Tony Award

The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre,[1] more commonly known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League[2] at an annual ceremony in Manhattan. The awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, and an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are also given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, and the Isabelle Stevenson Award.[3] The awards are named after Antoinette "Tony" Perry, co-founder of the American Theatre Wing.

The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only.[4] The Tony Awards are considered the highest U.S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards (Oscars) for film, the Emmy Awards for television, and the Grammy Awards for music. It also forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four awards. The Tony Awards are also considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France.

From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre.[5] In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre.[6] From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, and 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall.[7] The 70th Tony Awards was held on June 12, 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards and 72nd Tony Awards were held at Radio City Music Hall in 2017 and 2018, respectively.[8]

Tony Award
72nd Tony Awards
Tony Award Medallion
Tony award medallion, designed by Herman Rosse, 1949
Awarded forExcellence in Broadway theatre
CountryUnited States
Presented byAmerican Theatre Wing and The Broadway League
First awardedApril 6, 1947
Websitetonyawards.com

Award categories

As of 2014, there are 26 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years. Some examples: the category Best Book of a Musical was originally called "Best Author (Musical)". The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards. For two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer (Dramatic) and Best Costume Designer (Musical). It then went to a single category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a single category was for directors of plays and musicals prior to 1960.[9]

A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the awards ceremony in 2009. The award is for an individual who has made a "substantial contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian, social service or charitable organizations".[10]

The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season.[11] The categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014–2015 season.[12] On April 24, 2017, the Tony Awards administration committee announced that the Sound Design Award would be reintroduced for the 2017–2018 season.[13]

Performance categories

Show and technical categories

Special awards

Retired awards

History

Tonyawardslogo
Former logo

The award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, director, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946.[14] As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, "At [Warner Bros. story editor] Jacob Wilk's suggestion, [Pemberton] proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting and technical achievement. At the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony. The name stuck."[15]

The first awards ceremony was held on April 6, 1947, at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City.[16] The first prizes were "a scroll, cigarette lighter and articles of jewelry such as 14-carat gold compacts and bracelets for the women, and money clips for the men".[17] It was not until the third awards ceremony in 1949 that the first Tony medallion was given to award winners.[17] Awarded by a panel of approximately 868 voters (as of 2014)[18] from various areas of the entertainment industry and press.

Since 1967, the award ceremony has been broadcast on U.S. national television and includes songs from the nominated musicals, and occasionally has included video clips of, or presentations about, nominated plays. The American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League jointly present and administer the awards. Audience size for the telecast is generally well below that of the Academy Awards shows, but the program reaches an affluent audience, which is prized by advertisers. According to a June 2003 article in The New York Times: "What the Tony broadcast does have, say CBS officials, is an all-important demographic: rich and smart. Jack Sussman, CBS's senior vice president in charge of specials, said the Tony show sold almost all its advertising slots shortly after CBS announced it would present the three hours. 'It draws upscale premium viewers who are attractive to upscale premium advertisers,' Mr. Sussman said..."[19][20] The viewership has declined from the early years of its broadcast history (for example, the number of viewers in 1974 was 20,026,000, in 1999 9,155,000) but has settled into between six and eight million viewers for most of the decade of the 2000s.[21] In contrast, the 2009 Oscar telecast had 36.3 million viewers.[22]

Medallion

The Tony Award medallion was designed by art director Herman Rosse and is a mix of mostly brass and a little bronze, with a nickel plating on the outside; a black acrylic glass base, and the nickel-plated pewter swivel.[23] The face of the medallion portrays an adaptation of the comedy and tragedy masks. Originally, the reverse side had a relief profile of Antoinette Perry; this later was changed to contain the winner's name, award category, production and year. The medallion has been mounted on a black base since 1967.[24][25]

A larger base was introduced in time for the 2010 award ceremony. The new base is slightly taller – 5 inches (13 cm), up from 3 14 inches (8.3 cm) – and heavier – 3 12 pounds (1.6 kg), up from 1 12 pounds (680 grams). This change was implemented to make the award "feel more substantial" and easier to handle at the moment the award is presented to the winners. According to Howard Sherman, the executive director of the American Theatre Wing:

We know the physical scale of the Oscars, Emmys and Grammys he said. While we're not attempting to keep up with the Joneses, we felt this is a significant award, and it could feel and look a bit more significant... By adding height, now someone can grip the Tony, raise it over their head in triumph and not worry about keeping their grip he said. Believe me, you can tell the difference.[26]

For the specific Tony Awards presented to a Broadway production, awards are given to the author and up to two of the producers free of charge. All other members of the above-the-title producing team are eligible to purchase the physical award. Sums collected are designed to help defray the cost of the Tony Awards ceremony itself. An award cost $400 as of at least 2000, $750 as of at least 2009, and, as of 2013, had been $2,500 "for several years", according to Tony Award Productions.[27]

Details of the Tony Awards

Source: Tony Awards Official Site, Rules[18]

Rules for a new play or musical

For the purposes of the award, a new play or musical is one that has not previously been produced on Broadway and is not "determined… to be a 'classic' or in the historical or popular repertoire", as determined by the Administration Committee (per Section (2g) of the Rules and Regulations).[4] The rule about "classic" productions was instituted by the Tony Award Administration Committee in 2002, and stated (in summary) "A play or musical that is determined ... to be a 'classic' or in the historical or popular repertoire shall not be eligible for an Award in the Best Play or Best Musical Category but may be eligible in that appropriate Best Revival category."[28] Shows transferred from Off-Broadway or the West End are eligible as "new", as are productions based closely on films.

