. ^ a b Meyerbeer, Karl; Späth, Pascal (eds) (2012) Topf & Söhne – Besetzung auf einem Täterort. Heidelberg: Graswurzel-Verlag
  29. ^ Holocaust Memorial Day: memorial at site of Auschwitz oven builders, in The Telgraph, 27 January 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  30. ^ a b Regional events in Germany keep memories of the Holocaust alive. Deutsche Welle, 27 January 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  31. ^ Bähr, Christiane (30 July 2009) Hochschulfernsehen "UNIcut" feiert Jubiläum. Universität Erfurt. Retrieved 28 July 2017

External links


Erfurt ( AIR-furt, AIR-foort; German pronunciation: [ˈɛʁfʊʁt] (listen)) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.

Erfurt lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin, within the wide valley of the Gera river. It is located 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Leipzig, 300 km (186 mi) south-west of Berlin, 400 km (249 mi) north of Munich and 250 km (155 mi) north-east of Frankfurt. Together with a string of neighbouring cities Gotha, Weimar, Jena and others, Erfurt forms the central metropolitan corridor of Thuringia called Thüringer Städtekette (German "Thuringian city chain") with over 500,000 inhabitants.

Erfurt's old town is one of the best preserved medieval city centres in Germany. Tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke (Merchants' bridge), the Old Synagogue, the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral and Severikirche (St Severus's Church) and Petersberg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe. The city's economy is based on agriculture, horticulture and microelectronics. Its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for Germany and central Europe. Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany (after Leipzig) as well as the public television children's channel KiKa.

The city is situated on the Via Regia, a medieval trade and pilgrims' road network. Modern day Erfurt is also a hub for ICE high speed trains and other German and European transport networks. Erfurt was first mentioned in 742, as Saint Boniface founded the diocese. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically, it quickly became the economic centre of the region and it was a member of the Hanseatic League. It was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire, and later became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

The University of Erfurt was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established within the geographic area which constitutes modern-day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the main modern campus on what was a teachers' training college. Martin Luther (1483–1546) was its most famous student, studying there from 1501 before entering St Augustine's Monastery in 1505. Other noted Erfurters include the medieval philosopher and mystic Meister Eckhart (c. 1260–1328), the Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel (1653–1706) and the sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920).

Extermination camp

Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically murder millions of Jews. Others were murdered at the death camps as well, including Poles, Soviet POWs, and Roma. The victims of death camps were primarily killed by gassing, either in permanent installations constructed for this specific purpose, or by means of gas vans. Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.The idea of mass extermination with the use of stationary facilities to which the victims were taken by train, was the result of earlier Nazi experimentation with chemically manufactured poison gas during the secretive Aktion T4 euthanasia programme against hospital patients with mental and physical disabilities. The technology was adapted, expanded, and applied in wartime to unsuspecting victims of many ethnic and national groups; the Jews were the primary target, accounting for over 90 percent of the extermination camp death toll. The genocide of the Jewish people of Europe was the Third Reich's "Final Solution to the Jewish question". It is now collectively known as the Holocaust, during which 11 million others were also murdered. Extermination camps were also set up by the fascist Ustaše regime of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Germany, which carried out genocide between 1941 and 1945 against Serbs, Jews, Roma and its Croat and Bosniak Muslim political opponents.

Index of World War II articles (T)



T-28 Super Heavy Tank


T-34 variants



T-37 tank

T-38 tank


T-43 tank


T-50 tank

T-6 Texan variants

T-6 Texan

T-60 tank


T & G Building, Brisbane

T. E. Burridge

T. H. Jordan

T. V. Soong

Tōgō Heihachirō


Tōyō Miyatake


T11 torpedo

T13 Beano Grenade

T14 Heavy Tank

T17 Deerhound

T17E1 Staghound

T18 Boarhound

T20 Medium Tank

T27 Armored Car

T29 heavy tank

T30 Heavy Tank

T34 Calliope

T55E1 Motor Carriage

T7 Combat Car

T92 Howitzer Motor Carriage


Tacoma-class frigate

Tactical air force

Tadamichi Kuribayashi

Tadashi Sumiyoshi

Tadeusz Żenczykowski

Tadeusz Żychiewicz

Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski

Tadeusz Borowski

Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz

Tadeusz Gajcy

Tadeusz Kurcyusz

Tadeusz Kutrzeba

Tadeusz Pankiewicz

Tadeusz Pełczyński

Tadeusz Piskor

Tadeusz Różewicz

Tadeusz Radwan

Tadeusz Tański

Tadeusz Zawadzki


Taha Hussein

Tahitian Women on the Beach

Taifun (rocket)

Taihoku Air Strike

Taillevent (restaurant)

Taiwan Army of Japan

Taixing Campaign

Taiyō-class escort carrier

Taiyuan Arsenal

Taiyuan Campaign

Taj al-Din al-Hasani

Taj El-Din Hilaly

Takakazu Kinashi

Takao-class cruiser

Takarabe Takeshi

Takashi Hishikari

Takashi Nagai

Takashi Sakai

Takashima Tomonosuke

Takatsugu Jojima

Takayo Fischer

Take Ionescu

Takeichi Nishi

Takeji Nara

Takeo Hirose

Takeo Itō

Takeo Kurita

Takeo Takagi

Takeo Yoshikawa

Takeshi Mori

Takeshi Sakurada

Takijirō Ōnishi

Takuji Yamashita

Takuma Nishimura

Takushiro Hattori

Talal El Karkouri

Talbot Rothwell

Tales from the Secret Annex

Tali-Ihantala 1944

Talladega Municipal Airport

Tallboy bomb

Tallinn Offensive Operation

Talvisota (film)

Tam Galbraith

Tamar (novel)

Tamara Moskvina

Tambor-class submarine

Tameichi Hara


Tamiki Hara

Tamon Yamaguchi

Tamotsu Oishi

Tampa International Airport

Tan Chong Tee

Tan Kah Kee

Tan Yuling

Tanaka Giichi

Tanaquil LeClercq

Tang Enbo

Tang Frères

Tang Juwu

Tang Shengzhi

Tang Shizun

Tanggu Truce

Tani Tateki

Tank Destroyer Tacam R-2

Tank Destruction Badge

Tanks in World War II

Tanya Baramzina

Tanya Savicheva

Tao Shiyue

Taoliao Army

Target for Today

Target for Tonight

Target Invisible

Taro Yamamoto (artist)

