Tony Abbott

Anthony John Abbott (born 4 November 1957) is an Australian politician who served as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia from 2013 to 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 2009 to 2015. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 2009 to 2013. Abbott was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Warringah in 1994.[3]

Abbott was born in London to an Australian mother and a British father, and moved to Sydney at the age of two. He studied economics and law at the University of Sydney, and then attended The Queen's College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar, studying Philosophy, Politics and Economics. After graduating from Oxford, Abbott briefly trained as a Roman Catholic seminarian, and later worked as a journalist, manager, and political adviser. In 1992, he was appointed director of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, a position he held until his election to parliament at the 1994 Warringah by-election.

After the 1998 election, Abbott was appointed Minister for Employment Services in the Second Howard Ministry. He was promoted to cabinet in 2001 as Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business. In 2003, Abbott became Minister for Health and Ageing, retaining this position until the defeat of the Howard Government at the 2007 election. Initially serving in the shadow cabinets of Brendan Nelson and then Malcolm Turnbull, Abbott resigned from the front bench in November 2009, in protest against Turnbull's support for the Rudd Government's proposed Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).[4] Forcing a leadership ballot on the subject, Abbott defeated Turnbull by 42 votes to 41, to become the party's leader and Leader of the Opposition.

Abbott led the Coalition at the 2010 election, which resulted in a hung parliament. Following negotiations, Labor formed a Government, with the support of one Greens MP and three Independent MPs. Abbott was re-elected as Liberal Leader unopposed.[5] Abbott went on to lead the Coalition to victory in the 2013 election and was sworn in as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia on 18 September 2013. On 14 September 2015, Abbott was defeated in a vote for the Liberal leadership (54 votes to 44) by Malcolm Turnbull, who replaced Abbott as Prime Minister the following day.[6][7]

Tony Abbott

Tony Abbott - 2010
28th Prime Minister of Australia
In office
18 September 2013 – 15 September 2015
MonarchElizabeth II
Governor-GeneralDame Quentin Bryce
Sir Peter Cosgrove
DeputyWarren Truss
Preceded byKevin Rudd
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull
Leader of the Liberal Party
In office
1 December 2009 – 14 September 2015
DeputyJulie Bishop
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull
Leader of the Opposition
In office
1 December 2009 – 18 September 2013
Prime MinisterKevin Rudd
Julia Gillard
Kevin Rudd
DeputyJulie Bishop
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull
Succeeded byChris Bowen
Special Envoy for Indigenous Affairs
Assumed office
28 August 2018
Prime MinisterScott Morrison
MinisterNigel Scullion
Preceded byOffice established
Minister for Health and Ageing
In office
7 October 2003 – 3 December 2007
Prime MinisterJohn Howard
Preceded byKay Patterson
Succeeded byNicola Roxon
Leader of the House
In office
26 November 2001 – 3 December 2007
Prime MinisterJohn Howard
Preceded byPeter Reith
Succeeded byAnthony Albanese
Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for the Public Service
In office
26 November 2001 – 7 October 2003
Prime MinisterJohn Howard
Preceded byDavid Kemp
Succeeded byKevin Andrews
Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations
In office
30 January 2001 – 7 October 2003
Prime MinisterJohn Howard
Preceded byPeter Reith
Succeeded byKevin Andrews
Minister for Employment Services
In office
21 October 1998 – 30 January 2001
Prime MinisterJohn Howard
Preceded byChris Ellison
Succeeded byMal Brough
10th Chairman of the Commonwealth of Nations
In office
18 September 2013 – 15 November 2013
Preceded byKevin Rudd
Succeeded byMahinda Rajapaksa
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Warringah
Assumed office
26 March 1994
Preceded byMichael MacKellar
Majority27,421 (15.35%)
Director of the Australians for Constitutional Monarchy Group
In office
4 June 1992 – 18 February 1994
Preceded byOrganisation established
Succeeded byKerry Jones
Personal details
Anthony John Abbott

4 November 1957 (age 61)
Lambeth, London, England
British (1957–1993)
Political partyLiberal
Other political
Margie Aitken (m. 1988)
EducationSt Aloysius' College
Saint Ignatius' College
Alma mater

Early life

Birth and family background

Abbott was born on 4 November 1957 at the General Lying-In Hospital in Lambeth, London, England. He is the oldest of four children born to Fay (née Peters; b. 1933) and Richard Henry "Dick" Abbott (1924–2017[8]). He has three younger sisters, including Christine Forster, who has also been involved in politics.[9] His mother was born in Sydney,[9] while his father was born in Newcastle upon Tyne, England.[8]

In 1940, during World War II, 16-year-old Dick Abbott came to Australia with his British parents.[10] Dick was called up to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942. Dick and his mother returned to the United Kingdom in 1954 where he met and married Fay Peters, a dietitian.[11] Willemina Bredschneijder, Abbott's maternal great-grandmother, was the first of his ancestors to arrive in Australia. She immigrated to Australia from the Netherlands in 1912 with her five-year-old son, Anthony Bredschneijder (later to take his stepfather's surname Peters). His maternal grandmother Phyllis Lacey was born in Wales,[12][13] and married Anthony Peters in New South Wales in 1932.[14]

Childhood and education

On 7 September 1960, Abbott, his parents, and younger sister Jane, left the UK for Australia on the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme ship SS Oronsay.[15][14] Settling in Sydney, the family first lived in the suburb of Bronte and later moved to Chatswood.[16] Dick Abbott established what was to become one of the largest orthodontics practices in Australia, retiring in 2002.[15]

Abbott attended primary school at St Aloysius' College at Milson's Point, before completing his secondary school education at St Ignatius' College, Riverview, both Jesuit schools.[17] He graduated with a Bachelor of Economics (BEc) in 1979 and a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) in 1981[18] from the University of Sydney. He resided at St John's College and was president of the Student Representative Council.[19] Influenced by his chaplain at St Ignatius', Father Emmet Costello, he then attended The Queen's College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar, where in June 1983 he graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) and on 21 October 1989 proceeded by seniority to Master of Arts.[20][21][22][23]

During his university days, Abbott gained media attention for political opposition to the then dominant left-wing student leadership. Once he was violently beaten at a university conference.[24] A student newspaper editor with political views opposed to those of Abbott took him to court for indecent assault after he touched her during a student debate; the charges were dismissed by the court.[25] According to the Sun-Herald newspaper, it was "an ugly and often violent time", and Abbott's tactics in student politics were like "an aggressive terrier".[26] Abbott organised rallies in support of Governor-General John Kerr after he dismissed the Whitlam Government in November 1975, as well as a pro-Falklands War demonstration during his time at Oxford.[27] At St. Ignatius College, Abbott had been taught and influenced by the Jesuits. At university, he encountered B. A. Santamaria, a Catholic layman who led a movement against Communism within the Australian labour movement in the 1950s, culminating in the 1955 Labor Party split and the formation of the Democratic Labor Party.[24] Santamaria has been described as Abbott's "political hero". He wrote the foreword to a novelisation of Santamaria's life written by Alan Reid, and in 2015 launched a biography of Santamaria written by Gerard Henderson.[28]

Abbott was a student boxer, earning two Blues for boxing while at Oxford.[29][30][31][32] He was a heavyweight with modest height and reach.[33][34]

Early adult life and pre-political career

Following his time in Britain, Abbott returned to Australia and told his family of his intention to join the priesthood. In 1984, aged 26, he entered St Patrick's Seminary, Manly.[24] Abbott did not complete his studies at the seminary, leaving the institution in 1987. Interviewed prior to the 2013 election, Abbott said of his time as a trainee priest: "The Jesuits had helped to instil in me this thought that our calling in life was to be, to use the phrase: 'a man for others'. And I thought then that the best way in which I could be a 'man for others' was to become a priest. I discovered pretty soon that I was a bit of a square peg in a round hole … eventually working out that, I'm afraid, I just didn't have what it took to be an effective priest."[35]

Abbott worked in journalism, briefly ran a concrete plant, and began to get involved in national poliics.[24] Throughout his time as a student and seminarian, he was writing articles for newspapers and magazines—first for Honi Soit (the University of Sydney student newspaper) and later The Catholic Weekly and national publications such as The Bulletin. He eventually became a journalist and wrote for The Australian.[19]

At birth, Abbott was a British citizen[36] by birth in the UK and by descent from his British-born father. He did not hold Australian citizenship from birth, as at the time Australian citizenship by descent could only be acquired from the father. Abbott became a naturalised Australian citizen on 26 June 1981, apparently so as to become eligible for a Rhodes scholarship. On 12 October 1993, he renounced his British citizenship in order to be eligible to run for parliament under section 44 of the constitution.[37]

Political career

Abbott led the Coalition at the 2010 election, which resulted in a hung parliament. Following negotiations, Labor formed a Government with the support of one Greens MP and three independent MPs. Abbott was re-elected as Liberal Leader unopposed.[5] He went on to lead the Coalition to victory at the 2013 election and was sworn in as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia on 18 September 2013. Abbott lost a Liberal Party leadership spill on 14 September 2015, and was replaced by Malcolm Turnbull as leader of the party and Prime Minister of Australia.[38]

Early career

Abbott began his public life when he was employed as a journalist for The Bulletin, an influential news magazine, and later for The Australian newspaper.[19] While deciding his future career path, Abbott developed friendships with senior figures in the New South Wales Labor Party, and was encouraged by Bob Carr, as well as Johno Johnson, to join the Labor Party and run for office. Abbott felt uncomfortable with the role of unions within the party, however, and wrote in his biography that he felt Labor "just wasn't the party (for me)".[39] For a time he worked as a plant manager for Pioneer Concrete before becoming press secretary to Liberal Leader John Hewson from 1990 to 1993, helping to develop the Fightback! policy.[19]

Prime Minister John Howard wrote in his autobiography that Abbott considered working on his staff prior to accepting the position with The Bulletin, and it was on Howard's recommendation that Hewson engaged Abbott. According to Howard, he and Abbott established a good rapport, but Hewson and Abbott fell out shortly before the 1993 election, and Abbott ended up in search of work following the re-election of the Keating Government.[40] He was approached to head Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM), the main group organising support for the maintenance of the Monarchy in Australia amidst the Keating Government's campaign for a change to a republic.[40] Abbott renounced his British citizenship in 1993.[41] Between 1993 and 1994, Abbott served as Executive Director of ACM.[18] According to biographer Michael Duffy, Abbott's involvement with ACM "strengthened his relationship with John Howard, who in 1994 suggested he seek pre-selection for a by-election in the seat of Warringah".[42] Howard provided a glowing reference and Abbott won pre-selection for the safe Liberal seat.[43]

Despite his conservative leanings, Abbott acknowledged he voted for Labor in the 1988 NSW state election as he thought "Barrie Unsworth was the best deal Premier that New South Wales had ever had". Nevertheless, Abbott then clarified that he has never voted for Labor in a federal election.[44]

Member of Parliament, 1994–2009

Tony Abbott
Tony Abbott in 1996

Abbott won Liberal preselection for the federal Division of Warringah by-election in March 1994 following the resignation of Michael MacKellar. He easily held the safe Liberal seat in the Liberals' traditional North Shore heartland, suffering a swing of only 1 percentage point in the primary vote.[45] He easily won the seat in his own right at the 1996 general election, and has only dropped below 59 percent of the two-party vote once, in 2001; that year independent Peter Macdonald, the former member for the state seat of Manly, held Abbott to only 55 percent.