This rule has been the subject of some controversy, as some shows have been ruled ineligible for the "new" category, meaning that their authors did not have a chance to win the important awards of Best Play or Best Musical (or Best Score or Best Book for musicals). On the other hand, some people feel that allowing plays and musicals that have been frequently produced to be eligible as "new" gives them an unfair advantage because they will have benefited from additional development time as well as additional familiarity with the Tony voters.

Committees and voters

The Tony Awards Administration Committee has twenty-four members: ten designated by the American Theatre Wing, ten by The Broadway League, and one each by the Dramatists Guild, Actors' Equity Association, United Scenic Artists and the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers. This committee, among other duties, determines eligibility for nominations in all awards categories.[29]

The Tony Awards Nominating Committee makes the nominations for the various categories. This rotating group of theatre professionals is selected by the Tony Awards Administration Committee. Nominators serve three-year terms and are asked to see every new Broadway production.[30] The Nominating Committee for the 2012–13 Broadway season (named in June 2012) had 42 members;[31] the Nominating Committee for the 2014–2015 season has 50 members and was appointed in June 2014.[30]

There are approximately 868 eligible Tony Award voters (as of 2014),[18] a number that changes slightly from year to year. The number was decreased in 2009 when the first-night critics were excluded as voters.[32][33] That decision was changed, and members of the New York Drama Critics' Circle were invited to be Tony voters beginning in the 2010–2011 season.[34]

The eligible Tony voters include the board of directors and designated members of the advisory committee of the American Theatre Wing, members of the governing boards of Actors' Equity Association, the Dramatists Guild, the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, United Scenic Artists, and the Association of Theatrical Press Agents and Managers, members of the Theatrical Council of the Casting Society of America and voting members of The Broadway League (in 2000, what was then The League of American Theaters and Producers changed membership eligibility and Tony voting status from a lifetime honor to all above-the-title producers, to ones who had been active in the previous 10 years. This action disenfranchised scores of Tony voters, including Gail Berman, Harve Brosten, Dick Button, Tony Lo Bianco, and Raymond Serra).

Eligibility date (Season)

To be eligible for Tony Award consideration, a production must have officially opened on Broadway by the eligibility date that the Management Committee establishes each year. For example, the cut-off date for eligibility the 2013–2014 season was April 24, 2014.[35] The season for Tony Award eligibility is defined in the Rules and Regulations.

Broadway theatre

A Broadway theatre is defined as having 500 or more seats, among other requirements. While the rules define a Broadway theatre in terms of its size, not its geographical location, the list of Broadway theatres is determined solely by the Tony Awards Administration Committee. As of the 2016–2017 season, the list consisted solely of the 41 theaters located in the vicinity of Times Square in New York City and Lincoln Center's Vivian Beaumont Theater.[36][37]

Criticism

While the theatre-going public may consider the Tony Awards to be the Oscars of live theatre, critics have suggested that the Tony Awards are primarily a promotional vehicle for a small number of large production companies and theatre owners in New York City.[38][39] In a 2014 Playbill article, Robert Simonson wrote that "Who gets to perform on the Tony Awards broadcast, what they get to perform, and for how long, have long been politically charged questions in the Broadway theatre community..." The producers "accept the situation ... because just as much as actually winning a Tony, a performance that lands well with the viewing public can translate into big box-office sales." Producer Robyn Goodman noted that, if the presentation at the ceremony shows well and the show wins a Tony, "you’re going to spike at the box office". [40] Statistical analysis may support this argument; productions that are nominated for the Tony Award for Best Musical (which are usually the productions that stage performances at the award show) have a longer run than non-nominated productions. Additionally, winning the Tony Award for Best Musical triples the likelihood that a production will stay open. However, plays nominated for the Tony Award for Best Play also receive longer runs, even though they usually do not perform at the award ceremony.[41]

The awards met further criticism when they eliminated the sound design awards in 2014.[42] In 2014, a petition calling for the return of the Sound Design categories received more than 30,000 signatures.[43] Addressing their previous concerns over Tony voters[44] in the category, it was announced that upon the awards' return for the 2017–2018 season, they would be decided by a subset of voters based on their expertise.[13][45][46]

Award milestones

Some notable records and facts about the Tony Awards include the following:[47]