Taro Yashima

Taroa Airfield

Tartan Pimpernel

Tarzan's Desert Mystery

Tarzan Triumphs

Tashkent-class destroyer

Task Force (film)

Task Force 31

Task Force 88 (Operation Dragoon)

Task Force Baum

Tasker Watkins


Tatar Legions

Tateo Kato

Tatsinskaya Raid

Tatsuji Suga

Tatsumi Naofumi

Tatsuo Kawai (diplomat)

Tatyana Zhuk

Taunton Stop Line

Taurus missile

Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas

Tawfik Abu al-Huda

Taylor W. O'Hearn

Tayyar Yalaz

TBD Devastator

TBF Avenger

TBM Avenger

Technological escalation during World War II

Technology during World War II

Ted Briggs

Ted Junker

Ted Knight

Ted Kroll

Ted Stevens

Ted T. Tanouye

Ted Tinling

Ted W. Lawson

Ted Williams

Teddy Shapou

Teddy Sheean

Tedford H. Cann

Tehran Conference

Tehran Declaration

Teijirō Toyoda

Teishin Shudan

Tej Bahadur Sapru

Telecommunications Research Establishment

Telesforo Trinidad


Telford Taylor

Teller mine

Tellermine 35

Tellermine 42

Tellermine 43

Telly Savalas

Tempelhof International Airport

Temple (Paris Métro)

Temple (Paris)

Temporal Cold War

Ten-gō sakusen

Ten Rules for Air Fighting

Tench-class submarine

Tender Comrade

Tenema N'Diaye

Tenko (TV series)

Tennis Court Oath


Tenryū-class cruiser

Tenth Air Force

Tenth Army (Italy)

Tenth Army (Japan)

Tenth Army (United Kingdom)

Tenth United States Army

TERA rifle

Terauchi Masatake

Terence Airey

Terence John O'Brien

Terence Lewin, Baron Lewin

Terence O'Neill

Terence Sanders

Terence Young (director)

Ternes (Paris Métro)

Terpsichori Chryssoulaki-Vlachou

Terrace Mutiny

Terrel Bell

Terrell Municipal Airport

Territorial changes of Germany after World War II

Territorial changes of Germany

Territorial changes of Poland after World War II

Terry Copp

Terry McDermott (speed skating)

Terry Nugent

Terry Sanford

Terry Southern

Terry Tremaine

Teruhisa Komatsu

Teruo Akiyama

Terza Posizione

Test Stand VII

Tetrarch tank

Tetsuzō Iwamoto

Tetsuzan Nagata

Teun Beijnen

Texas World War II Army Airfields

Thach Weave

Thad Jones

Thaddeus McClain

Thaddeus Parker

Thadée Cisowski

Thai Thief

Thaman Gurung

Thames Television

Thamshavnbanen sabotage

That Justice Be Done

The 11th Day: Crete 1941

The 25th Hour (1967 film)

The 957th Day

The Abandonment of the Jews

The Accompanist

The Adventures of Smilin' Jack (serial)

The American Church in Paris

The Americanization of Emily

The Architecture of Doom

The Aristocats

The Arm Behind the Army

The Army Nurse

The Artist's Studio

The Aryan Brotherhood in Oz

The Ascent

The Assault

The Astronomer (Vermeer)

The Atom Strikes!

The Attic: The Hiding of Anne Frank

The Autobiography of a 'Jeep'

The Battle of Britain

The Battle of China

The Battle of Hamburg (book)

The Battle of London

The Battle of Midway

The Battle of Neretva

The Battle of Normandy leaders

The Battle of Russia

The Battle of San Pietro

The Battle of San Romano

The Battle of the River Plate (film)

The Beginning or the End

The Bells Go Down

The Berkut

The Berlin Raids (book)

The Best Years of Our Lives

The betrayal of Anne Frank

The Bielski Brothers

The Big Red One

The Big Time (novel)

The Birth of a Nation

The Birth of Venus (Bouguereau)

The Birth of Venus (Cabanel)

The Black Book

The Black Hole of Auschwitz

The Black March

The Blitz

The Blockhouse

The Blue Lagoon (restaurant)

The Bold and the Brave

The Bombing of The Vatican

The Book Thief

The Bourne Identity (2002 film)

The Boys from Brazil (novel)

The Bridge at Narni

The Bridge at Remagen

The Bridge on the River Kwai

The Bridge over the River Kwai

The Brylcreem Boys

The Bugle Sounds

The Bunker (1981 film)

The Bunker (2001 film)

The Bunker

The Burmese Harp

The Burmese Harp (1956 film)

The Burmese Harp (1985 film)

The Burning Mountain

The Burning of the Books

The Cage (Sender book)

The Caine Mutiny (film)

The Caine Mutiny

The Campaign for North Africa

The capitulation of Warsaw after the Warsaw Uprising

The Captain (1967 novel)

The Captive Heart

The Carte Organisation

The Cats of Mirikitani

The Charging Chasseur

The Children Who Cheated the Nazis

The Church at Auvers

The Clansman

The Cockleshell Heroes

The Colditz Story

The Collapse of the Third Republic

The Columbia Encyclopedia

The Corps Series

The Counterfeit Traitor

The Counterfeiters (film)

The Cranes Are Flying

The Crow Comes Last

The Cruel Sea (1953 film)

The Cruel Sea (novel)

The Cuckoo

The Dam Busters (book)

The Dam Busters (film)

The Dam Busters (video game)

The Darkest Hour

The Dawns Here Are Quiet

The Day of the Bomb

The Day the Clown Cried

The Day Will Dawn

The Deadly Game (1941 film)

The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

The Defiant

The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel

The Desert Rats (film)

The Destruction of Dresden

The Destruction of the European Jews

The destruction of the German garrison in Lenin

The Devil's Arithmetic

The Devil's Brigade (film)

The Devil's Voyage

The Diary of a Young Girl

The Diary of Anne Frank (1959 film)

The Diary of Anne Frank (1967 film)

The Diary of Anne Frank (1980 film)