Abbott served as the parliamentary secretary to the Minister for Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (1996–98), Minister for Employment Services (1998–2001), Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations and Small Business (2001), Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations (2001–03) and Minister for Health and Ageing from 2003 to November 2007. From late 2001 to November 2007, he was also Manager of Government Business in the House of Representatives.[46]

In 1998, Abbott established a trust fund called "Australians for Honest Politics Trust" to help bankroll civil court cases against the One Nation Party and its leader Pauline Hanson.[47] Prime Minister John Howard denied any knowledge of existence of such a fund.[48] Abbott was also accused of offering funds to One Nation dissident Terry Sharples to support his court battle against the party. However, Howard defended the honesty of Abbott in this matter.[49] Abbott conceded that the political threat One Nation posed to the Howard Government was "a very big factor" in his decision to pursue the legal attack, but he also claimed to be acting "in Australia's national interest". Howard also defended Abbott's actions saying "It's the job of the Liberal Party to politically attack other parties – there's nothing wrong with that."[50]

As a Parliamentary Secretary, Abbott oversaw the establishment of the Green Corps program which involved young people in environmental restoration work.[51][52] As Minister for Employment Services, he oversaw the implementation of the Job Network and was responsible for the government's Work for the Dole scheme.[53][54][55][56][57] He also commissioned the Cole Royal Commission into "thuggery and rorts" in the construction industry and created the Office of the Australian Building and Construction Commissioner in response and to lift productivity.[58][59]

The Liberal Party allowed members a free choice in the 1999 republic referendum. Abbott was one of the leading voices within the party campaigning for the successful "No" vote, pitting him against future parliamentary colleague and leading republican Malcolm Turnbull.[60]

Cabinet minister (1998–2007)

When Abbott was promoted to the Cabinet in 1998, Prime Minister Howard described him as an effective performer with an endearing style, whereas the Opposition described him as a "bomb thrower."[55] Howard appointed Abbott to replace Kay Patterson as Minister for Health in 2003, during a period of contentious Medicare reform and a crisis in Medical Indemnity Insurance, in which the price of insurance was forcing doctors out of practice.[61][62] The Australian Medical Association was threatening to pull out all Australian doctors.[63] Abbott worked with the states to address the crisis and keep the system running.[59]

Health care initiatives instigated by Abbott include the Nurse Family Partnership, a long term scheme aimed at improving conditions for indigenous youth by improving mother-child relationships. The scheme was successful in reducing child abuse and improving school retention rates.[63]

In 2005, Abbott was holidaying with his family in Bali when the Bali bombings occurred. Abbott visited the victims of the bombings in hospital, and in his capacity as Health Minister organised for Australians who required lifesaving emergency surgery and hospitalisation to be flown to Singapore.[64]

In 2006, Abbott controversially opposed access to the abortion drug RU486, and the Parliament voted to strip Health Ministers of the power to regulate this area of policy.[65] During this time, Abbott likened the act of having an abortion to committing a murder, saying "... we have a bizarre double standard, a bizarre double standard in this country where someone who kills a pregnant woman's baby is guilty of murder but a woman who aborts an unborn baby is simply exercising choice".[66]

Abbott introduced the Medicare Safety Net to cap the annual out-of-pocket costs of Medicare cardholders to a maximum amount. In 2007, he attracted criticism over long delays in funding for cancer diagnostic equipment (PET scanners).[67][68][69][70]

According to Sydney Morning Herald's political editor, Peter Hartcher, prior to the defeat of the Howard Government at the 2007 election, Abbott had opposed the government's centrepiece WorkChoices industrial relations deregulation reform in Cabinet, on the basis that the legislation exceeded the government's mandate, was harsh on workers, and was politically dangerous to the government.[59] John Howard wrote in his 2010 autobiography that Abbott was "never a zealot about pursuing industrial relations changes" and expressed "concern about making too many changes" during Cabinet's discussion of WorkChoices.[71]

Abbott campaigned as Minister for Health at the 2007 election. On 31 October, he apologised for saying "just because a person is sick doesn't mean that he is necessarily pure of heart in all things", after Bernie Banton, an asbestos campaigner and terminal mesothelioma sufferer, complained that Abbott was unavailable to collect a petition.[72]

Shadow minister (2007–09)

The Coalition lost government in 2007 and Abbott was re-elected to the seat of Warringah with a 1.8% swing toward the Labor Party.[73] Following Peter Costello's rejection of the leadership of the Parliamentary Liberal Party, Abbott nominated for the position of party leader, along with Malcolm Turnbull and Brendan Nelson. After canvassing the support of his colleagues, Abbott decided to withdraw his nomination. He seemingly did not have the numbers, noting that he was "obviously very closely identified with the outgoing prime minister."[74] He said he would not rule out contesting the leadership at some time in the future.[75] Of the three candidates, Abbott was the only one who had previous experience in Opposition. Nelson was elected Liberal leader in December 2007 and Abbott was assigned the Shadow Portfolio of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.[76] As indigenous affairs spokesman, Abbott said that it had been a mistake for the Howard Government not to offer a national apology to the Stolen Generations;[77] spent time teaching at remote Aboriginal communities;[78] and argued for the Rudd Government to continue the Northern Territory National Emergency Response which restricted alcohol and introduced conditional welfare in certain Aboriginal communities.[79]

During this period in Opposition, Abbott wrote Battlelines, a biography and reflection on the Howard Government, and potential future policy direction for the Liberal Party.[80] In the book, Abbott said that in certain aspects the Australian Federation was "dysfunctional" and in need of repair. He recommended the establishment of local hospital and school boards to manage health and education,[81] and discussed family law reform, multiculturalism, climate change, and international relations. The book received a favourable review from former Labor Party speech writer Bob Ellis and The Australian described it as "read almost universally as Abbott's intellectual application for the party's leadership after the Turnbull experiment".[82][83]

The number of unauthorised immigrant arrivals in boats to Australia increased during 2008.[84] Abbott claimed that this was an effect of the Rudd Government's easing of border protection laws and accused Kevin Rudd of ineptitude and hypocrisy on the issue of unauthorised immigrants upon boats arriving, particularly during the Oceanic Viking affair of October 2009, saying, "John Howard found a problem and created a solution. Kevin Rudd found a solution and has now created a problem".[85]

During November 2009, Abbott resigned from shadow ministerial responsibilities due to the Liberal Party's position on the Rudd Government's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), leading to the resignation of other shadow ministers.[86]

Leader of the Opposition (2009–13)

On 1 December 2009, Abbott was elected to the position of Leader of the Liberal Party of Australia over Turnbull and Shadow Treasurer Joe Hockey. Abbott proposed blocking the government's ETS in the Senate whereas Turnbull sought to amend the bill which the majority of the Liberal Party did not support.[87] Abbott named his Shadow Cabinet on 8 December 2009.[88]

Abbott described Prime Minister Rudd's Emission Trading plan as a 'Great big tax on everything' and opposed it. The Coalition and minor parties voted against the government's ETS legislation in the Senate and the legislation was rejected. Abbott announced a new Coalition policy on carbon emission reduction in February, which committed the Coalition to a 5 per cent reduction in emissions by 2020. Abbott proposed the creation of an 'emissions reduction fund' to provide 'direct' incentives to industry and farmers to reduce carbon emissions. In April, Rudd announced that plans for the introduction his ETS would be delayed until 2013.[89]

When appointed to the Liberal leadership, Abbott's Catholicism and moral beliefs became subjects of repeated media questioning. Various commentators suggested that his traditionalist views would polarise female voters.[90] He told press gallery journalist Laurie Oakes that he did not do doorstop interviews in front of church but regularly faced pointed questions about his faith which were not being put to Prime Minister Rudd, who conducted weekly church door press conferences following his attendances at Anglican services.[91]

Abbott reportedly missed the 2009 vote on the Rudd Government $42 billion stimulus package because he fell asleep in his parliamentary office after a night of drinking. When asked by a journalist whether he had been drunk, Abbott said "that is an impertinent question" and that he "wasn't keeping count" but thought it was "maybe two" bottles of wine.[92][93]

In a 60 Minutes interview aired on 7 March 2010, Abbott was asked: "Homosexuality? How do you feel about that?". He replied: "I'd probably feel a bit threatened … it's a fact of life and I try to treat people as people and not put them in pigeonholes."[94] In later interviews Abbott apologised for the remark.[95][96] In 2013, Abbott stated on 3AW that if his sister Christine Forster were to have a marriage ceremony with her partner Virginia he would attend.[97][98][99][100]

Rear Admiral Davyd Thomas AM, CSC, RAN, Major General Paul Symon, AO and Air Marshal Mark Binskin, AM during the wreath laying at the NADC
Attending the 2010 Anzac Day National Service at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra

In March 2010, Abbott, announced a new policy initiative to provide for six months paid parental leave, funded by an increase in corporate tax by 1.7 percentage points on all taxable company income above $5 million. Business groups and the government opposed the plan, however it won support from the Australian Greens.[101]

While Opposition Spokesman for Indigenous Affairs, Abbott spent time in remote Cape York Aboriginal communities as a teacher, organised through prominent indigenous activist Noel Pearson. Abbott repeatedly spoke of his admiration for Pearson, and in March 2010, introduced the Wild Rivers (Environmental Management) Bill to Parliament in support of Pearson's campaign to overturn the Queensland government's Wild Rivers legislation. Abbott and Pearson believed that the Queensland law would 'block the economic development' of indigenous land, and interfere with Aboriginal land rights.[102]

Abbott completed an Ironman Triathlon event in March 2010 at Port Macquarie, New South Wales. In April he set out on a 9-day charity bike ride between Melbourne and Sydney, the annual Pollie Pedal, generating political debate about whether he should have committed so much time to physical fitness.[103][104] Abbott described the events as an opportunity to "stop at lots of little towns along the way where people probably never see or don't very often see a federal member of Parliament."[105]