Productions

  • Nominations: The most Tony nominations ever received by a single production was the musical Hamilton (2016) with 16 nominations in 13 categories, narrowly passing the previous holders of this record, The Producers (2001; 15 nominations in 12 categories) and Billy Elliot (2009; 15 nominations in 13 categories). The most Tony nominations for a non-musical play was the revival of Angels in America (2018; 11 nominations in 10 categories).
  • Wins: The most Tony Awards ever received by a single production was the musical The Producers (2001) with 12 awards, including Best Musical.
  • Non-musical wins: The most Tonys ever received by a non-musical play was The Coast of Utopia (2007) with 7 awards, including Best Play.
  • Most nominated with fewest wins: Musicals Mean Girls (2018) and The Scottsboro Boys (2011) are tied: both were nominated for 12 Tony Awards but did not win any.[48] The Scottsboro Boys also holds the record for most nominations for a closed show (having closed nearly six months before the Tony Awards).
  • Four productions, all musicals, have won all "big six" awards for their category: South Pacific (1950 awards), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (1979 awards), Hairspray (2003 awards)[49] and The Band's Visit (2018 awards); each won the Best Musical, Best Score, Best Book, Best Performance by a Leading Actor, Best Performance by a Leading Actress, and Best Direction awards.
  • Acting Awards: Only one production, South Pacific (1950 awards), has won all four of the acting awards in a single year.
  • Words and Music: Only five musicals have won the Tony Award for Best Musical when a person had (co-)written the Book (non-sung dialogue and storyline) and the Score (music and lyrics): 1958 winner The Music Man (Meredith Willson – award for Book and Score did not exist that year), 1986 winner The Mystery of Edwin Drood (Rupert Holmes – who also won for Book and Score), 1996 winner Rent (Jonathan Larson posthumously – who also won for Book and Score), 2011 winner The Book of Mormon (Trey Parker, Robert Lopez, and Matt Stone also won for Book and Score), and 2016 winner Hamilton (Lin-Manuel Miranda also won for Book and Score).
  • Design Awards: Nine shows have swept the Design Awards (original 3 of Best Scenic Design, Best Costume Design, Best Lighting Design – joined by Best Sound Design starting in 2008): Follies (1972), The Phantom of the Opera (1986), The Lion King (1998), The Producers (2001), The Light in the Piazza (2005), The Coast of Utopia (2007), the 2008 revival of South Pacific (first to sweep the expanded four awards for Creative Arts), Peter and the Starcatcher (first straight play to sweep the expanded four awards for Creative Arts) (2012), and Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (2018).
  • Revivals: Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller in 2012 became the first show (play or musical) to win as Best Production in four different years, Best Play at the 1949 awards, Best Revival at the 1984 awards (before the Best Revival award was split into two categories for Play and Musical in 1994), and Best Revival of a Play at the 1999 and 2012 awards. La Cage aux Folles made history as the first musical to win as Best Production in three different years, Best Musical at the 1984 awards and Best Revival of a Musical at both the 2005 awards and the 2010 awards.

Individuals

  • Wins: Harold Prince has won 21 Tony Awards, more than anyone else, including eight for Best Direction of a Musical, eight for Best Musical, two for Best Producer of a Musical, and three special Tony Awards. Tommy Tune has won ten Tony Awards including three for direction, four for choreography, two for performing, and one special Tony Award. Stephen Sondheim has won more Tony Awards than any other composer, with eight. Bob Fosse has won the most Tonys for choreography, also eight. Oliver Smith has won a record eight scenic design Tony Awards. Jules Fisher has won the most lighting design awards, also eight. Audra McDonald has the most performance Tony Awards with six. Terrence McNally and Tom Stoppard are the most awarded writers with four Tonys each; McNally has won Best Play twice and Best Book of a Musical twice, while Stoppard has won Best Play four times.
  • Most nominations: Julie Harris and Chita Rivera have been nominated more often than any other performer, a total of ten times.
  • Performers in two categories: Five performers have been nominated in two acting categories in the same year: Amanda Plummer, Dana Ivey, Kate Burton, Jan Maxwell, and Mark Rylance. Plummer in 1982 was nominated for Best Actress in a Play for A Taste of Honey and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Agnes of God, for which she won. Ivey in 1984 was nominated as Best Featured Actress in Musical for Sunday in the Park with George and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Heartbreak House. In 2002, Burton was nominated for Best Actress in Play for Hedda Gabler and Best Featured Actress in a Play for The Elephant Man. Maxwell was nominated in 2010 for Best Actress in a Play for The Royal Family and Best Featured Actress in a Play for Lend Me a Tenor. Rylance was nominated in 2014 for Best Actor in a Play for Richard III and Best Featured Actor in a Play for Twelfth Night, for which he won.