The Diary of Anne Frank (1987 miniseries)

The Diary of Anne Frank (2009 miniseries)

The Diary of Anne Frank (opera)

The Diary of Anne Frank (play)

The Diary of Anne Frank (radio play)

The Dirty Dozen

The Downfall of the German Army before Moscow

The Drowned and the Saved

The Eagle Has Flown

The Eagle Has Landed (film)

The Eagle Has Landed (novel)

The Emergency (Ireland)

The Empty Mirror

The Enchanted Cottage (1945 film)

The Endless Steppe

The Enemy Below

The Enemy Strikes

The English Patient (film)

The English Patient

The Fairy Gunmother

The Farrer Park address

The Fascist (film)

The Few

The Fifth Horseman is Fear

The Fight for the Sky

The Fighting Lady

The Fighting Seabees

The Fighting Sullivans

The Final Countdown (film)

The First of the Few

The Fleet That Came to Stay

The Flying Keys

The Foreman Went to France

The Forgotten Soldier

The Fortune Teller (Caravaggio)

The Four Days of Naples

The Fourth Arm (TV series)

The Frogmen (film)

The gadget

The Gallant Hours

The Gallant Men

The Gates of Hell

The Gathering Storm (1974 film)

The Gathering Storm (2002 film)

The Gentle Sex

The Ghost Army

The Gleaners

The Golden Triangle of the Yvelines

The Good Man of Nanking

The Good Shepherd (novel)

The Good War

The Grand Alliance

The Great Alaskan Mystery

The Great Artiste

The Great Escape (2003 video game)

The Great Escape (book)

The Great Escape (film)

The Great Escape (1986 video game)

The Great Escape II: The Untold Story

The Great Raid

The Grey Zone

The Guns of Navarone (film)

The Guns of Navarone (novel)

The Halfway House

The Hangman (poem)

The Heroes of Telemark

The Hidden Hitler

The Hiding Place (biography)

The Hiding Place (film)

The Hill (film)

The Hoax of the Twentieth Century

The Holocaust History Project

The Holocaust in art and literature

The Holocaust Industry

The Holocaust

The House of Dolls

The Hump

The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923 film)

The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939 film)

The Hunchback of Notre Dame

The Incredible Mr. Limpet

The Inglorious Bastards

The International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone

The Invisible Thread

The Iron Dream

The Island on Bird Street

The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust

The Kaiser's Last Kiss

The Kaiser of California

The Keep (film)

The Last Battle (Cornelius Ryan book)

The Last Battle (Stephen Harding book)

The Last Bomb

The Last Days (film)

The Last Days of Patton

The Last Enemy

The Last Stage

The Last Stand of the Tin Can Sailors

The Left was Never Right

The Legion of the Damned (novel)

The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp

The Life Eaters

The Life That I Have

The Limo (Seinfeld episode)

The Lion Has Wings

The Long and the Short and the Tall (play)

The Long Voyage Home

The Longest Day (book)

The Longest Day (film)

The Longest Day (game)

The Longest Winter

The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million

The Luncheon on the Grass

The Machine Gunners

The Magic Carpets of Aladdin

The Major (Hellsing)

The Man in the High Castle

The Man Who Never Was

The March (1945)

The Masked Marvel

The McKenzie Break

The Meaning of Hitler

The Monkeys Have No Tails in Zamboanga

The Moro River Campaign

The Mountain Road

The Murders in the Rue Morgue

The Mystery of Marie Roget

The Myth of Hitler's Pope

The Myth of the Twentieth Century

The Naked and the Dead

The Nazi Drawings

The Nazis Strike

The Negro Soldier

The New Spirit

The Next of Kin

The Night in Lisbon

The Night of the Generals

The Night of the Shooting Stars

The Night Porter

The Night Watch (Waters novel)

The Ninth Circle

The Ninth Day

The North Star (1943 film)

The Oath

The Occult Roots of Nazism

The One That Got Away

The Other Club

The Other Man (1964 TV programme)

The Outfit (video game)

The Overlanders (film)

The Pacific (miniseries)

The Partisan

The Password Is Courage

The Patriotic Traitors

The Pawnbroker

The Pianist (2002 film)

The Pianist (memoir)

The Pied Piper (1942 film)

The Pink Lady (aircraft)

The Pink Swastika

The Plot Against America

The Portage to San Cristobal of A.H.

The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria

The Price of Rendova

The Purple Heart

The Race (Worldwar)

The Rape of Nanking (book)

The Rat Patrol

The Rats of Tobruk (1944 film)

The Rats of Tobruk

The Reader

The Red Balloon

The Red Beret

The Red Spectacles

The rehabilitation of Germany after World War II

The Relief of Belsen

The Rhyme of the Flying Bomb

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rising Tide (2006 novel)

The River War

The Rome-Berlin Axis

The Rooseboom

The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny

Royal Newfoundland Regiment

The Russian Campaign

The Saint Goes West

The Saint in Miami

The Saint on Guard

The Saint Steps In

The Scarlet and the Black

The Scorpioni

The Scots Kirk, Paris

The Sea Chase

The Sea Shall Not Have Them

The Sea Wolves

The Search for Kennedy's PT 109

The Seated Scribe

The Second World War (Churchill)

The Second World War Experience Centre

The Secret Code (serial)

The Secret of Santa Vittoria

The Secret War of Harry Frigg

The Seine Meets Paris

The Separation (2002 novel)

The Shape of Things to Come

The Ship (novel)

The Shop on Main Street

The Shops at Tanforan

The Silent Enemy (film)

The Silver Fleet

The Sixth Battalion

The Sorrow and the Pity

The Sound of His Horn

The Soviet Paradise

The Spirit of '43

The Steel Claw (film)

The Stijkel Group

The Stilwell Road (film)

The Story of Chaim Rumkowski and the Jews of Lodz

The Story of G.I. Joe

The Story of the 14th Air Force

The Sullivans

The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness

The Swoose

The Teahouse of the August Moon

The Thin Red Line (1962 novel)

The Thin Red Line (1998 film)

The Timekeeper

The Town (1945 film)