In his first Budget reply speech as Opposition Leader, Abbott sought to portray the Rudd Government's third budget as a "tax and spend" budget and promised to fight the election on the new mining "super-profits" tax proposed by Rudd.[106][107][108]

2010 election

On 24 June 2010, Julia Gillard replaced Kevin Rudd as Australian Labor Party leader and Prime Minister.[109] The replacement of a first-term Prime Minister was unusual in Australian political history and the Rudd-Gillard rivalry remained a vexed issue for the Gillard Government into the 2010 election and its subsequent term. On 17 July, Gillard called the 2010 federal election for 21 August.[110] Polls in the first week gave a view that Labor would be re-elected with an increased majority, with Newspoll and an Essential poll showing a lead of 10 points (55–45) two party preferred.[111]

The two leaders met for one official debate during the campaign. Studio audience surveys by Channel 9 and Seven Network suggested a win to Gillard.[111] Unable to agree on further debates, the leaders went on to appear separately on stage for questioning at community fora in Sydney and Brisbane. In Sydney on 11 August, Abbott's opening statement focused on his main election messages around government debt, taxation and asylum seekers. An exit poll of the Rooty Hill RSL audience accorded Abbott victory.[112] Gillard won the audience poll at Broncos Leagues Club meeting in Brisbane on 18 August.[113] Abbott appeared for public questioning on the ABC's Q&A program on 16 August.[114]

Labor and the Coalition each won 72 seats in the 150-seat House of Representatives,[115] four short of the requirement for majority government, resulting in the first hung parliament since the 1940 election.[116][117][118]

Abbott and Gillard commenced a 17-day period of negotiation with crossbenchers over who would form government. On the crossbench, four independent members, one member of the National Party of Western Australia and one member of the Australian Greens held the balance of power.[119][120] Following the negotiations, Gillard formed a minority government with the support of an Australian Greens MP and three independent MPs on the basis of confidence and supply. Another independent and the WA National gave their confidence and supply support to the Coalition, resulting in Labor holding a 76–74 tally of votes on the floor of the Parliament.[121] The Coalition finished with 49.88 percent of the two party preferred vote,[122] obtaining a national swing of around 2.6%.[123]

During negotiations, the Independents requested that both major parties' policies be costed by the apolitical Australian Treasury. The Coalition initially resisted the idea, citing concerns over Treasury leaks, however they eventually allowed the analysis. Treasury endorsed Labor's budget costings but projected that Coalition policies would add between $860 million and $4.5 billion to the bottom line over the next four years, rather than the $11.5 billion projected by the Coalition.[124][125][126] The close result was lauded by former Prime Minister John Howard, who wrote in 2010 that Abbott had shifted the dynamic of Australian politics after coming to the leadership in 2009 and "deserves hero status among Liberals".[127]

After the 2010 election

Following the 2010 election, Abbott and his deputy, Julie Bishop, were re-elected unopposed as leaders of the Liberal Party.[128] Abbott announced his shadow ministry on 14 September, with few changes to senior positions, but with the return of former leadership rival Malcolm Turnbull, whom he selected as Communications spokesman.[129] Abbott announced that he wanted Turnbull to prosecute the Opposition's case against the Gillard Government's proposed expenditure on a National Broadband Network.[130]

Following the 2010–2011 Queensland floods, Abbott opposed plans by the Gillard government to impose a "flood levy" on taxpayers to fund reconstruction efforts. Abbott said that funding should be found within the existing budget.[131] Abbott announced a proposal for a taskforce to examine further construction of dams in Australia to deal with flood impact and food security.[132]

In February 2011, Abbott criticised the Gillard government's handling of health reform and proposal for a 50–50 public hospitals funding arrangement with the states and territories, describing the revised Labor Party proposal as "the biggest surrender since Singapore".[133] Abbott considered a carbon tax the best way to set a price on carbon[134] but a year later opposed Prime Minister Gillard's February 2010 announcement of a proposal for the introduction of a "carbon tax", and called on her to take the issue to an election. Abbott said that Gillard had lied to the electorate over the issue because Gillard and her Treasurer Wayne Swan had ruled out the introduction of a carbon tax in the lead up to the 2010 election.[135]

In April 2011, Abbott proposed consultation with Indigenous people over a bipartisan Federal Government intervention in Northern Territory towns including Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek, which would cover such areas as police numbers and school attendance in an effort to address what he described as a "failed state" situation.[136] April saw Abbott announce a $430 million policy plan to improve the employment prospects of people with serious mental health problems.[137]

Following the first Gillard Government budget in May 2011, Abbott used his budget-reply speech to reiterate his critiques of government policy and call for an early election over the issue of a carbon tax.[138] Rhetorically echoing Liberal party founder, Robert Menzies, Abbott addressed remarks to the "forgotten families".[139]

In June 2011, Abbott for the first time led Gillard in a Newspoll as preferred Prime Minister.[140] In September 2011, he announced a plan to develop an agricultural food bowl in the north of Australia by developing dams for irrigation and hydroelectricity. Coalition task force leader Andrew Robb claimed that Australia currently produced enough food for 60 million people, but that the Coalition plan could double this to 120 million people by 2040.[141] The head of the Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce expressed concerns about the economic and environmental viability of this plan as well as its effects on the indigenous Australian communities in northern Australia.[142]

Reflecting on indigenous issues on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Aboriginal Tent Embassy on Australia Day 2012, Abbott said that there had been many positive developments in indigenous affairs in recent decades including Rudd's apology and moves to include indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution. Later that day, Abbott became the target of protesters from the "Embassy" after one of Gillard's advisers contacted a union official who advised Tent Embassy protesters of Abbott's whereabouts and misrepresented Abbott's views on Aboriginal affairs to them, saying he intended to "pull down" the embassy. A major security scare resulted, which was broadcast around the world, resulting in Gillard and Abbott being rushed to a government car amid a throng of security due to fears for their safety.[143]

2012 Lake to Lagoon fun run begins
Lake to Lagoon competitors at the starting line, including Tony Abbott, Wagga Wagga, 2012

In an address to the National Press Club on 31 January 2012, Abbott outlined some of his plans for government if elected. These included an intent to live one week of every year in an indigenous Australian community, and to prune government expenditure and cut taxes. Abbott also announced "aspirational" targets for a disability insurance scheme and a subsidised dentistry program once the budget had been restored to "strong surplus".[144]

Abbott responded to the February 2012 Labor leadership crisis by criticising the cross bench independents for keeping Labor in power and renewed his calls for a general election to select the next Prime Minister of Australia.[145]

In criticising the Gillard Government on foreign policy, Abbott said that "foreign policy should have a Jakarta rather than a Geneva focus".[146] Following his attendance at the 10th anniversary commemoration of the Bali bombing in Bali, Abbott travelled to Jakarta with his Shadow Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Immigration for a meeting with Indonesian President Yudhoyono and Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa.[147] Abbott promised a "no-surprises principle" for dealings with Indonesia. The presidential reception was an unusual occurrence for an opposition leader.[148]

In November 2012, Abbott launched his fourth book, A Strong Australia, a compilation of nine of his "landmark speeches" from 2012, including his budget reply and National Press Club addresses.[149]

Prime Minister (2013–15)

Early policy implementation

Tony Abbott being sworn in by Quentin Bryce (1)
Tony Abbott being sworn in as Prime Minister by Quentin Bryce, 18 September 2013

At the federal election on 7 September 2013, Abbott led the Liberal/National coalition to victory over the incumbent Labor government, led by Kevin Rudd. Abbott and his ministry were sworn in on 18 September 2013.[150] The Prime Minister was the subject of criticism for his decision to only include one woman, Deputy Liberal leader Julie Bishop, in his cabinet.

On the first day of the new Parliament, Abbott introduced legislation into Parliament to repeal the Carbon Tax, and commenced Operation Sovereign Borders, the Coalition's policy to stop illegal maritime arrivals, which received strong public support.[151]

Abbott announced a Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption on 11 February 2014.[152] This was followed by amendments to the Fair Work Act,[153] and a "Repeal Day", where more than 10,000 "red tape" regulations were repealed.[154]

As Prime Minister, Abbott oversaw free trade agreements signed with Japan, South Korea and China.[155][156][157]

The Carbon Tax Repeal Bill passed both houses of Parliament on 17 July 2014 and the Mining Tax Repeal Bill passed both houses of Parliament on 2 September 2014 after negotiations with the Palmer United Party.[158][159]

Abbott and Robb signing the Free Trade Agreement with Chinese President Xi and Minister for Commerce Gao Hucheng November 2014
Abbott and Andrew Robb signing the Free Trade Agreement with president of China and Communist Party chief Xi Jinping, November 2014
Secretary Kerry Greets Australia's Prime Minister Abbott (10152933465)
Abbott meeting with US Secretary of State John Kerry

2014 budget

The 2014 Australian federal budget, the Abbott Government's first budget, delivered by Treasurer Joe Hockey, was criticised by the Opposition as "cruel" and "unfair" and a large number of budget saving measures were blocked by the crossbench in the Senate. Hockey and Abbott were both criticised for their inability to "sell" the necessity of the budget cuts to the cross bench or the public. Hockey was further criticised for several "out of touch" and "insensitive" comments in subsequent months, however, the prime minister continuously publicly backed the treasurer, refusing to replace him with a better performing minister.[160]

Prince Philip knighting controversy

On 25 March 2014, Abbott announced that he had advised the Queen to reinstate the knight and dame system of honours to the Order of Australia. Outgoing Governor-General Quentin Bryce and her successor, Peter Cosgrove, became the first recipients of the reinstated honours. Controversy ensued when Abbott announced on Australia Day 2015 that Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen's husband and a resident of the United Kingdom, would be appointed a Knight of the Order of Australia. This decision was widely criticised, including by members of the government, and fuelled speculation that the prime minister's leadership could be challenged.[161] [On 2 November 2015, new prime minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that knights and dames had been removed from the Order of Australia, as "not appropriate in our modern honours system", although existing titles would not be affected.][162][163]

February 2015 leadership spill

Tony Abbott January 2015 (cropped)
Abbott speaking at the 2015 National Flag Raising and Citizenship Ceremony