  • Performers in all categories: Five performers have been nominated for all four performance awards for which a performer is eligible.
    • Boyd Gaines was the first performer to be nominated for each of Best Featured Actor in a Play in The Heidi Chronicles (1989), Best Actor in a Musical for She Loves Me (1994), Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Contact (2000) and Gypsy (2008) and Best Actor in a Play for Journey's End (2007). Gaines won in three of the categories (and four of the five nominations), missing only for the performance in Journey's End.
    • Raúl Esparza was the second performer to be nominated in all four categories (no wins), achieving this over a mere six seasons: Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Taboo (2004), Best Actor in a Musical for Company (2007), Best Featured Actor in a Play for The Homecoming (2008), and Best Actor in a Play for Speed-the-Plow (2009).
    • Angela Lansbury was the third performer to be nominated for all four performance awards. She won Best Actress in a Musical for Mame (1966), Dear World (1969), Gypsy (1975), and Sweeney Todd (1979). She was nominated for Best Actress in a Play for Deuce (2007). She won Best Featured Actress in a Play for Blithe Spirit (2009). She was nominated for Featured Actress in a Musical for A Little Night Music (2010).
    • Jan Maxwell became the fourth performer to achieve this distinction by being nominated for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (2005), Best Featured Actress in a Play for Coram Boy (2007) and Lend Me a Tenor (2010), Best Actress in a Play for The Royal Family (2010), and Best Actress in a Musical for Follies (2012).
    • Audra McDonald became the fifth performer to accomplish the feat and the first to win in all four categories, winning Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical for Carousel (1994) and Ragtime (1998), Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play for Master Class (1996) and A Raisin in the Sun (2004), Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical for Porgy and Bess (2012), and Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play for Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill (2014). She was nominated for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical for Marie Christine (2000) and 110 in the Shade (2007).
  • Performers Playing Opposite Sex: While several performers have won Tonys for roles that have involved cross-dressing, only four have won for playing a character of the opposite sex: Mary Martin in the title role of Peter Pan (1955), Harvey Fierstein as Edna Turnblad in Hairspray (2003), Mark Rylance as Olivia in Twelfth Night (2014), and Lena Hall as Yitzhak in Hedwig and the Angry Inch (2014). In 2000, Australian actor Barry Humphries won the Special Tony Award for a live theatrical event at the 55th Annual Tony Awards for Dame Edna: The Royal Tour.
  • Shared Performances: All three of the young actors who shared the duties of performing the lead character in Billy Elliot the Musical (2009 awards) – David Alvarez, Trent Kowalik and Kiril Kulish – also shared a single nomination, then shared the win, for Best Actor in a Musical. Previously, the only prior joint winners were John Kani and Winston Ntshona, who shared the Best Actor in a Play award in 1975 for Sizwe Banzi is Dead and The Island, two plays they co-wrote and co-starred in.
  • Both sexes in one role: Ben Vereen and Patina Miller both won, respectively, Best Actor in a Musical in 1972 and Best Actress in a Musical in 2013 for the role of the Leading Player in Pippin, marking the first time the same role has been won by both a male and a female in a Broadway production.
  • Writing and performing: Two people have won Tonys as an author and as a performer. Harvey Fierstein won Best Play and Best Lead Actor in a Play for Torch Song Trilogy (1983), Best Book of a Musical for La Cage aux Folles, and Best Lead Actor in a Musical for Hairspray. Tracy Letts, the author of 2008 Best Play August: Osage County, won Best Lead Actor in a Play for Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (2013).
  • Youngest and oldest composers to win: Lin-Manuel Miranda is the youngest person to win the award; he was 28 when he won for In The Heights. Adolph Green is the oldest person to win the award; he was 76 when he won for The Will Rogers Follies. If T. S. Eliot were alive when he won for Cats, he would have been 94. Eliot is one of two people to receive the award posthumously, the other being Jonathan Larson, who won for Rent. He would have been 36.