The Train

The Truce

The True Glory

The Truth about Nanjing

The Turner Diaries

The Tuskegee Airmen

The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror

The Two-Ocean War

The Two Windmills

The Ultimate Solution

The Unknown Soldier (1955 film)

The Unknown Soldier (1985 film)

The Unknown Soldier (novel)

The Unlikely Spy

The Valour and the Horror

The VFL during the World Wars

The Vichy 80

The Victors (film)

The Virgin and Child with St. Anne

The Wackiest Ship in the Army (TV series)

The Wages of Destruction

The War (documentary)

The War Against the Jews

The War Against the West

The War Illustrated

The War Lover

The Way Ahead

The Way to the Stars

The Wedding at Cana

The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945

The White Hotel

The Wild Blue: The Novel of the U.S. Air Force

The Wild Blue

The Willing Flesh

The Winds of War

The Witness (short film)

The Wolf's Hour

The Women of Algiers

The Wooden Horse

The World at Night

The World at War (film)

The World at War

The world wonders

The Year of the Quiet Sun

The Yoke's on Me

The Young Lions

Thea von Harbou

Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique

Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse

Théâtre de la Gaîté (rue Papin)

Théâtre de la Renaissance

Théâtre de la Ville

Théâtre des Bouffes Parisiens

Théâtre des Champs-Élysées

Théâtre des Variétés

Théâtre du Châtelet

Théâtre du Gymnase Marie Bell

Théâtre du Marais

Théâtre du Palais-Royal

Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier

Théâtre Libre

Théâtre Mogador

Theatre of War (video game)

Théâtre Optique

Theirs Is the Glory

Theo Cangelosi

Theo Osterkamp

Theodor Busse

Theodor Casella

Theodor Dannecker

Theodor Detmers

Theodor Eicke

Theodor Haubach

Theodor Korselt

Theodor Morell

Theodor Nauman

Theodor Nordmann

Theodor Oberländer

Theodor Scherer

Theodor Tolsdorff

Theodor Vahlen

Theodor von der Pfordten

Theodor von Dufving

Theodor von Hippel

Theodor Weissenberger

Theodor Wisch

Theodore E. Chandler

Theodore G. Bilbo

Théodore Gosselin

Théodore Géricault

Theodore Hall

Theodore Meighen

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.

Theodore S. Weiss

Theodore S. Wilkinson

Theodore Schurch

Theodore Taylor (author)

Theodore "Dutch" Van Kirk

Theodore von Kármán

Theodore W. Parker

Théodule-Armand Ribot

Théophile Marie Brébant

Théophile Nata

Theophilus de Garencières

Thérèse Bonney

Therese Brandl

Theresienstadt concentration camp

Thermes de Cluny

Thermos Bomb

Therry Racon

They Stooge to Conga

They Were Expendable

They Were Not Divided

They Were Not Silent


Thierno Youm

Thierry Aubin

Thierry Bonalair

Thierry Jonquet

Thierry Laurey

Thierry Maulnier

Thierry Tusseau

Thies Christophersen

Thin Man nuclear bomb


Things to Come

Third Air Force

Third anti-Partisan offensive

Third Army (Hungary)

Third Army (Romania)

Third Army (United Kingdom)

Third Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Third Encirclement Campaign

Third Reich/Great Pacific War series

Third Taiwan Strait Crisis

Third United States Army

Thirteenth Air Force

Thirteenth Army (Japan)

Thirtieth Army (Japan)

Thirty-Eighth Army (Japan)

Thirty-Fifth Army (Japan)

Thirty-First Army (Japan)

Thirty-Second Army (Japan)

Thirty-Seventh Army (Japan)

Thirty-Sixth Army (Japan)

Thirty-Third Army (Japan)

Thirty Seconds over Tokyo

This Above All

This Happy Breed

This Is the Army

This Land Is Mine (film)

This was their finest hour

This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen

Thomas Allibone

Thomas Baker (soldier)

Thomas Blamey

Thomas Blatt

Thomas Brooke, 2nd Viscount Alanbrooke

Thomas Brownrigg

Thomas Buergenthal

Thomas C. Hart

Thomas C. Kinkaid

Thomas Chaloner, 2nd Baron Gisborough

Thomas Corbett, 2nd Baron Rowallan

Thomas Corneille

Thomas Couture

Thomas D. Howie

Thomas de Rossy

Thomas DeWitt Milling

Thomas Dossevi

Thomas Dugdale, 1st Baron Crathorne

Thomas E. Bourke

Thomas E. McCall

Thomas E. Watson (USMC)

Thomas Eastick

Thomas F. Breslin

Thomas Fairfax, 13th Lord Fairfax of Cameron

Thomas Farrell

Thomas Ferebee

Thomas Frank Durrant

Thomas George Lanphier, Jr.

Thomas Gray (VC)

Thomas Harold Broadbent Maufe

Thomas Hedley Reynolds

Thomas Hinman Moorer

Thomas J. Kelly (US soldier)

Thomas J. McHugh

Thomas J. Watson, Jr.

Thomas Jacomb Hutton

Thomas James Reeves

Thomas Köhler

Thomas L. Sprague

Thomas Lauder

Thomas Leigh Gatch

Thomas Levet

Thomas Lieb

Thomas Mack Wilhoite

Thomas Malcolm Layng

Thomas McGuire

Thomas Müller (SS officer)

Thomas Morrow Reavley

Thomas Patrick Gerrity

Thomas Peck Hunter

Thomas R St George

Thomas Read Kemp

Thomas Ricketts

Thomas Robb

Thomas S. Gates, Jr.