On 6 February 2015, Liberal backbencher Luke Simpkins announced that he would move a motion, at a meeting of the party room, for a spill of the federal Liberal Party's leadership positions. Simpkins stated that such a motion would give Liberal members of parliament and senators the opportunity to either endorse the Prime Minister or "seek a new direction."[164] The meeting was held on 9 February 2015 and the spill motion was defeated by 61 votes to 39.[165] Both Malcolm Turnbull and deputy leader Julie Bishop were speculated to be considering a leadership run if the spill motion had succeeded.[166] Prime Minister Abbott described the leadership motion as a "near death experience" and declared that "good government starts today", promising to consult his colleagues more, to shy away from his so-called "captain's calls" and to reduce the role of his chief of staff Peta Credlin.[160]


Another of Abbott's "captain's calls", the appointment of former Howard Government minister Bronwyn Bishop as Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, caused controversy because of Bishop's partisan management of the House and for her decision to attend Liberal party room meetings despite the convention that the Speaker be impartial regardless of political alignment. Bishop came under intense media scrutiny in July 2015 after details of her use of taxpayer-funded political entitlements were made public, including chartering a helicopter flight between Melbourne and Geelong to attend a Liberal party fundraiser. Abbott was criticised over his handling of the entitlements scandal as he allowed the controversy to drag on for weeks because of his refusal to sack the Speaker, a close friend and political mentor. Despite Abbott's support, Bishop resigned as Speaker on 2 August 2015.[167]

Same-sex marriage debate

During Abbott's prime ministership, Australian law continued to define marriage as a union of male and female persons, while recognising same-sex couples as de facto couples in areas such as taxation law, social security law, immigration and superannuation, and Abbott did not support changing the law.[168] During Abbott's time as Opposition Leader and Prime Minister, the position of the Labor Party and opinion polls shifted towards favouring same-sex marriage. Abbott determined that a national plebiscite, rather than a Parliamentary vote should settle the issue. [The Turnbull Government has retained this policy.]

As an Opposition front bencher in 2008 Abbott wrote: "The love and commitment between two people of the same sex can be as strong as that between husband and wife... There is more moral quality in a relationship between two people devoted to each other for decades than in many a short-lived marriage. Still, however deeply affectionate or long lasting it may be, the relationship between two people of the same sex cannot be a marriage because a marriage, by definition, is between a man and a woman... Let's celebrate all strong relationships, whether they are between a man and a woman or between people of the same sex but let's be careful about describing every lasting sexual bond as a 'marriage'."[169] The First Rudd Government and Gillard Government held similar views (although the short-lived second Rudd government reversed Labor's position on the issue).[170][171]

In Government, Abbott reaffirmed that he did not support changing the law to recognise same-sex marriages, and did not alter Coalition policy on the issue – however he permitted Coalition members to advocate for change if they felt strongly on the issue, and indicated that if a bill were to come before the new parliament, the Coalition party room would discuss its stance on the issue.[172] Opinion polls suggested growing support for change. On 11 August 2015, after renewed debate about same-sex marriage in Australia, Abbott called a Coalition Party room vote and Coalition MPs voted against allowing a free vote on the issue 66 to 33. Some MPs said they were willing to cross the floor on the issue and Abbott was criticised by some pro-gay marriage Liberal MPs, including Christopher Pyne, for holding the vote in the Coalition party room, rather than the Liberal party room (as the inclusion of National Party votes decreased chances of a pro-change outcome).[173] To settle the issue, Abbott proposed a plebiscite following the next election. Although he remains personally opposed to change, he says Parliament should respect the outcome of the national vote on the issue.[174]

2015 leadership spill

Tony abbott bust
Bronze bust of Tony Abbott at the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

On 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull, the Minister for Communications, resigned and stated his intention to challenge the Liberal Party leadership in a leadership spill. A party-room meeting held that evening saw Abbott defeated by Turnbull on a 54–44 vote. According to The Economist, his demise was a result of poor opinion polling, policy U-turns and gaffes and mean-spirited politics.[175]

Later years in parliament

Abbott's final speech as Prime Minister on 15 September did not address his political future.[176] However, he announced the next day that he would remain in Parliament.[177] Despite his promise of "no sniping" in his final speech as Prime Minister, media outlets reported ongoing sniping from the Abbott camp in the following months,[178] particularly around Islamic issues.[179][180][181] In early December 2015, Abbott said he would not make a decision on his political future until April 2016.[182]

Subsequent national polling indicated widespread support for the removal of Abbott as Prime Minister and Liberal leader.[178][183] A ReachTel poll of 743 residents in Abbott's safe Liberal seat of Warringah, conducted by phone on the evening of 17 December 2015, indicated his electorate wanted him to retire from parliament at the 2016 federal election. The Australia Institute executive director, Ben Oquist, who commissioned the independent polling, claimed: "The polling indicates that the electorate is quickly moving on from the Tony Abbott era".[184][185][186][187]

On 24 January 2016, Abbott confirmed that he would stand for Liberal preselection for the Division of Warringah in the 2016 federal election.[188] He was re-elected with a small swing against him, matching the statewide swing against the Government.[189]

Since Abbott's re-election at the 2016 federal election he has been critical of policy positions of his party on a number of occasions.[190][191][192]

In September 2017, Abbott was headbutted at a private event in Hobart, after the man asked to shake Abbott's hand.[193][194] Astro Labe, 38, was later charged with common assault; he pleaded guilty in the Hobart Magistrates Court on 18 January 2018[195] and was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment on 9 April 2018.[196][197]

Political views

Aboriginal affairs

Abbott has an active interest in indigenous affairs.[198] As Opposition Leader, Abbott promised to prioritise indigenous affairs.[198] As Prime Minister, Abbott reformed the administration of the portfolio, moving it into the Department of Prime Minister.[199]

As Health Minister, Abbott established the Nurse Family Partnership to improve conditions for indigenous youth. As Opposition Leader, he worked with Cape York Aboriginal activist Noel Pearson, volunteered as a teacher in remote Aboriginal Communities and gave a commitment to continue to live one week a year in such communities if elected Prime Minister. In contrast to his mentor John Howard, Abbott praised Rudd's National Apology to the Stolen Generation.[77][78][79][200]

While the Coalition and Labor were engaged in negotiations with crossbenchers to obtain minority government in 2010, Noel Pearson lobbied Rob Oakeshott to back Abbott.[201] Rising to support the passage of the Gillard Government's historic Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Bill through the House of Representatives in 2013, Abbott said:[202]

Australia is a blessed country. Our climate, our land, our people, our institutions rightly make us the envy of the earth, except for one thing—we have never fully made peace with the First Australians. This is the stain on our soul that Prime Minister Keating so movingly evoked at Redfern 21 years ago. We have to acknowledge that pre-1788 this land was as Aboriginal then as it is Australian now. Until we have acknowledged that we will be an incomplete nation and a torn people … So our challenge is to do now in these times what should have been done 200 or 100 years ago to acknowledge Aboriginal people in our country's foundation document. In short, we need to atone for the omissions and for the hardness of heart of our forebears to enable us all to embrace the future as a united people.

In November 2012, Abbott flew to Alice Springs to back Aboriginal Country Liberal Party MLA Alison Anderson to run in the federal seat of Lingiari and become the first indigenous woman to enter Parliament.[203]

In August 2015, he disappointed Aboriginal leaders Patrick Dodson and Noel Pearson by rejecting as potentially divisive their request for the federal government to fund a series of Indigenous-only conventions on the wording for the referendum.[204]

Constitutional monarchy

Abbott supports the Australian monarchy.[57][205][206] Prior to entering parliament, he worked as the Executive Director of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy from 1993 to 1994.[207]

In March 2014, Abbott advised the Queen to reintroduce the grade of Knight/Dame to the Order of Australia, without discussing it in the Cabinet[208] and despite stating in December 2013 that he did not plan to do so.[209] The Fraser Government initially introduced the grade of Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia in 1976; the Hawke Government discontinued it in 1986.

Climate change

Prior to becoming Opposition Leader, Abbott initially supported proposals by Liberal leaders Howard and Turnbull to introduce floating prices to reduce carbon emissions, but also expressed some doubts as to the science and economics underlying such initiatives. In 2009, Abbott announced his opposition to Turnbull's support for the Rudd Government's Emissions Trading Scheme proposal, and successfully challenged Turnbull for the Liberal leadership, chiefly over this issue. As Opposition Leader, Abbott declared that he accepted that climate change was real and that humans were having an impact on it, but rejected carbon pricing as a means to address the issue, proposing instead to match the Labor government's 5% emissions reduction target through implementation of a plan involving financial incentives for emissions reductions by industry, and support for carbon storage in soils and expanded forests. On the eve of the 2013 Election, Abbott told the ABC:[210]

[J]ust to make it clear... I think that climate change is real, humanity makes a contribution. It's important to take strong and effective action against it, and that is what our direct action policy does. … The important thing is to take strong and effective action to tackle climate change, action that doesn't damage our economy. And that is why the incentive-based system that we've got, the direct action policies, which are quite similar to those that president Obama has put into practice, is – that's the smart way to deal with this, a big tax is a dumb way to deal with it.

— Abbott on ABC TV Insiders prior to 2013 election.

Prior to becoming Opposition Leader in November 2009, Abbott questioned the science of climate change and an ETS. In November 2009, Abbott outlined his objections to the Rudd Government's carbon pricing plan on the ABC's Lateline program. Upon becoming Leader of the Opposition, Abbott put the question of support for the Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) to a secret ballot and the Liberal Party voted to reject the policy – overturning an undertaking by Turnbull to support an amended version of the government's scheme. Under Abbott, the Coalition joined the Greens and voted against the CPRS in the Senate, and the bill was defeated twice, providing a double dissolution trigger.[211] The Rudd government eventually deferred its CPRS legislation until 2013.[211]

With Abbott as Opposition Leader, the Liberal party opposed a carbon emissions tax and an Emissions Trading Scheme.[212] Abbott predicted in March 2012 that the Gillard government's carbon tax would be the world's "biggest".[213] A January 2013 OECD report on taxation of energy use measured Australia's effective tax rate on carbon at 1 July 2012 as among the lower rates in the OECD.[214] In July 2011, Abbott criticised the proposed powers of the government's carbon tax regulator.[215][216][217]

In October 2017, Abbott spoke in London at the Global Warming Policy Foundation, a climate-skeptic lobby group, where he described climate change as "probably doing good; or at least, more good than harm."[218][219][220] He argued that higher concentrations of carbon dioxide act as "plant food" and "are actually greening the planet and helping to lift agricultural yields."[218][219]

Social policy

Abbott is opposed to same sex marriage in Australia. Abbott is an opponent of embryonic stem cell research and euthanasia. He supports the right for women to have an abortion.[205][221][222][223] As Health Minister, he tried, but failed, to block the introduction of the abortion pill RU-486.[224] As Health Minister, Abbott advocated for reducing the number of abortions performed each year as a national priority. Abbott opposed allowing the introduction of embryonic stem cell research or therapeutic cloning in a conscience vote.[225]