Firsts

See also

References

  1. ^ American Theatre Wing. "2014 Rules for use of Tony Awards trademarks" tonyawards.com, Apr 8, 2017
  2. ^ Gans, Andrew (December 18, 2007). "League of American Theatres and Producers Announces Name Change" Archived December 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013. The League of American Theatres and Producers was renamed "The Broadway League".
  3. ^ Staff (undated). "Who's Who". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Tony Awards Rules and Regulations for 2013–14 season" tonyawards.com, accessed June 12, 2014
  5. ^ Lefkowitz, David and Simonson, Robert. " 'Fosse', 'Annie', 'Salesman' & 'Side Man' Win Top Tonys" Archived November 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, June 7, 1999
  6. ^ Gans, Andrew (April 18, 2011). "No Tickets Will Be Available to General Public for 2011 Tony Awards" Archived May 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  7. ^ Purcell, Carey (June 9, 2013). Kinky Boots, Vanya and Sonia, Pippin and Virginia Woolf? Are Big Winners at 67th Annual Tony Awards" Archived June 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  8. ^ McPhee, Ryan (April 18, 2017). "Kevin Spacey Will Host the 2017 Tony Awards". Playbill.
  9. ^ Pesner, Ben. "The Tony Awards – Category by Category" tonyawards.com (webcache.googleusercontent.com), accessed June 12, 2014
  10. ^ Gans, Andrew (October 8, 2008). "Tony Awards to Present Isabelle Stevenson Award in May 2009" Archived December 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Playbill. Retrieved September 2013.
  11. ^ Gans, Andrew (June 18, 2009)."Tony Awards Retire Special Theatrical Event Category" Archived June 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  12. ^ Bowgen, Philippe. "Tony Award Administration Committee Eliminates Sound Design Categories" Archived June 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, June 11, 2014
  13. ^ a b American Theatre Editors (April 24, 2017). "Tony Awards to Reinstate Sound Design Categories".American Theatre Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  14. ^ Nassour, Ellis (June 10, 2011). "From The 2011 Tony Playbill: Who Was the Original 'Tony'?". Playbill. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  15. ^ Nassour, Ellis. "Who Is 'Tony'?". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  16. ^ Bloom, Ken (2004). "Tony Award" Broadway – Its History, People and Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-415-93704-7.
  17. ^ a b Nassour, Ellis (June 12, 2011). "From the 2011 Tony Playbill: Tony Awards at 65 – Then and Now". Playbill. Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  18. ^ a b c Staff (undated). "Rules & Voting". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  19. ^ Jesse McKinley (June 1, 2003). "The Tony Awards; Is There a Tony Doctor in the House". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  20. ^ Tony Homepage tonyawards.com
  21. ^ Gorman, Bill (June 10, 2011)."Guess This Year's 'Tony Awards' Viewership (Poll) + Ratings History". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  22. ^ Bierly, Mandi (February 24, 2009). "Ratings: Oscars Up, 'Dollhouse' Down" Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  23. ^ Pincus-Roth, Zachary. (May 22, 2008). "Ask Playbill.com: Tony Statuettes". Playbill. Archived from the original on December 8, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  24. ^ Staff. "Tony Awards FAQ". tonyawards.com. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  25. ^ Staff. "A History of the Tony Awards". American Theatre Wing. Archived from the original on July 16, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  26. ^ Piepenburg, Erik. "Tony Gets a Mini-Makeover" The New York Times, June 10, 2010
  27. ^ Healy, Patrick (July 4, 2013). "Broadway Success Has a Price: $2,500". The New York Times. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  28. ^ Gans, Andrew; Simonson, Robert (September 19, 2002). "New Tony Awards Ruling on Classic Texts May Affect Current and Upcoming Shows" Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  29. ^ Gans, Andrew. "Tony Administration Committee Convenes for Final Meeting of the Season April 25" Archived April 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, April 25, 2014
  30. ^ a b Gans, Andrew. 50-Member Tony Awards Nominating Committee Announced for 2014–15 Season" Archived June 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, June 11, 2014
  31. ^ Jones, Kenneth (June 18, 2012). "Mark Brokaw, Cheyenne Jackson, Liza Gennaro, Adam Guettel and More Join Tony Nominating Committee for 2012–13". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  32. ^ (registration required) Healy, Patrick (July 15, 2009). "Tony Awards Committee Trims List of Voters, Citing Conflicts". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  33. ^ Gans, Andrew. "First-Nighters Lose Tony-Voting Privilege" Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, July 14, 2009
  34. ^ Gans, Andrew. "Tony Awards Extend Votes to Members of New York Drama Critics' Circle" Archived July 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine playbill.com, March 25, 2010
  35. ^ Gans, Andrew. "68th Annual Tony Awards Will Be Broadcast Live from Radio City Music Hall" Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Playbill, October 9, 2013
  36. ^ Pincus-Roth, Zachary (February 7, 2008). "Ask Playbill.com: Broadway or Off-Broadway – Part I". Playbill. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  37. ^ "The Hudson Theater Is Back on Broadway". Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  38. ^ Okrent, Daniel (May 9, 2004). "The Public Editor; There's No Business Like Tony Awards Business". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  39. ^ Teachout, Terry (March 29, 2012). "Why Straight Plays Can't Make It on Broadway". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
  40. ^ Simonson, Robert. "Previews of Coming Attractions: Tony Awards Favor Future Musicals Over Present Ones" playbill.com, June 12, 2014
  41. ^ Warne, Russell Thomas (2018). ""I hope I get it": Impact of Tony Award nominations and wins on Broadway production longevity". Arts and the Market. 8: 30–46. doi:10.1108/AAM-06-2017-0013.
  42. ^ "Breaking News: Tony Awards Committee Meets - Changes Rules for Revival Authors, Erases 2 Creative Categories for 2014–15!". Broadway World. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  43. ^ Cox, Gordon (April 24, 2017). "Tony Awards to Restore Sound Design Categories Next Season" Variety Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  44. ^ Editors, American Theatre (April 24, 2017). "Tony Awards to Reinstate Sound Design Categories".
  45. ^ McPhee, Ryan (April 24, 2017). "The Tony Awards Will Reinstate the Best Sound Design Categories" Playbill.com Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  46. ^ Cox, Gordon (April 24, 2017). "Tony Awards to Restore Sound Design Categories Next Season".
  47. ^ "Facts & Trivia – History from the Tony Awards" Archived July 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine tonyawards.com, Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  48. ^ Jones, Kenneth; Gans, Andrew (May 3, 2011). "2011 Tony Nominations Announced; 'Book of Mormon' Earns 14 Nominations [https://web.archive.org/web/20161022063110/http://www.playbill.com/article/2011-tony-nominations-announced-book-of-mormon-earns-14-nominations-com-178833 Archived October 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Playbill (playbill.com), Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  49. ^ Jones, Kenneth (June 9, 2003), " 'Take Me Out', 'Hairspray' Are Top Winners in 2003 Tony Awards; 'Long Day's Journey', 'Nine' Also Hot"Archived August 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Playbill (playbill.com) Retrieved August 26, 2017.

External links

Billy Crudup

William Gaither "Billy" Crudup ( born July 8, 1968) is an American actor. He is known for his role in Gypsy, and supporting roles in films including Eat Pray Love, Almost Famous, Big Fish, Mission: Impossible III, Watchmen, Public Enemies, Spotlight, and Alien: Covenant, as well as lead roles in films including Without Limits, Dedication, The Stanford Prison Experiment, and the animated film Princess Mononoke. He appeared in the 2017 superhero film Justice League as Doctor Henry Allen.

He has also had an extensive stage acting career, appearing mostly on Broadway. He has been nominated four times for a Tony Award for his acting, and won once, for his role in Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia in 2007.

From 1998 to 2005, Crudup was the narrator for "Priceless", a U.S. television ad campaign for MasterCard.

Carol Channing

Carol Elaine Channing (January 31, 1921 – January 15, 2019) was an American actress, singer, dancer and comedienne. Known for starring in Broadway and film musicals, her characters usually radiated a fervent expressiveness and an easily identifiable voice, whether singing or for comedic effect.

She began as a Broadway musical actress, starring in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes in 1949 and Hello, Dolly! in 1964, winning the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for the latter. She revived both roles several times throughout her career, most recently playing Dolly in 1995. Channing was nominated for her first Tony Award in 1956 for The Vamp followed by a nomination in 1961 for Show Girl. She received her fourth Tony Award nomination for the musical Lorelei in 1974.