Thomas S. Moorman

Thomas S. Power

Thomas Spencer Vaughan Phillips

Thomas T. Handy

Thomas Tellefsen

Thomas Vaus

Thomas Victor Anderson

Thomas W. Fowler

Thomas W. Herren

Thomas W. Steed

Thomas W. Wigle

Thomas Walker (naval officer)

Thomas Wilkinson (Royal Naval Reserve officer)

Thomas William Gould

Thomas Wynford Rees

Thompson submachine gun

Thor Henning

Thornton Wilder

Thorsten Svensson

Thorvald Stauning

Three Alls Policy

Three Came Home

Three Continents Festival

Three Hearts and Three Lions

Three Kings (Czech antinazi resistance)

Three Russian Girls


Thunder Afloat

Thunderbird (B-17)

Thunderbird Field


Thurl Ravenscroft

Thurman "Fum" McGraw

Thyge Petersen

Tian Bao

Tianjin Campaign

Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation

Tiara of Saitaferne

Tibor Fazekas

Tibor Rubin

Tibor Tobak

Tiburcio Carías Andino

Ticky Holgado

Tide of Iron

Tiemoko Garan Kouyaté

Tientsin Incident (1931)


Tiger Force (air)

Tiger I

Tiger II

Tijani Belaid

Tikka Khan

Tillamook Airport

Tim Heywood

Tim Holt

Tim M. Babcock

Tim McCoy

Tim Valentine

Time line of the Holocaust in Norway

Timeline of the 2005 French civil unrest

Timeline of the Eastern Front of World War II

Timeline of the Manhattan Project

Timeline of the Norwegian Campaign

Timeline of the Second Battle of the Atlantic

Timeline of the Second World War

Timeline of the United Kingdom home front during World War II

Timeline of World War II (1939)

Timeline of World War II (1940)

Timeline of World War II (1941)

Timeline of World War II (1942)

Timeline of World War II (1943)

Timeline of World War II (1944)

Timeline of World War II (1945)

Timeline of World War II

Timothy Mason

Tina Aumont

Ting Chao


Tinsel (codename)

Tinus Osendarp

Titanic (1943 film)

Titi Buengo

Tito Puente

Titus Brandsma

Tizard Mission



TM-35 mine

To End All Wars

To Have and Have Not (film)

To Hell and Back (film)

To Live in Peace

To the People of the United States

To the Shores of Iwo Jima

To the Shores of Tripoli

Tobin Wolf

Tobruk (1967 film)

Tobruk (2008 film)

Tobruk (game)

Toby Low, 1st Baron Aldington

TOG1 (tank)

TOG2 (tank)

Toini Gustafsson

Toivo Mikael Kivimäki

Toivo Tikkanen


Tokio Jokio

Toku Daihatsu-class landing craft

Tokugawa Satonari

Tokugawa Yoshihiro

Tokyo Boys

Tokyo Conference

Tokyo Express

Tokyo Rose

Tolbiac (Paris Métro)

Toldi (tank)

Tolland-class attack cargo ship

Tom Brown (footballer born 1919)

Tom Colten

Tom Derrick

Tom Dowd

Tom Edwin Adlam

Tom Gehrels

Tom Gorman (umpire)

Tom Harmon

Tom Landry

Tom Lantos

Tom Metzger

Tom Murphy (U.S. politician)

Tom Pocock

Tom Poston

Tom Seeberg

Tom Stagg

Tom Steed

Tom Whittaker (footballer)

Tomasz Konarzewski

Tomasz Stankiewicz

Tomislav Ivić

Tomislav Sertić

Tomitarō Horii

Tommaso Lequio di Assaba

Tommy Bond

Tommy Hitchcock, Jr.

Tommy Kono

Tommy Lawton

Tommy Muldoon

Tommy Prince


Tomoshige Samejima

Tomoyuki Yamashita

Tone-class cruiser

Tong Linge

Tonight and Every Night

Tonopah Army Air Field


Tony Butkovich

Tony Canadeo

Tony Christopher, Baron Christopher

Tony Curtis

Tony Freitas

Tony Hancock

Tony Heurtebis

Tony Hillerman

Tony Peyton

Tony Priday

Tony Randall

Tony Rolt

Tony Stein

Tony Strobl

Too Late the Hero

Toon Studio (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Top Secret (B-29)

Topaz (1945 film)

Topaz War Relocation Center

Topf and Sons

Topi Mattila

Topography of Paris

Topovske Šupe

Tor Skjønsberg

Tora! Tora! Tora!

Torashirō Kawabe

Tore Blom

Tore Eriksson

Tore Keller

Torgny Segerstedt

Toropets-Kholm Operation

Torpedo boat type 35

Torpedo Run

Torpedoboot Ausland

Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion

Torstein Raaby

Torsten Sylvan

Tortoise heavy assault tank

Tosa-class battleship

Toshinari Maeda

Toshinari Shōji

Toshio Miyazaki

Toshio Mori

Toshio Ohta

Toshio Shiratori

Toshizō Nishio

Tosia Altman

Total war

Tour Égée

Tour Adria

Tour Areva

Tour Ariane

Tour AXA

Tour CBX

Tour d'Argent

Tour Daewoo

Tour de Nesle

Tour Descartes

Tour Défense 2000

Tour EDF

Tour Europlaza

Tour France

Tour Franklin

Tour Gan

Tour Generali

Tour Granite

Tour Initiale

Tour Les Poissons

Tour Montparnasse

Tour Pleyel

Tour Sans Fins

Tour Sequoia

Tour Super-Italie

Tour T1

Tour Total

Tours Aillaud

Tours Société Générale

Tower 270

Town-class destroyer

Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms

Townsend Hoopes

Toy Theatre

Toyama Maru

Toyo Mitunobu

Toyohashi Air Raid

Tracy Barnes

Trafford Leigh-Mallory

Traian Lalescu

Traian Popovici

Train of Life

Training Within Industry

Training Women for War Production


Transbaikal Front

Transcaucasian Front

Transit of German troops through Scandinavia (World War II)

Transnistria (World War II)

Transport Plan

Trasimene Line

Traudl Junge

Traugott Herr


Treaty battleship

Treaty Faction

Treaty of Craiova

Treaty of Paris

Treaty of peace with Italy (1947)

Treaty of San Francisco

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Vis

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany


Treblinka extermination camp

Trench knife


Treznea massacre

Tri-City Skins

Tribhuvan of Nepal


Tricycle (spy)

Trident laser


Trinity (nuclear test)

Trinité - d'Estienne d'Orves (Paris Métro)

Tripartite Pact

Triple Cross (1966)

Tristan Bernard

Tristan Tzara

Tristram Cary

Triumph of the Virtues (Mantegna)

Trocadéro (Paris Métro)