In his 2009 book Battlelines, Abbott proposed that consideration should be given to a return to an optional at-fault divorce agreement between couples who would like it, similar to the Matrimonial Causes Act, which would require spouses to prove offences like adultery, habitual drunkenness, cruelty, desertion, or a five-year separation before a divorce would be granted.[226] Abbott said that this would be a way of "providing additional recognition to what might be thought of as traditional marriage".[227]

Abbott opposes euthanasia.[228] In the first few months of his Prime Ministership, the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly passed the Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013, a bill to allow same-sex couples to legally marry.[229] Abbott announced that the federal government would challenge this decision in the High Court.[230] The case was heard on 3 December. Nine days later, on 12 December, the High Court gave judgement that the Same Sex Act would be dismantled as it clashed with the Federal Marriage Act 1961.[231]

He supported Peter Dutton calls to treat white South African farmers, who are sometimes targets of attacks, as refugees.[232][233]

Personal life

Marriage and children

Margie Abbott and Tony Abbott at the Canberra Operation Slipper Welcome Home Ceremony in March 2015
Margie and Tony Abbott in 2015

Following his departure from the seminary, Abbott met and married Margaret "Margie" Aitken, a New Zealander working in Sydney.[234] The couple have three daughters: Louise, Bridget and Frances.[19][235]

When Abbott was 22, his girlfriend at the time became pregnant and claimed he was the biological father. The couple did not marry and put the child up for adoption. For 27 years, Abbott believed that he was the father of the child.[236] In 2004, the man sought out Abbott, and it was publicly revealed he was an ABC sound recordist who worked in Parliament House, Canberra, and was involved in making television programs in which Abbott appeared.[237] The story was reported around the world, but DNA testing later revealed that Abbott was not the man's father.[238]


Abbott is a Roman Catholic.[239][240] Prior to the 2013 Election, Abbott spoke of his religious outlook:

The Jesuits helped to instill in me this thought that our calling in life was to be … 'a man for others' … I am a pretty traditional Catholic... I'm not an evangelical, a charismatic Christian, I'm not. I try to attend Mass, but I don't get there every Sunday any more... Faith has certainly helped to shape my life, but it doesn't in any way determine my politics".

— Tony Abbott on ABC TV's Kitchen Cabinet; September 2013.[35]

As a former Catholic seminarian, Abbott's religiosity has come to national attention and journalists have often sought his views on the role of religion in politics. According to John Warhurst of the Australian National University, academics have at times placed an "exaggerated concentration on the religious affiliation and personal religious background of just one of [the Howard government's] senior ministers, Tony Abbott."[241] Journalist Michelle Grattan wrote in 2010 that while Abbott has always "worn his Catholicism on his sleeve", he is "clearly frustrated by the obsession with [it] and what might hang off that".[242] Abbott has said that a politician should not rely on religion to justify a political point of view:[205]

We are all influenced by a value system that we hold, but in the end, every decision that a politician makes is, or at least should, in our society be based on the normal sorts of considerations. It's got to be publicly justifiable; not only justifiable in accordance with a private view; a private belief.

— Abbott on ABC TV Four Corners, March 2010.

Various political positions supported by Abbott have been criticised by church representatives, including aspects of Coalition industrial relations, asylum seeker, and Aboriginal affairs policies.[243][244] After criticisms of Liberal Party policy by clergy, Abbott has said, "The priesthood gives someone the power to consecrate bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. It doesn't give someone the power to convert poor logic into good logic."[243]

Community service

Abbott is an active volunteer member for the Davidson, NSW Rural Fire Service.[245] He is also an active volunteer member of the Queenscliff Surf Life Saving Club.[246]

Abbott participates in the Pollie Pedal, an annual 1,000 km charity bike ride. In April 2007, he launched the tenth annual Pollie Pedal, to raise money for breast cancer research.[247]

In 2008, Abbott spent three weeks teaching in a remote Aboriginal settlement in Coen on Cape York, organised through indigenous leader Noel Pearson. He taught remedial reading to Aboriginal children and worked with an income management group helping families manage their welfare payments. In 2009, he spent 10 days in Aurukun on Cape York working with the truancy team, visiting children who had not been attending school. Abbott's stated goal for these visits was to familiarise himself with indigenous issues.[248][249]


Abbott has published four books. In 2009, he launched Battlelines; a personal biography, reflections on the Howard Government and discussion of potential policy directions for the Liberal Party of Australia.[207] Previously he had published two books in defence of the existing constitutional monarchy system, The Minimal Monarchy and How to Win the Constitutional War. In 2012, he released a compilation of key speeches from that year, entitled A Strong Australia.[250]

  • Abbott, Tony (1995). The Minimal Monarchy: and why it still makes sense for Australia. Kent Town South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 1-86254-358-5.
  • Abbott, Tony (1997). How to Win the Constitutional War: and give both sides what they want. Kent Town South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 1-86254-433-6.
  • Abbott, Tony (2009). Battlelines. Carlton Victoria Australia: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-85606-4.
  • Abbott, Tony (2012). A Strong Australia. Liberal Party of Australia. ISBN 978-0-646-59033-2.



  • Australia 1 January 2001 Centenary Medal, for service as Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations.[251]

State medals

  • New South Wales 8 March 2015 Rural Fire Service Long Service Medal, for ten years of long service[252]