As a film actress, she won the Golden Globe Award and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Muzzy in Thoroughly Modern Millie (1967). Her other film appearances include The First Traveling Saleslady (1956) and Skidoo (1968). On television, she appeared as an entertainer on variety shows, from The Ed Sullivan Show in the 1950s to Hollywood Squares. She had a standout performance as The White Queen in the TV production of Alice in Wonderland (1985), and had the first of many TV specials in 1966, An Evening with Carol Channing.Channing was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1981 and received a Lifetime Achievement Tony Award in 1995. She continued to perform and make appearances well into her 90s, singing songs from her repertoire and sharing stories with fans, cabaret style. She released an autobiography, Just Lucky I Guess, in 2002, and Larger Than Life, a documentary film about her career, was released in 2012.

Cherry Jones

Cherry Jones (born November 21, 1956) is an American actress. A five-time Tony Award nominee for her work on Broadway, she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the 1995 revival of The Heiress and for the 2005 original production of Doubt. She won the 2009 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for her role as Allison Taylor on the FOX television series 24. She has also won three Drama Desk Awards.

Jones made her Broadway debut in the 1987 original Broadway production of Stepping Out. Other stage credits include Pride's Crossing (1997–98) and The Glass Menagerie (2013–14). Her film appearances include The Horse Whisperer (1998), Erin Brockovich (2000), The Village (2004), Amelia (2009) and The Beaver (2011). In 2012, she played Dr. Judith Evans on the NBC drama Awake.

Death of a Salesman

Death of a Salesman is a 1949 play written by American playwright Arthur Miller. It won the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for Drama and Tony Award for Best Play. The play premiered on Broadway in February 1949, running for 742 performances, and has been revived on Broadway four times, winning three Tony Awards for Best Revival. It is widely considered to be one of the greatest plays of the 20th century.

Frances McDormand

Frances Louise McDormand (born Cynthia Ann Smith, June 23, 1957) is an American actress. She is the recipient of numerous accolades, including two Academy Awards, two Emmy Awards (Primetime), and a Tony Award, making her one of the few performers to achieve the Triple Crown of Acting. She has also won a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, and four Screen Actors Guild Awards.

McDormand was educated at Bethany College and Yale University. She has starred in a number of films by the Coen brothers, including Blood Simple (1984), Raising Arizona (1987), Fargo (1996), The Man Who Wasn't There (2001), Burn After Reading (2008), and Hail, Caesar! (2016). For playing Marge Gunderson in Fargo, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her other film roles include Mississippi Burning (1988), Almost Famous (2000), and North Country (2005), all earning her nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 2017, she starred as a hardened woman seeking justice for her daughter's murder in the crime-drama film Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri, which won her a second Academy Award for Best Actress, among others.

McDormand made her Broadway debut in a 1984 revival of the drama Awake and Sing!, and received a nomination for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her acclaimed performance as Stella Kowalski in a 1988 revival of A Streetcar Named Desire. She returned to Broadway in 2008 with a revival of The Country Girl, leading to a Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Actress in a Play. In 2011, she won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for playing a troubled single mother in Good People. On television, McDormand played the titular protagonist in the HBO miniseries Olive Kitteridge (2014), which won her the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress.

Harvey Fierstein

Harvey Forbes Fierstein ( FIRE-steen; born June 6, 1954) is an American actor, playwright, and voice actor. Fierstein has won the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play for his own play Torch Song Trilogy (about a gay drag-performer and his quest for true love and family) and the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical for playing Edna Turnblad in Hairspray. He also wrote the book for the musical La Cage aux Folles, for which he won the Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical, and wrote the book for the Tony Award-winning Kinky Boots. He was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 2007.

Idina Menzel

Idina Kim Menzel (; née Mentzel; born May 30, 1971) is an American actress, singer, and songwriter.

Menzel rose to prominence when she originated the role of Maureen Johnson in the Broadway musical Rent. Her performance earned her a Tony Award nomination in 1996. She reprised the role in the musical's 2005 film adaptation. In 2003, Menzel originated the role of Elphaba in the Broadway musical Wicked, a performance for which she won the 2004 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. Menzel returned to Broadway as Elizabeth Vaughan in the 2014 musical If/Then, which earned her a third Tony Award nomination.

Additionally, Menzel is known for playing Shelby Corcoran on the musical dramedy TV series Glee from 2010 to 2013 and Nancy Tremaine in the 2007 Disney live action/animated film Enchanted. She also voiced Queen Elsa in Walt Disney Animation Studios' hit 2013 3D computer-animated musical film Frozen, in which she sang the Oscar- and Grammy Award-winning song "Let It Go". The song reached number 5 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, making Menzel the first Tony Award-winning actress to reach the top 10. She won a Grammy award for the film's soundtrack. Her album Holiday Wishes was released in 2013 and reached number 6 on the Billboard 200.

Jane Krakowski

Jane Krakowski (; born Jane Krajkowski; October 11, 1968) is an American actress and singer. She is best known for the roles of Cousin Vicki in National Lampoon's Vacation, and Jenna Maroney in the NBC comedy series 30 Rock, for which she received four Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. Other notable television credits include Elaine Vassal on Ally McBeal and Jacqueline White in the Netflix comedy series Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt.

Krakowski also regularly performs on stage, winning a Tony Award for her performance in the Broadway revival of Nine, as well as receiving Tony nominations for Grand Hotel and She Loves Me, and a Laurence Olivier Award for her performance as Miss Adelaide in the West End revival of Guys and Dolls.

Jennifer Ehle

Jennifer Anne Ehle (; born December 29, 1969) is an American actress. She won the BAFTA TV Award for Best Actress for her role as Elizabeth Bennet in the 1995 BBC miniseries Pride and Prejudice. For her work on Broadway, she won the 2000 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for The Real Thing, and the 2007 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for The Coast of Utopia. She is the daughter of English actress Rosemary Harris and American author John Ehle.