Troop Train

Trose Emmett Donaldson

Trottoir roulant rapide


Trow Ghyll skeleton

Troy A. McGill

Troy H. Middleton

Truman H. Landon

Truman Kimbro

Truman O. Olson


Truxtun Hare

Tryggve Gran

Trygve Bratteli

Trygve Lie

Trygve Stokstad

TS Queen Mary

Tscherim Soobzokov

Tsuboi Kōzō

Tsuguhiko Kozuka

Tsukasa Umesaki

Tsukuba-class cruiser

Tsunejirō Ishii

Tsuruta Yoshiyuki

Tsushima Maru

Tsutomi Sakuma

Tsvi C. Nussbaum

TT pistol

Tuan Le

Tubalcain Alhambra

Tudor Arghezi

Tudor Vladimirescu Division

Tuesday in November

Tuileries (Paris Métro)

Tuileries Palace

Tul Bahadur Pun

Tule Lake War Relocation Center

Tulle murders

Tulsa race riot

Tungchow Mutiny

Tunisia Campaign

Tunisian Victory

Tunku Osman Tunku Mohammad Jewa

Tupolev SB

Tupolev TB-3

Tupolev Tu-2


Ture Nerman

Turkestan legion

Turney W. Leonard

Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

Tuskegee Airmen, Inc

Tuskegee Airmen

Tuviah Friedman

Tweed New Haven Regional Airport

Twelfth Army (Japan)

Twelfth Army (United Kingdom)

Twelfth United States Army Group

Twelve O'Clock High

Twentieth Air Force

Twentieth Army (Japan)

Twentieth convoy

Twenty-Eighth Army (Japan)

Twenty-Fifth Army (Japan)

Twenty-First Air Force

Twenty-First Army (Japan)

Twenty-Ninth Army (Japan)

Twenty-Second Air Force

Twenty-Second Army (Japan)

Twenty-Seventh Army (Japan)

Twenty-Third Air Force

Twenty-Third Army (Japan)

Twenty Fourth Air Force

Two Down and One to Go

Two women (novel)

Two Women

Tykocin pogrom

Tyler Kent

Tyler Pounds Regional Airport

Type 010-class minesweeper

Type 021-class missile boat

Type 024 class missile boat

Type 025-class torpedo boat

Type 037-IG class missile boat

Type 037-II-class missile boat

Type 037-class submarine chaser

Type 039 submarine

Type 041 submarine

Type 051 destroyer

Type 051B destroyer

Type 051C destroyer

Type 052 destroyer

Type 052B destroyer

Type 052C destroyer

Type 053 frigate

Type 053H3 frigate

Type 054 frigate

Type 062-I-class gunboat

Type 062-class gunboat

Type 067 landing craft utility

Type 07

Type 071 amphibious transport dock

Type 072

Type 072II

Type 072III

Type 073 landing ship medium

Type 074 landing ship medium

Type 082-class minesweeper

Type 091 submarine

Type 092 submarine

Type 093 submarine

Type 094 submarine

Type 1 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun

Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun

Type 1 Chi-He

Type 1 Heavy Machine Gun

Type 1 Ho-Ha

Type 1 Ho-Ki

Type 10 120 mm AA Gun

Type 10 Grenade Discharger

Type 10 Grenade

Type 100 submachine gun

Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun

Type 11 75 mm AA Gun

Type 11 Light Machine Gun

Type 14 10 cm AA Gun

Type 14 8 mm Nambu Pistol

Type 2 20 mm AA Machine Cannon

Type 2 Ho-I

Type 2 Ka-Mi

Type 2 Ke-To

Type 2 rifle grenade launcher

Type 206-class gunboat

Type 26 revolver

Type 3 12 cm AA Gun

Type 3 80 mm AA Gun

Type 3 Chi-Nu

Type 3 Heavy Machine Gun

Type 3 Ho-Ni III

Type 3 Ka-Chi

Type 30 bayonet

Type 30 rifle

Type 31 75 mm Mountain Gun

Type 312 minesweeper

Type 38 cavalry rifle

Type 38 rifle

Type 4 20 cm Rocket Launcher

Type 4 20 mm Twin AA Machine Cannon

Type 4 70 mm AT Rocket Launcher

Type 4 75 mm AA Gun

Type 4 Chi-To

Type 4 Ha-To

Type 4 Ho-Ro

Type 4 Ka-Tsu

Type 4 Ke-Nu

Type 41 75 mm Cavalry Gun

Type 41 75 mm Mountain Gun

Type 44 Cavalry Rifle

Type 45 240 mm howitzer

Type 5 15 cm AA Gun

Type 5 Chi-Ri

Type 5 Ke-Ho

Type 5 Rifle

Type 5 To-Ku

Type 730 CIWS

Type 88 75 mm AA Gun

Type 89 15 cm Cannon

Type 89 Chi-Ro

Type 89 Grenade Discharger

Type 89 I-Go

Type 89 Medium Tanks

Type 90 240 mm railway gun

Type 91 torpedo

Type 92 Battalion Gun

Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun

Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha

Type 92 torpedo

Type 93 and 100 flamethrowers

Type 93 torpedo

Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun

Type 94 75 mm Mountain Gun

Type 94 8 mm Pistol

Type 94 90 mm Infantry Mortar

Type 94 Disinfecting Vehicle and Type 94 Gas Scattering Vehicle

Type 94 tankette

Type 95 Ha-Go

Type 95 recon car

Type 95 torpedo

Type 96 15 cm Howitzer

Type 96 150 mm Infantry Mortar

Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun

Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover

Type 96 Light Machine Gun

Type 97 20 mm AT Rifle

Type 97 57 mm tank gun

Type 97 81 mm infantry mortar

Type 97 90 mm Infantry Mortar

Type 97 Chi-Ha

Type 97 grenade

Type 97 Light Machine Gun

Type 97 Service Dress

Type 97 ShinHoTo Chi-Ha

Type 97 Sniper Rifle

Type 97 Te-Ke

Type 97 torpedo

Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle

Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon

Type 98 20 mm AAG Tank

Type 98 Ke-Ni

Type 98 So-Da

Type 99 (camouflage)

Type 99 88 mm AA Gun

Type 99 Grenade

Type 99 Light Machine Gun

Type 99 rifle

Type I Rifle


Typhoon Cobra (1944)

Tyrone Power



Télégraphe (Paris Métro)

Jadovno concentration camp

The Jadovno concentration camp was a concentration and extermination camp in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. Commanded by Juco Rukavina, it was the first of twenty-six concentration camps in the NDH during the war. Established in a secluded area about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the town of Gospić, it held thousands of Serbs and Jews over a period of 122 days from May to August 1941. Inmates were usually killed by being pushed into deep ravines located near the camp. Estimates of the number of deaths at Jadovno range from 10,000 to 68,000, mostly Serbs. The camp was closed on 21 August 1941, and the area where it was located was later handed over to the Kingdom of Italy and became part of Italian Zones II and III. Jadvono was replaced by the greater sized Jasenovac concentration camp and its extermination facilities.