See also


  1. ^ "We're for Sydney". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Tony Abbott's daughters Bridget and Frances speak about claims their 'daggy Dad' is a misogynist and more".
  3. ^ "Senators and Members: The Hon Tony Abbott MP". Parliament of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  4. ^ "Abbott quits as new leadership revolt escalates". The Age. Melbourne. 26 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  5. ^ a b Curtis, Lyndal (7 September 2010). "Labor forms government". ABC Radio. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  6. ^ "Australian PM Tony Abbott Ousted by Malcolm Turnbull". 14 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Abbott v Turnbull: Tony bows out as 'revolving door' swings shut". The Australian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  8. ^ a b " - Subscribe to The Daily Telegraph for exclusive stories". Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Last piece of the puzzle", Sydney Morning Herald, 1 September 2012; retrieved 14 September 2013.
  10. ^ Mitchell, Susan; Abbott, Tony. A Man's Man. p. 8.
  11. ^ Marr, David (8 September 2012). "Early elections". Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  12. ^ "mX magazine comparing Kevin Rudd and Tony Abbott's ancestry" (PDF). 16 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  13. ^ RACIAL HATRED BILL 1994 Second Reading "I have one paternal grandfather from England and a maternal grandfather from Holland, yet I do not believe I should say that I am a Dutch Australian or an Anglo-Australian, simply an Australian."
  14. ^ a b "British migrants – Selection documents for free or assisted passage (Commonwealth nominees)". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 10 September 2011. NAA citation "NAA: A1877, 07/09/1960 ORONSAY ABBOTT R H" item barcode 7328488.
  15. ^ a b North Coast Voices, 7 December 2011; Retrieved 14 September 2013
  16. ^ "Who are they: Gillard and Abbott". Australian Financial Review. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  17. ^ "The facts of Tony Abbott's life". ABC News. Australia. AAP. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  18. ^ a b "The Hon Tony Abbott MP, Member for Warringah (NSW) – Parliament of Australia: House of Representatives biography". Retrieved 4 April 2006.
  19. ^ a b c d e Abbott, Tony (1 December 2009). "Tony Abbott reveals his Liberal beliefs and how his public and private lives shaped him". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  20. ^ Kenny, Mark (25 November 2014). "Tony Abbott's Oxford Transcript Released". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  21. ^ Nowra, Louis. "Tony Abbott: The Whirling Dervish". The Monthly.
  22. ^ Davies, Brian. "Front rower's Rhodes to front bench". The Catholic Weekly. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012.
  23. ^ Rae, Marion; Daley, Gemma. "Abbott Against Gillard Prompts Aussie Rhodes Scholar to Punch PM's Weight". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014.
  24. ^ a b c d "The missing element of self-doubt". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  25. ^ "Abbott: I was charged with indecent assault". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 July 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  26. ^ "Fellow students recall a champion of the right". The Sydney Morning Herald. 18 July 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  27. ^ Crabb, Annabel (9 September 2013). "Abbott's own balance-of-power nightmare". The Drum. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  28. ^ Stephen Holt (6 July 2015). "Tony Abbott's career echoes that of his political hero, B. A. Santamaria". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  29. ^ "P is for Politicians – University of Oxford". Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  30. ^ "Abbott – not the greatest, but a fighter". The Age. Melbourne. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  31. ^ Kenny, Mark (3 July 2013). "Kev defies Tony to hit a raw nerd". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  32. ^ Hudson, Phillip (3 July 2013). "Prime Minister Kevin Rudd ready to rumble against Opposition Leader Tony Abbott". Herald Sun. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  33. ^ "Tony Abbott at Oxford: fighter, networker, Thatcherite". The Guardian. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  34. ^ "Oxford Boxing Knockout Shows Abbott's Leadership Drive". Bloomberg. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  35. ^ a b "Kitchen Cabinet: Tony Abbott profile". ABC Television. 4 September 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  36. ^ As a "Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies"; that was changed by UK legislation in 1983, presumably to "British Citizen".
  37. ^ "Citizenship Register - 45th Parliament". Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  38. ^ "Liberal leadership spill: Malcolm Turnbull to become prime minister after toppling Tony Abbott – Liberal Leadership turmoil". ABC News. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  39. ^ "Carr to go after the one that got away". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 March 2012.
  40. ^ a b Howard, John (2010). Lazarus Rising. p. 200.
  41. ^ Abbott, Tony [@TonyAbbottMHR] (14 July 2017). "FYI rumour mongers: I renounced my UK citizenship in 1993 and here's the proof:" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  42. ^ "The missing element of self-doubt". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  43. ^ Howard, John (2010). Lazarus Rising. p. 201.
  44. ^ Attard, Monica (12 June 2005). "Tony Abbott: Sunday Profile". ABC News. Australia. Archived from the original on 1 December 2005. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  45. ^ Howard, John (2010). Lazarus Rising. p. 202.
  46. ^ Cassidy, Barrie (25 November 2001). "Abbott set to continue Reith's workplace reforms". Insiders. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  47. ^ "Howard knew of slush fund to target Hanson". Sydney Morning Herald. 27 August 2003 – via News Online.
  48. ^ "Abbot denies lying over anti-Hanson fund". News Online. Lateline (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 27 August 2003. Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  49. ^ "Honest Tony's too up front, says PM". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 August 2003. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  50. ^ Seccombe, Mike; Murphy, Damien (28 August 2003). "Watchdog rethinks Liberal links to Abbott's slush fund". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  51. ^ Ian Macdonald, Senator (2 March 1998). "Adjournment – Green Corps". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Commonwealth of Australia: Senate. p. 116. The Hon. Tony Abbott my colleague, and I have responsibility within the government for overseeing the «Green» «Corps», and it was Mr Abbott, ATCV and I who, last weekend, hosted the national Green Corps conference.
  52. ^ "The 7.30 Report". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  53. ^ "Govt faces first scrutiny of Job Network". 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 August 2000. Archived from the original (transcript and streaming video) on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  54. ^ "AM Archive – Tony Abbott on Job Network policy" (transcript). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  55. ^ a b "PM – Labor may leave Ryan to Liberals after Moore departs". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 December 2000. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  56. ^ "AM Archive – Blast from Abbott" (transcript). Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 25 March 2002. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  57. ^ a b Freeman, Damien. "The Political Philosophy of Tony Abbott". Quadrant online. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  58. ^ "Building and Construction Industry Improvement Bill 2003 (Bills Digest, no. 129, 2003–04)". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  59. ^ a b c Hartcher, Peter (19 June 2010). "Abbott Closes in on Rudd". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  60. ^ "PM – Republic rivals battle for grassroots". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 October 1999. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  61. ^ "Doctor groups hail promotion of 'head kicker'". The Age. Melbourne. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  62. ^ "Cabinet make-over counteracts complacency: Howard". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 September 2003. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  63. ^ a b Hartcher, Peter. "Will the real Tony please stand up?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  64. ^ "Bali Bombing Victim: 'Tony Abbott Saved my Life'". The Age. Melbourne. 31 August 2013. Archived from the original on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  65. ^ "The facts of Tony's life". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  66. ^ "MPs to vote on RU486 control" (transcript). AM. Australia. 2006.
  67. ^ Peacock, Matt (9 July 2007). "'Scientific fraud' hampered spread of cancer technique". 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  68. ^ Caldwell, Alison (11 July 2007). "Govt rethinks PET scan funding decision". ABC News. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  69. ^ Matt Peacock (26 September 2007). "Cancer detection technology waits for Govt approval". 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  70. ^ Peacock, Matt (27 September 2007). "Doctors angry as PET scan delay wears on". ABC News. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  71. ^ Howard, John (2010). Lazarus Rising. pp. 574, 652.
  72. ^ Marris, Sid (31 October 2007). "Abbott insults asbestos sufferer". The Australian. AAP. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  73. ^ "Australian Electoral Commission summary of Warringah, Federal Election 2007". Australian Electoral Commission. 19 December 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
  74. ^ "Tony Abbott pulls out of Liberal leadership race". 28 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  75. ^ "Tony Abbott quits race to be Lib leader". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 28 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  76. ^ "Brendan Nelson Assigns Shadow Ministry". Courier-Mail. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  77. ^ a b "We should have said sorry: Abbott". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  78. ^ a b "Abbott's complex Aboriginal odyssey". Eureka Street. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  79. ^ a b "Tony Abbott joins Insiders". Insiders. ABC News. 24 May 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  80. ^ "Battlelines – Paperback Book". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.Also Amazon
  81. ^ "Big Ideas". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  82. ^ Annabel Crabb (4 December 2009). "Abbott sweet talks Lama and the Left". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  83. ^ Milne, Glenn (26 October 2009). "A new battleline for Liberal ideas". The Australian. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  84. ^ Kelly, Joe (29 March 2010). "Rudd Government marks 100th asylum seeker boat". The Australian. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  85. ^ "Indonesian solution 'a shambles'". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  86. ^ Grattan, Michelle; Murphy, Katharine; Schubert, Misha (27 November 2009). "Liberal Leadership Challenge: Malcolm Turnbull". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  87. ^ Davis, Mark (9 December 2009). "Abbott wins by standing for something". The Age. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  88. ^ "Tony Abbott goes back to the future in new front bench". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  89. ^ Gillham, Alexis (27 April 2010). "Kevin Rudd delays plans for emissions trading scheme until 2013". Herald Sun. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  90. ^ McCabe, Helen (February 2010). "Abbott's women". Australian Women's Weekly. pp. 18–28. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  91. ^ "Laurie Oakes". Today. 6 December 2009. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  92. ^ Adam Brereton. "An Australian politician walks into a bar … and things don't always go well". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  93. ^ "Australian PM: Tony Abbott was once too drunk for Parliament". Associated Press. 25 August 2017. Australia’s prime minister confirmed Friday that his predecessor and intra-party rival Tony Abbott had once been too drunk to vote in Parliament, an incident that’s been a poorly kept secret in political circles for eight years.
  94. ^ "The Contender". 60 Minutes. 5 March 2010. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  95. ^ "Abbott still 'threatened' by homosexuality". ABC News. 9 March 2010.
  96. ^ "Tony Abbott on Q and A". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  97. ^ Debra Killalea (26 February 2015). "SBS journalist and Mardi Gras host Patrick Abboud reveals rare insight into the life of Tony Abbott's lesbian sister".
  98. ^ "Christine Forster: Tony Abbott's Openly Gay Sister". The Feed. Special Broadcasting Service. 26 February 2015.
  99. ^ "Abbott supports sister but against gay marriage". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 April 2012.
  100. ^ "Prime Minister Tony Abbott says he will attend sister's wedding, but not support the marriage". 23 October 2013.
  101. ^ "Abbott pledges parental leave scheme". SBS World News. Australia. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  102. ^ Karvelas, Patricia (31 March 2010). "Coalition leads way on land rights, says Pearson". The Australian. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  103. ^ "Ironman Abbott crosses the finish line". ABC News. 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  104. ^ "Tony Abbott won't change fitness regimen". The Courier-Mail. 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  105. ^ "Abbott sets off on Pollie Pedal". ABC News. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  106. ^ "Abbott delivers budget reply". Lateline. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  107. ^ Gillham, Alexis (14 May 2010). "Tony Abbott vows to abolish mining tax in Budget reply, as Kevin Rudd attacks economic credentials". Herald Sun. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  108. ^ "Tony Abbott's budget reply". ABC News. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  109. ^ Coorey, Phillip; Lester, Tim (24 June 2010). "Gillard becomes Australia's first female prime minister as tearful Rudd stands aside". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  110. ^ Koranyi, Balazs (17 July 2010). "Australian PM Gillard calls 21 August election". Reuters.
  111. ^ a b Archer, Lincoln (25 July 2010). "Leaders debate verdict: Tony Abbott vs Julia Gillard – so who won?". Archived from the original on 28 July 2010.
  112. ^ Collerton, Sarah (12 August 2010). "Abbott named people's choice at Rooty Hill". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  113. ^ "Undecided Voters Question Abbott And Gillard in Brisbane". Brisbane Times. 19 August 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  114. ^ "Tony Abbott joins Q and A". Q & A. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  115. ^ Colebatch, Tim (28 August 2010). "72 all – Brisbane to Coalition and Corangamite to ALP". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  116. ^ "Voters leave Australia hanging". ABC News. 21 August 2010.
  117. ^ "Australia count begins after tight election race". BBC News. 21 August 2010.
  118. ^ "Australia heads for hung parliament". BBC News. 21 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  119. ^ Peatling, Stephanie; Aston, Heath (18 July 2010). "It's good to be Greens, as balance of power tipped". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  120. ^ Maher, Sid (18 July 2010). "Greens set to grab balance of power". The Australian. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  121. ^ Davis, Mark (7 September 2010). "Labor over the line: Windsor and Oakeshott hand power to Gillard". The Age. Melbourne.
  122. ^ "Two Party Preferred by State". Virtual Tally Room. Australian Electoral Commission. 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  123. ^ Green, Antony (20 September 2010). "Antony Green's Election Blog: How Australia Voted". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  124. ^ Collerton, Sarah (2 September 2010). "Treasury finds 'black hole' in Coalition costings". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  125. ^ Rodgers, Emma. "Where it's at: Independents' seven key demands". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  126. ^ Mark, David (3 September 2010). "Independents stand firm in face of fear campaign". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  127. ^ Howard, John (2010). Lazarus Rising. p. 652.
  128. ^ "Liberal leaders re-elected unopposed". Australian Associated Press. 9 September 2010.
  129. ^ "Tony Abbott promotes Malcolm Turnbull in new shadow ministry". Herald Sun. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  130. ^ Hewett, Jennifer (15 September 2010). "Recalled Malcolm Turnbull to bludgeon Labor over National Broadband Network". The Australian. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  131. ^ "Sky News Australia". Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  132. ^ Maher, Sid; Owens, Jared (7 January 2011). "Tony Abbott's dam solution for flooded rivers". The Australian. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  133. ^ "Abbott slams PM's hospital proposal". SBS World News. Australia. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  134. ^ Hawker, Bruce (15 October 2010). "Abbott needs to understand balance". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  135. ^ Farr, Malcolm (25 February 2011). "Tony Abbott tells Julia Gillard to 'make an honest womanof herself' on carbon tax". Perth Now. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  136. ^ "Abbott calls for new intervention in Alice Springs". AM. Australia. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  137. ^ "Abbott tries to take high ground on mental health". ABC News. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  138. ^ Abbott, Tony (12 May 2011). "Full text of Tony Abbott's budget reply speech". The Australian.
  139. ^ "Tony Abbott defends Budget response, as Julia Gillard rules out poll". Herald Sun. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  140. ^ "Newspoll shows Abbott is preferred PM". Courier Mail. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  141. ^ Maher, Sid (17 September 2011). "Tony Abbott's plan for northern foodbowl". The Australian. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  142. ^ Hind, Rick (20 September 2011). "Taskforce chief slams northern food bowl proposal". ABC News. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  143. ^ "Footage gives fresh view of Australia Day protest". 7.30. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  144. ^ "Abbott outlines vision for Australia". ABC News. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  145. ^ "Opposition leader Tony Abbott says an election is the best way out of Labor leadership debacle". The Courier-Mail. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  146. ^ "Abbott to meet Indonesia leader in Jakarta". 12 October 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  147. ^ "President Yudhoyono meets Australian opposition leader". Antara News. 4 November 1957. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  148. ^ Alford, Peter (15 October 2012). "Tony Abbott to promise Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono: no surprises on asylum policy". The Australian. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  149. ^ Ireland, Judith (15 February 2012). "Abbott launches collection of speeches". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  150. ^ "Abbott sworn in as Australia's PM". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  151. ^ "Australians want boat arrivals treated more harshly: poll". Sydney Morning Herald. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  152. ^ "Prime Minister Tony Abbott announces royal commission to "shine spotlight" on alleged union corruption". ABC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  153. ^ "Former Labor minister Martin Ferguson backs Tony Abbott's planned changes to Fair Work Act". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  154. ^ "'Red tape' repeal: Move to scrap charities watchdog, introduce changes to financial advice rules". ABC News. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  155. ^ "South Korea-Australia Economic Partnership Agreement". DFAT. Australia. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  156. ^ "Japan-Australia Economic Partnership Agreement". DFAT. Australia. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  157. ^ "Free trade agreement: Dairy farmers set to be big winners in deal between Australia and China". ABC News. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  158. ^ "Carbon tax is gone: Repeal bills pass the Senate". Sydney Morning Herald. 17 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  159. ^ "Mining tax repeal: Joe Hockey says $6.5 billion hit to budget bottom line is 'damn good deal' for Australians". ABC News. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  160. ^ a b "Tony Abbott buys time after 'near death experience',vows to change". Sydney Morning Herald. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  161. ^ "Prince Philip gets controversial Australian knighthood". ABC News. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  162. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull scraps Tony Abbott's Knights and Dames". Sydney Morning Herald. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  163. ^ "Knights and dames removed from Order of Australia by Malcolm Turnbull". The Guardian. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  164. ^ "Prime Minister to fight leadership spill motion by WA Liberal MP". The West Australian. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  165. ^ "Tony Abbott keeps leadership of Liberal Party but some supporters fear he is doomed". ABC News. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  166. ^ "Liberal leadership spill: as it happened". ABC News. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  167. ^ "Choppergate: The prime minister feels heat after his hand-picked speaker quits". The Economist. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  168. ^ "Same-sex marriage – Parliament of Australia". 12 October 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  169. ^ "Not for Adam and Steve". 9 May 2008.
  170. ^ "PM Kevin Rudd says no to gay marriage". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010.
  171. ^ "Marriage only for a man and a woman: Julia Gillard".
  172. ^ Hurst, Daniel (13 December 2013). "Tony Abbott under pressure for conscience vote on gay marriage". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  173. ^ "Liberal MP Warren Entsch to lead way with cross-party bill on same-sex marriage". 12 August 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  174. ^ Press, Australian Associated (29 January 2016). "Tony Abbott will back result of plebiscite on same-sex marriage" – via The Guardian.
  175. ^ "Turnbull's turn". The Economist. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  176. ^ "Tony Abbott promises 'no wrecking, no undermining' in final speech as prime minister". ABC News. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  177. ^ Glenday, James (16 September 2015). "Tony Abbott intends to remain in Parliament after losing Liberal leadership to Malcolm Turnbull". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  178. ^ a b "Abbott's sniping from the backbench is hardly noble". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  179. ^ "Nocookies". The Australian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  180. ^ "Does Australia want Tony Abbott to stay in Parliament?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  181. ^ "Tony Abbott: I would have won the next election". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  182. ^ "Nocookies". The Australian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  183. ^ "Nocookies". The Australian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  184. ^ "Tony Abbott should go, say most voters in his electorate: poll". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  185. ^ "Tony Abbott should quit parliament, voters in his electorate tell pollsters". the Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  186. ^ "Tony Abbott's electorate say it's time he quit politics". news. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  187. ^ Ltd, Australian News Channel Pty. "Warringah electors want Abbott out".
  188. ^ "Renomination for Warringah – The Hon Tony Abbott MP". The Hon Tony Abbott MP. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  189. ^ Warringah, NSW Archived 5 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 2016 Federal Election, Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  190. ^ "Who is right in the Abbott-Turnbull policy wars?". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  191. ^ "Government defends renewable energy target after Tony Abbott's renewed criticism". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  192. ^ "Tony Abbott ally Eric Abetz critical of Malcolm Turnbull over industrial relations". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  193. ^ "SSM: Tony Abbott 'headbutted' by man wearing 'Vote Yes' badge in Hobart". ABC News. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  194. ^ "Abbott headbutted in Hobart". Sky News. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  195. ^ "Tony Abbott head-butt: Attacker pleads guilty in court". Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  196. ^ "Hobart DJ Astro Labe jailed for headbutting former PM Tony Abbott". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  197. ^ "Tasmanian DJ Astro Labe admits he head-butted former prime minister Tony Abbott". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  198. ^ a b "Tony Abbott promises a new engagement with Indigenous Australians". ABC News. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  199. ^ "Indigenous Affairs a Single Portfolio under Abbott". Australia: SBS World News. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  200. ^ Murphy, Katharine. "Abbott Supports Indigenous Australians in Constitution". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  201. ^ Patricia Karvelas (7 September 2010). "Greens alliance threatens Aboriginal wellbeing: Noel Pearson". The Australian.
  202. ^ "Act of Recognition Passes in House of Representatives". 13 February 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  203. ^ "Abbott wants 'authentic' outback Aborigines in Coalition with Wyatt". The Australian. 13 November 2012.
  204. ^ Helen Davidson; Shalailah Medhora (3 August 2015). "Tony Abbott rejects proposal to hold Indigenous conventions on recognition". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  205. ^ a b c Jackson, Liz (15 March 2010). "The Authentic Mr Abbott". Four Corners. ABC TV. Transcript.
  206. ^ "Tony Abbott on Q and A". Australia: ABC News. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  207. ^ a b "Biography: Tony Abbott MHR". Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  208. ^ Owens, Jared (26 March 2014). "Tony Abbott living in the past by restoring knights and dames, say critics". The Australian.
  209. ^ Knott, Matthew (25 March 2014). "Tony Abbott reintroduces knight and dame honours for Australians". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  210. ^ "Tony Abbott joins Insiders" (streaming video). Insiders. ABC TV. 1 September 2013.
  211. ^ a b "Rudd puts ETS on backburner". ABC News. Australia. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  212. ^ "The Liberal Party of Australia". Yahoo!7. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  213. ^ Abbott, Tony (23 March 2012). "The Carbon Tax: 100 days to go". Official Web Site (Press release). Tony Abbott. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  214. ^ "Figure 1" (PDF). Taxing Energy Use – A Graphical Analysis. OECD. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  215. ^ "Interview with John Laws, Radio 2SM and Super Radio Network". Tony Abbott Official Website. Tony Abbott. 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  216. ^ Kelly, Joe (29 July 2011). "Tony Abbott says 'draconian' carbon cop force will chase 'invisible' substance". The Australian. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  217. ^ Gordon, Michael (16 July 2011). "He says, she says in a faux election campaign". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  218. ^ a b Mathiesen, Karl (9 October 2017). "Tony Abbott says climate change is 'probably doing good'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  219. ^ a b "Tony Abbott: Global warming may be good climate science is 'crap'". Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  220. ^ Editor, Political; Probyn, rew (10 October 2017). "The real Tony Abbott emerges in incendiary climate change speech". ABC News. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  221. ^ "The Contender". 60 Minutes. 5 March 2010. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  222. ^ Abbott, Tony (6 February 2006). "Parliament Best Forum for RU486 Decision". Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
  223. ^ van Onselen, Peter (9 January 2010). "Abbott's crusade to woo women voters". The Australian. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  224. ^ Berkovic, Nicola (10 August 2010). "Abbott denies he will change abortion law". The Australian. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  225. ^ Evans, Chris (29 August 2005). "Abbott opposes call to relax cloning laws". The Sydney Morning Herald. Melbourne. AAP. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  226. ^ "Abbott's divorce proposal 'ludicrous'". ABC News. Australia. 14 July 2009.
  227. ^ Gordon, Josh (12 July 2009). "Battlelines are drawn with a nod to family tradition". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  228. ^ "Plain speaking and brute experience". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  229. ^ "ACT legalises same-sex marriage". 22 October 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  230. ^ "Commonwealth to launch High Court challenge over ACT same-sex marriage laws". ABC News. Australia. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  231. ^ "High Court throws out ACT's same-sex marriage laws". ABC News. Australia. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  232. ^ Karp, Paul (19 March 2018). "Tony Abbott backs Peter Dutton's call for visas for white South African farmers". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  233. ^ "Tony Abbott backs call to give white South African farmers refuge". Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  234. ^ Pearlman, Jonathan (4 September 2013). "Australia begrudgingly willing to accept Mad Monk Tony Abbott". The Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  235. ^ "Tony Abbott-Liberal for Warringah – About Tony". Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2006.
  236. ^ Murphy, Damien (22 March 2005). "Abbott's love child turns into shaggy dog story". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 1. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  237. ^ "Abbott reunited with long-lost son". ABC News. 21 March 2005. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  238. ^ "DNA test shows Abbott not father of 'son'". ABC News. 21 March 2005. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  239. ^ Perry, Michael (16 August 2010). "Australia's conservative leader Tony Abbott". Reuters. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  240. ^ Ham, Paul (6 December 2009). "Australia's 'Mad Monk' deals blow to eco-campaign". The Times. UK. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  241. ^ Warhurst, John (March 2007). "Religion and politics in the Howard decade". Australian Journal of Political Science. 42 (1): 19–32. doi:10.1080/10361140601158526.
  242. ^ Grattan, Michelle (10 April 2010). "Pragmatic pugilist". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  243. ^ a b "Abbott attacks church over WorkChoices criticism". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  244. ^ "Abbott winning voters on asylum seekers". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  245. ^ "Abbott fights flames in bushfires". The Sydney Morning Herald. AAP. 27 January 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  246. ^ Tony Abbott – Prime Minister, Liberal Party of Australia, accessed 16 October 2014
  247. ^ Cazzulino, Michelle (16 April 2007). "Charity ride and a blushing bride". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  248. ^ Smiles, Sarah (2 August 2008). "Abbott teaches what he preaches". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  249. ^ "Fact checker: Coalition leader Tony Abbott's bush jaunts make him almost a local". Sydney Morning Herald. 26 August 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  250. ^ Ireland, Judith (15 February 2012). "Abbott launches collection of speeches". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  251. ^ Its an Honour: Centenary Medal, AustralianGovernment, retrieved 12 April 2014
  252. ^ Prime Minister Tony Abbott rewarded for a decade of RFS service with a medal, The Daily Telegraph, retrieved 8 March 2015