Ehle made her West End debut in Peter Hall's 1991 production of Tartuffe, and joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1995. Other television credits include The Camomile Lawn (1992), A Gifted Man (2011–2012) and The Looming Tower (2018). She has also appeared in supporting roles in such films as Wilde (1997), Sunshine (1999), The King's Speech (2010), Contagion (2011), Zero Dark Thirty (2012), RoboCop (2014), and Fifty Shades of Grey (2015). Ehle also portrayed Lydia Marsh in The Miseducation of Cameron Post (2018).

Jessica Tandy

Jessica Tandy (born Jessie Alice Tandy; 7 June 1909 – 11 September 1994) was an English-American stage and film actress best known for her Academy Award winning performance in the film Driving Miss Daisy. Tandy appeared in over 100 stage productions and had more than 60 roles in film and TV.Born in London to Jessie Helen Horspool and commercial traveller Harry Tandy, she was only 18 when she made her professional debut on the London stage in 1927. During the 1930s, she appeared in a large number of plays in London's West End, playing roles such as Ophelia (opposite John Gielgud's legendary Hamlet) and Katherine (opposite Laurence Olivier's Henry V).During this period, she also worked in a number of British films. Following the end of her marriage to the British actor Jack Hawkins, she moved to New York in 1940, where she met Canadian actor Hume Cronyn. He became her second husband and frequent partner on stage and screen.

She received the Tony Award for best performance by a Leading Actress in A Play for her performance as Blanche DuBois in the original Broadway production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948. Tandy shared the prize with Katharine Cornell (who won for the female lead in Antony and Cleopatra) and Judith Anderson (for the latter's portrayal of Medea) in a three-way tie for the award. Over the following three decades, her career continued sporadically and included a supporting role in Alfred Hitchcock's horror film, The Birds (1963), and a Tony Award-winning performance in The Gin Game (1977, playing in the two-hander play opposite Hume Cronyn). Along with Cronyn, she was a member of the original acting company of the Guthrie Theater.In the mid-1980s she had a career revival. She appeared with Cronyn in the Broadway production of Foxfire in 1983 and its television adaptation four years later, winning both a Tony Award and an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Annie Nations. During these years, she appeared in films such as Cocoon (1985), also with Cronyn.She became the oldest actress to receive the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Driving Miss Daisy (1989), for which she also won a BAFTA and a Golden Globe, and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Fried Green Tomatoes (1991). At the height of her success, she was named as one of People's "50 Most Beautiful People". She was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1990, and continued working until shortly before her death.

List of people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards

Fifteen people have won all four major annual American entertainment awards in a competitive, individual (non-group) category of the Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony (EGOT) Awards. Respectively, these awards honor outstanding achievements in television, recording, film, and theater. Winning all four awards has been referred to as winning the "grand slam" of American show business.The EGOT acronym was coined by actor Philip Michael Thomas in late 1984, when his role on the new hit show Miami Vice brought instant fame, stating a desire to complete his own EGOT-winning collection. When coining the acronym, Thomas stated that it also means "energy, growth, opportunity and talent". However, he also intended that the "E" should only stand for the Primetime Emmy Award, and not a Daytime Emmy nor any of the awards presented at the other types of Emmy ceremonies. Nevertheless, two of 15 people listed as EGOT winners have won only the Daytime Emmy.

None of the 15 EGOT winners have actually won the awards in the acronym's order (first an Emmy, then a Grammy, then an Oscar, and finally a Tony), nor have they won each award to complete the EGOT before winning another (e.g. Audrey Hepburn, who won her awards in OTTETOG order). The closest person has been Robert Lopez, who won the "grand slam" in TEGO order.

Matthew Broderick

Matthew Broderick (born March 21, 1962) is an American actor and singer. His best known roles include the title character in Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986), the voice of the adult Simba in Disney's The Lion King trilogy (1994–2004), Leo Bloom in both the Broadway and Hollywood productions of The Producers (2005). Other notable films he has appeared in include WarGames (1983), Glory (1989), The Freshman (1990), The Cable Guy (1996), Godzilla (1998), Election (1999), Inspector Gadget (1999) and You Can Count on Me (2000). Broderick also directed himself in Infinity (1996) and provided voice work in Bee Movie (2007) and The Tale of Despereaux (2008)

Broderick has won two Tony Awards, one for Best Featured Actor in a Play for Brighton Beach Memoirs (1983), and one for Best Actor in a Musical for How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1995). As of 2018, Broderick remains the youngest winner of the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play.In 2006, for his contributions to the film industry, Matthew Broderick was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame with a motion pictures star located at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard. Eleven years later, Broderick earned induction into the American Theater Hall of Fame.

Mike Nichols

Mike Nichols (born Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky; November 6, 1931 – November 19, 2014) was an American film and theater director, producer, actor, and comedian. He was noted for his ability to work across a range of genres and an aptitude for getting the best out of actors regardless of their acting experience. Nichols began his career in the 1950s with the comedy improvisational troupe, The Compass Players, predecessor of The Second City, in Chicago. He then teamed up with his improv partner, Elaine May, to form the comedy duo Nichols and May. Their live improv acts were a hit on Broadway resulting in three albums, with their debut album winning a Grammy Award.