The camp site remained unexplored after the war due to the depth of the gorges where bodies were disposed and the fact that some of them had been filled with concrete by Yugoslavia's Communist authorities. Additional sites containing the skeletal remains of camp victims were uncovered in the 1980s. Commemoration ceremonies honouring the victims of the camp have been organized by the Serb National Council (SNV), the Jewish community in Croatia, and local anti-fascists since 2009, and 24 June has since been designated as a "Day of Remembrance of the Jadovno Camp" in Croatia. A monument commemorating those killed in the camp was constructed in 1975 and stood for fifteen years before being removed in 1990. A replica of the original monument was constructed and dedicated in 2010, but disappeared within twenty-four hours of its inauguration.

Jewish ghettos in Europe

Jewish ghettos in Europe were neighborhoods of European cities in which Jews were permitted to live. In addition to being confined to the ghettos, Jews were placed under strict regulations as well as restrictions in many European cities. The character of ghettos fluctuated over the centuries. In some cases, they comprised a Jewish quarter, the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. In many instances, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and small, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from the outside during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving at those times.

In the 19th century, with the coming of Jewish emancipation, Jewish ghettos were progressively abolished, and their walls taken down. However, in the course of World War II the Third Reich created a totally new Jewish ghetto-system for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation of Jews, mostly in Eastern Europe. According to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone."

List of companies involved in the Holocaust

This list includes corporations that were in existence during World War II and that are documented to have profited from participation in the Holocaust.

Oskar Schindler

Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He is the subject of the 1982 novel Schindler's Ark and its 1993 film adaptation, Schindler's List, which reflected his life as an opportunist initially motivated by profit, who came to show extraordinary initiative, tenacity, courage, and dedication to save the lives of his Jewish employees.

Schindler grew up in Svitavy, Moravia, and worked in several trades until he joined the Abwehr, the military intelligence service of Nazi Germany, in 1936. He joined the Nazi Party in 1939. Prior to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938, he collected information on railways and troop movements for the German government. He was arrested for espionage by the Czechoslovak government but was released under the terms of the Munich Agreement in 1938. Schindler continued to collect information for the Nazis, working in Poland in 1939 before the invasion of Poland at the start of World War II. In 1939, Schindler acquired an enamelware factory in Kraków, Poland, which employed at the factory's peak in 1944 about 1,750 workers, of whom 1,000 were Jews. His Abwehr connections helped Schindler protect his Jewish workers from deportation and death in the Nazi concentration camps. As time went on, Schindler had to give Nazi officials ever larger bribes and gifts of luxury items obtainable only on the black market to keep his workers safe.

By July 1944, Germany was losing the war; the SS began closing down the easternmost concentration camps and deporting the remaining prisoners westward. Many were murdered in Auschwitz and the Gross-Rosen concentration camp. Schindler convinced SS-Hauptsturmführer Amon Göth, commandant of the nearby Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp, to allow him to move his factory to Brněnec in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, thus sparing his workers from almost certain death in the gas chambers. Using names provided by Jewish Ghetto Police officer Marcel Goldberg, Göth's secretary Mietek Pemper compiled and typed the list of 1,200 Jews who travelled to Brünnlitz in October 1944. Schindler continued to bribe SS officials to prevent the execution of his workers until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945, by which time he had spent his entire fortune on bribes and black market purchases of supplies for his workers.

Schindler moved to West Germany after the war, where he was supported by assistance payments from Jewish relief organisations. After receiving a partial reimbursement for his wartime expenses, he moved with his wife Emilie to Argentina, where they took up farming. When he went bankrupt in 1958, Schindler left his wife and returned to Germany, where he failed at several business ventures and relied on financial support from Schindlerjuden ("Schindler Jews")—the people whose lives he had saved during the war. He and his wife Emilie were named Righteous Among the Nations by the Israeli government in 1993. He died on 9 October 1974 in Hildesheim, Germany, and was buried in Jerusalem on Mount Zion, the only member of the Nazi Party to be honoured in this way.


Sonderbehandlung (German: [ˈzɔndɐbəˌhandlʊŋ], special treatment) is any sort of preferential treatment, but is known primarily as a euphemism for mass murder used by Nazi functionaries and the SS, who commonly used the abbreviation S.B. in documentation. It first came to prominence during Action T4, where SS doctors killed mentally ill and disabled patients between 1939 and 1941, and was one of a number of nonspecific words the Nazis used to document mass murder and genocide. Another notable example was Sonderbehandlung 14f13.

This term was also used to imprecisely refer to the equipment used to perpetrate their crimes, such as gas chambers and Zyklon B. The true meaning of Sonderbehandlung was widely known in the SS, and in April 1943, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler was so concerned about the security of it that he had it redacted in a secret report.

Berel Lang states that disguised language was used "...not only in communications issued to the Jewish public when the intention of those issuing the communications was to deceive the Jews in order to minimize the likelihood of resistance, but also in addresses to the outside world and, perhaps more significantly, in internal communications as well, among officials who unquestionably knew (who were themselves sometimes responsible for) the linguistic substitutions stipulated by the language rules."

The Holocaust in Albania

The Holocaust in Albania consisted of crimes committed against Jews in the Albanian Kingdom by German, Italian and Albanian collaborationist forces while the country was under Italian and German occupation during the World War II. Throughout the war, nearly 2,000 Jews sought refuge in Albania-proper. Most of these Jewish refugees were treated well by the local Albanian population, despite the fact that the country was occupied first by Fascist Italy, and then by Nazi Germany. Albanians, following a traditional custom of hospitality known as besa, often sheltered Jewish refugees in mountain villages, and transported them to Adriatic ports from where they fled to Italy. Other Jews joined resistance movements throughout the country.