Further reading

External links

Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
Michael MacKellar
Member for Warringah
Political offices
Preceded by
Kevin Rudd
Prime Minister of Australia
Succeeded by
Malcolm Turnbull
Preceded by
Malcolm Turnbull
Leader of the Opposition
Succeeded by
Chris Bowen
Preceded by
Kay Patterson
Minister for Health and Ageing
Succeeded by
Nicola Roxon
Preceded by
Peter Reith
Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business /
Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations

Succeeded by
Kevin Andrews
Preceded by
Chris Ellison
as Minister for Schools, Vocational Education and Training
Minister for Employment Services
Succeeded by
Mal Brough
Party political offices
Preceded by
Malcolm Turnbull
Leader of the Liberal Party
Succeeded by
Malcolm Turnbull
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Kevin Rudd
Chairperson of the Commonwealth of Nations
Succeeded by
Mahinda Rajapaksa
Preceded by
Vladimir Putin
Chairperson of the Group of 20
Succeeded by
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Non-profit organization positions
New office Director of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy
Succeeded by
Kerry Jones
2009 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill

A leadership spill for the Liberal Party of Australia was held on 1 December 2009. The incumbent leader Malcolm Turnbull was defeated by Tony Abbott on the second ballot; Joe Hockey also stood as a candidate. Abbott thus replaced Turnbull as Leader of the Opposition, and would lead the party to the 2010 federal election.