After Nichols and May disbanded their act in 1961, Nichols began directing plays. He soon earned a reputation as a skilled Broadway director with a flair for creating innovative productions and the ability to elicit polished performances from actors. His debut Broadway play was Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park in 1963, with Robert Redford and Elizabeth Ashley. He next directed Luv in 1964 and in 1965 directed another Neil Simon play, The Odd Couple. Nichols received a Tony Award for each of those plays. Nearly five decades later, he won his sixth Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play with a revival of Death of a Salesman in 2012. During his career he directed or produced more than twenty-five Broadway plays.

In 1966, Warner Brothers invited Nichols to direct his first film, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. The groundbreaking and acclaimed film led critics to declare Nichols the "new Orson Welles". The film garnered 13 Academy Award nominations, winning five. It was also a box office hit and became the number 1 film of 1966. His next film was The Graduate in 1967, starring then unknown actor Dustin Hoffman, alongside Anne Bancroft and Katharine Ross. The film was another critical and financial success, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1967 and receiving seven Academy Award nominations, winning Nichols the Academy Award for Best Director. Among the other films he directed were Catch-22 (1970), Carnal Knowledge (1971), Silkwood (1983), Working Girl (1988), Wolf (1994), The Birdcage (1996), Closer (2004), and Charlie Wilson's War (2007).

Along with an Academy Award, Nichols won a Grammy Award (the first for a comedian born outside the United States), four Emmy Awards and nine Tony Awards. He was also a three-time BAFTA Award winner. His other honors included the Lincoln Center Gala Tribute in 1999, the National Medal of Arts in 2001, the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2010. His films garnered a total of 42 Academy Award nominations and seven wins. He is one of the few people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards

Stockard Channing

Stockard Channing (born Susan Antonia Williams Stockard; February 13, 1944) is an American stage, film and television actress. She is known for playing Betty Rizzo in the film Grease (1978) and First Lady Abbey Bartlet on the NBC television series The West Wing (1999–2006). She is also known for originating the role of Ouisa Kittredge in the stage and film versions of Six Degrees of Separation, for which she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play and the Academy Award for Best Actress.

A 13-time Primetime Emmy Award nominee and seven-time Tony Award nominee, she won the 1985 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the Broadway revival of A Day in the Death of Joe Egg, and won Emmy Awards for The West Wing and The Matthew Shepard Story, both in 2002. She won a Daytime Emmy Award in 2004 for her role in Jack. Her film appearances include The Fortune (1975), The Big Bus (1976), The Cheap Detective (1978), Heartburn (1986), Up Close & Personal (1996), Practical Magic (1998), and Woody Allen's Anything Else (2003). She also played the recurring role of Veronica Loy on the CBS drama The Good Wife (2012–16).

Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical

The Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical is awarded to the actor who was voted as the best actor in a musical play, whether a new production or a revival. The award has been given since 1948, but the nominees who did not win have only been publicly announced since 1956.

Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical

The Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical is awarded to the best actress in a musical, whether a new production or a revival. The award has been given since 1948, but the nominees who did not win have only been publicly announced since 1956.

Tony Award for Best Musical

The Tony Awards are yearly awards that recognize achievement in live Broadway theatre. The award for Best Musical is one of the ceremony's longest-standing awards, having been presented each year since 1949. The award goes to the producers of the winning musical. A musical is eligible for consideration in a given year if it has not previously been produced on Broadway and is not "determined... to be a 'classic' or in the historical or popular repertoire."

Best Musical is the final award presented at the Tony Awards ceremony. Excerpts from the musicals that are nominated for this award are usually performed during the ceremony before this award is presented.

This is a list of winners and nominations for the Tony Award for Best Musical.

Tony Award for Best Original Score

The Tony Award for Best Original Score is the Tony Award given to the composers and lyricists of the best original score written for a musical or play in that year. The score consists of music and lyrics. To be eligible, a score must be written specifically for the theatre and must be original; compilations of non-theatrical music or compilations of earlier theatrical music are not eligible for consideration.

Viola Davis

Viola Davis (born August 11, 1965) is an American actress and producer. She is the recipient of several awards, and is the first black actor to have won an Academy Award, an Emmy Award, and a Tony Award in acting, named the Triple Crown of Acting.Born in St. Matthews, South Carolina, Davis began her acting career, starring in minor theater productions. After graduating from the Juilliard School in 1993, she won an Obie Award in 1999 for her performance as Ruby McCollum in Everybody's Ruby. She played supporting and minor roles in several films and television series in the late 1990s and early 2000s, before winning the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for her role as Tonya in August Wilson's King Hedley II in 2001. Davis's film breakthrough came in 2008, when her supporting role in the drama Doubt earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.

Greater success came to Davis in the 2010s; she won several accolades, beginning with the 2010 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her role as Rose Maxson in the revival of August Wilson's play Fences. For her lead role as 1960s housemaid Aibileen Clark in the comedy-drama The Help (2011), Davis received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress and won a SAG Award. In 2014, Davis began playing lawyer Annalise Keating in the ABC television drama series How to Get Away with Murder, and in 2015, she became the first black woman to win the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series for her performance. In 2016, Davis played Amanda Waller in the superhero film Suicide Squad and reprised the role of Rose Maxson in the film adaptation of Fences, the latter of which earned her the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 2018, Davis starred as Veronica Rawlings in Steve McQueen's heist film Widows.

Davis and her husband, Julius Tennon, are founders of the production company, JuVee Productions. Davis is also widely recognized for her advocacy and support of human rights and equal rights for women and women of color. She identifies as a feminist. In 2012 and 2017, she was listed by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world.

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