For the 500 Jews who lived in Albanian-dominated Kosovo, the experience was starkly different and about 40 percent did not survive the war. With the surrender of Italy in September 1943, Germany occupied Greater Albania. In 1944, an Albanian Waffen-SS division was formed, which arrested and handed over to the Germans a further 281 Jews from Kosovo who were subsequently deported to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where many were killed. In late 1944, the Germans were driven out of Albania-proper and the country became a communist state under the leadership of Enver Hoxha. Around the same time, Axis forces in the Albanian-annexed regions of Kosovo and western Macedonia were defeated by the Yugoslav Partisans, who subsequently reincorporated these areas into Yugoslavia.

Approximately 600 Jews were killed in Greater Albania during the Holocaust. In Albania-proper, five Jews from the same family were killed by the Germans, the only native Jews to be killed there over the course of the war. Albania-proper emerged from the war with a population of Jews eleven times greater than at the beginning, numbering around 1,800. Most of these subsequently emigrated to Israel. Several hundred remained in Albania until the fall of Communism in the early 1990s before doing the same. As of 2018, 75 Albanians have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.

The Holocaust in Estonia

The Holocaust in Estonia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany. Prior to the war, there were approximately 4,300 Estonian Jews. After the Soviet 1940 occupation about 10% of the Jewish population was deported to Siberia, along with other Estonians. About 75% of Estonian Jews, aware of the fate that awaited them from Nazi Germany, escaped to the Soviet Union; virtually all of those who remained (between 950 and 1,000 people) were killed by Einsatzgruppe A and local collaborators before the end of 1941. Roma people of Estonia were also murdered and enslaved by the Nazi occupiers and their collaborators. The Nazis and their allies also killed around 6,000 ethnic Estonians and 1,000 ethnic Russians who were accused of being communist sympathizers or the relatives of communist sympathizers. In addition around 25,000 Soviet prisoners-of-war and Jews from other parts of Europe were killed in Estonia during the German occupation.

The Holocaust in France

The Holocaust in France refers to the persecution, deportation, and annihilation of Jews and Roma between 1940 and 1944 in occupied France, metropolitan Vichy, and in Vichy-North Africa, during World War II. The persecution began in 1940, and culminated in deportations of Jews from France to concentration camps in Germany and Nazi-occupied Poland from 1942 which lasted until July 1944. Of the 340,000 Jews living in metropolitan/continental France in 1940, more than 75,000 were deported to death camps, where about 72,500 were killed. French Vichy government and the French police participated in the roundup of Jews. Although most deported Jews died, the survival rate of the Jewish population in France was up to 75% which is one of the highest survival rates in Europe.

The Holocaust in Lithuania

The Holocaust in German occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews, living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR. Out of approximately 208,000–210,000 Jews, an estimated 190,000–195,000 were murdered before the end of World War II (wider estimates are sometimes published), most between June and December 1941. More than 95% of Lithuania's Jewish population was massacred over the three-year German occupation — a more complete destruction than befell any other country affected by the Holocaust. Historians attribute this to the massive collaboration in the genocide by the non-Jewish local paramilitaries, though the reasons for this collaboration are still debated. The Holocaust resulted in the largest-ever loss of life in so short a period of time in the history of Lithuania.The events that took place in the western regions of the USSR occupied by Nazi Germany in the first weeks after the German invasion, including Lithuania, marked the sharp intensification of the Holocaust.An important component to the Holocaust in Lithuania was that the occupying Nazi German administration fanned antisemitism by blaming the Soviet regime's recent annexation of Lithuania, a year earlier, on the Jewish community. Another significant factor was the large extent to which the Nazis' design drew upon the physical organization, preparation and execution of their orders by local Lithuanian auxiliaries of the Nazi occupation regime.

The Holocaust in Luxembourg

The Holocaust in Luxembourg refers to the persecution and near-annihilation of the 3,500-strong Jewish population of Luxembourg begun shortly after the start of the German occupation during World War II, when the country was officially incorporated into Nazi Germany. The persecution lasted until October 1941, when the Germans declared the territory to be free of Jews who had been deported to extermination camps and ghettos in Eastern Europe.

The Holocaust in Russia

The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) by Nazi Germany.

The Holocaust in Ukraine

The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine during the occupation of the Soviet Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II. Between 1941 and 1944 more than a million Jews living in Ukrainian SSR were murdered as part of Generalplan Ost and the Final Solution extermination policies.

According to Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, "the Holocaust is integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, to the war in 1941, and is organically and integrally connected to the attempt to conquer Ukraine."

The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia

The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia refers primarily to the genocide of Jews, but sometimes also include that of Serbs (the "Genocide of the Serbs") and Romani (Porajmos), during World War II within the Independent State of Croatia, a fascist puppet state ruled by the Ustashe regime, that included most of the territory of modern-day Croatia, the whole of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the eastern part of Syrmia (Serbia). 90% of Croatian Jews were exterminated in Ustashe-run concentration camps like Jasenovac and others, while a considerable number of Jews were rounded up and turned over by the Ustashe for extermination in Nazi Germany.

The Holocaust in the USSR

The Holocaust in the Soviet Union (USSR) refers to the German persecution of Jews, Roma and homosexuals as part of The Holocaust in World War II.

It may refer to:

The Holocaust in Russia

The Holocaust in Belarus

The Holocaust in UkraineIt may also refer to The Holocaust in the Baltic states, annexed by the Soviet Union before the war:

The Holocaust in Latvia

The Holocaust in Lithuania

The Holocaust in Estonia

Timeline of Erfurt

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Erfurt, Germany.

Yizkor books

Yizkor books are memorial books commemorating a Jewish community destroyed during the Holocaust. The books are published by former residents or landsmanshaft societies as remembrances of homes, people and ways of life lost during World War II. Yizkor books usually focus on a town but may include sections on neighboring smaller communities. Most of these books are written in Yiddish or Hebrew, some also include sections in English or other languages, depending on where they were published. Since the 1990s, many of these books, or sections of them have been translated into English.

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