The spill was the culmination of a dispute within the Liberal Party over its response to the Rudd Government's proposed emissions trading scheme (ETS). Turnbull supported the introduction of an ETS and sought to negotiate amendments to government's proposed legislation. Abbott came to represent many Liberal MPs who were climate change sceptics or otherwise opposed the ETS. After Turnbull survived a spill motion (a motion to declare the leadership vacant) against his leadership in late November 2009, Abbott declared his candidacy and a subsequent spill was moved on 1 December. Hockey—a moderate who had been a supporter of Turnbull's position on the ETS—also stood. While Hockey had been expected to win, he was knocked out in the first round of voting. Abbott subsequently defeated Turnbull in the second round, 42–41. Julie Bishop, who voted for Turnbull, was re-elected unopposed as the party's deputy leader.

2015 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 2015 in Australia.

2018 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spills

Leadership spills of the federal parliamentary leadership of the Liberal Party of Australia were held on 21 and 24 August 2018 and were called by the incumbent leader of the party, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.

Turnbull called the first spill in a regularly scheduled party room meeting of the Liberal Party on 21 August, amid media reports that Minister for Home Affairs Peter Dutton was considering a challenge. Dutton submitted himself as a candidate for the leadership, but was defeated by Turnbull, who won the ballot 48 votes to 35. Dutton then immediately resigned from the ministry.Dutton requested a spill motion two days later. Turnbull refused to call the spill without first receiving a list of signatures representing the majority of his Party room, and referred Dutton to the Attorney General's office to test his eligibility to sit in Parliament. He declared that if Dutton had the numbers to carry a spill motion, he would take it as a vote of no confidence and not stand to contest the leadership. Dutton secured the numbers for a spill and Turnbull did not re-contest the leadership, opening the way for supporters Scott Morrison and Julie Bishop to stand against Dutton.

Dutton, Treasurer Morrison and Foreign Minister Bishop contested the ballot. Bishop was eliminated in the first round of voting, and in the second round Morrison defeated Dutton by 45 votes to 40, thereby becoming the leader of the Liberal Party and Prime Minister of Australia. A ballot for the deputy leadership of the party also occurred and was won by Josh Frydenberg, who was subsequently appointed Treasurer in the Morrison Government.

Abbott Government

The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The government was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition. The Leader of The Nationals, Warren Truss, served as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the 2013 Australian federal election held on 7 September, the Coalition defeated the second Rudd Government, ending six years of Labor Government. The Abbott Government was sworn into office on 18 September 2013. Less than two years later on 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott in a leadership ballot, 54 votes to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia.

In economic policy, the Abbott Government aimed to rein in a budget deficit that reached A$48.5 billion by June 2014. It concluded free trade agreements with China, Japan and South Korea. It removed the Rudd-Gillard era Resource Super Profits Tax and carbon pricing. It established the National Commission of Audit to advise on restoring the Budget to surplus; instituted the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption; founded the Medical Research Future Fund; and produced White Papers on Developing Northern Australia and the Agricultural Competitiveness. Treasurer Joe Hockey delivered two Budgets, the first focused on expenditure reduction measures, but faced a hostile reception in the Senate and media. Partial deregulation of universities, and a $7 contribution to doctor visits were proposed, but blocked by the Senate. The second Budget emphasised stimulus for the small business sector.

Abbott campaigned in opposition and in office to halt the people smuggling trade, and unauthorised maritime arrivals ceased during his term of office under Operation Sovereign Borders. In foreign policy, Australia continued its military engagement in the Mid-East, amid the worsening Syrian conflict. In 2015, The Abbott Government agreed to resettle an additional 12,000 refugees from the region. Abbott and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop challenged Russia at the United Nations over the shooting down of Malaysian Flight MH17 in Ukraine. The Government launched the New Colombo Plan to encourage educational exchange with the Indo-Pacific region.

Domestically, Abbott campaigned for recognition of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution, flagging a referendum for 2017, and promised a plebiscite on the issue of same-sex marriage. Air and road infrastructure was prioritised. Abbott had to negotiate a hostile Senate. The Palmer United Party had emerged at the 2013 election, but fractured soon after. The Liberal Party faced Cabinet leaks and early leadership instability, after a poorly received first Budget and amid media criticism. Abbott became the shortest-serving Australian Prime Minister since William McMahon, when his government was succeeded by the Turnbull Government. Turnbull cited Newspoll results and "economic leadership" as reasons for mounting his challenge against Abbott.

Abbott Ministry

The Abbott Ministry (Liberal–National Coalition) was the 69th ministry of the Government of Australia. It succeeded the Second Rudd Ministry after a federal election that took place on 7 September 2013. It was led by Prime Minister, Tony Abbott.

Abbott announced his first ministry on 16 September 2013, and the ministry was sworn in by the Governor-General on 18 September. Abbott expressed regret at the low number of women in cabinet, but still received strong criticism on the lack of female representation in the ministry, including from members of his own party. Abbott added a second woman to his cabinet in Sussan Ley following a reshuffle announced on 21 December 2014, and sworn in on 23 December.Following the defeat of Abbott by Malcolm Turnbull in the Liberal leadership spill of 14 September 2015, the ministry was replaced by the First Turnbull Ministry.

Division of Warringah

The Division of Warringah is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is named after the Warringah area of Sydney, which itself is named by an Aboriginal Australian word which translates into English as "rain", "waves" or "sea". The Division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 13 September 1922, and was first contested at the 1922 federal election.

Centred on Mosman and the Northern Beaches region of Sydney, it covers most of the land between Middle Harbour and the Tasman Sea. It extends from Port Jackson in the south to the suburb of Dee Why in the north. It includes the suburbs of Allambie, Allambie Heights, Balgowlah, Balgowlah Heights, Balmoral, Beauty Point, Brookvale, Clifton Gardens, Clontarf, Cremorne Point, Curl Curl, Fairlight, Freshwater, Harbord, Killarney Heights, Kurraba Point, Manly, Manly Vale, Mosman, North Balgowlah, North Curl Curl, North Head, North Manly, Queenscliff, Seaforth, and Wingala; as well as parts of Beacon Hill, Cremorne, Dee Why, Forestville, Frenchs Forest, Narraweena, and Neutral Bay.

The seat has always been held by the Liberal Party of Australia or its predecessors; the Northern Beaches have long been Liberal heartland. The current member and former Prime Minister Tony Abbott, has held the seat since winning a 1994 by-election.

Electoral results for the Division of Warringah

This is a list of electoral results for the Division of Warringah in Australian federal elections from the division's creation in 1922 until the present.

February 2015 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill motion

A motion seeking a leadership spill of the federal parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia, Prime Minister and Deputy Leader was proposed in a meeting of the parliamentary Liberal Party on 9 February 2015. Luke Simpkins and Don Randall moved the spill motion at the meeting. Incumbent Prime Minister Tony Abbott and deputy leader of the Liberal Party Julie Bishop jointly stood in opposition to the motion which was defeated by 61 votes to 39.A September 2015 leadership spill would see Malcolm Turnbull defeat Abbott 54 votes to 44.

Julie Bishop

Julie Isabel Bishop (born 17 July 1956) is an Australian politician who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2013 to 2018 and deputy leader of the Liberal Party from 2007 to 2018. She was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Curtin in 1998, and retired in 2019.

Bishop was born in Lobethal, South Australia, and studied law at the University of Adelaide. Prior to entering politics she worked as a commercial lawyer in Perth, Western Australia; she was the local managing partner of Clayton Utz. She was a delegate to the 1998 constitutional convention, and also served as a director of the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) and as a member of the Murdoch University senate. Bishop was elected to parliament at the 1998 federal election, representing the Division of Curtin in Perth's western suburbs. In the Howard Government, she served as Minister for Ageing (2003–2006), Minister for Education and Science (2006–2007), and Minister for Women (2006–2007).

After the Coalition lost the 2007 election, Bishop was elected deputy leader of the Liberal Party. She was the first woman to hold the position, and was re-elected to the post at multiple leadership spills following her initial election. During her time as deputy, there were three different Liberal leaders—Brendan Nelson, Malcolm Turnbull, and Tony Abbott. When the Coalition returned to power at the 2013 election, Bishop was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs in the Abbott Government. She was Australia's first female foreign minister. Issues that arose during her tenure included changes to the Australian foreign aid program, the international military intervention against ISIL, the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, and the execution of Australian citizens by Indonesia.

In August 2018, Peter Dutton challenged Turnbull for the leadership of the Liberal Party, due to dissatisfaction from the party's conservative wing. Turnbull defeated Dutton in a leadership ballot, but tensions continued to mount and the party voted in favour of holding a second spill; Bishop chose to be a candidate. In the second vote, Bishop was eliminated in the first round by Peter Dutton and Scott Morrison, with Morrison elected as party leader (and thus prime minister) in the second round. She declined to retain the foreign affairs portfolio in the Morrison Ministry, instead moving to the backbench. On 21 February 2019, she announced her retirement as a member of Parliament at the forthcoming federal election.

Kevin Andrews (politician)

Kevin James Andrews (born 9 November 1955) is an Australian politician and member of the Liberal Party of Australia. He is currently a backbench Member of the House of Representatives for the seat of Menzies, to which he was first elected at the 1991 by-election. Andrews is a conservative and a Catholic.Previously, Andrews served in the Howard Government as the Minister for Ageing, Minister for Employment and Workplace Relations, and then the Minister for Immigration and Citizenship until the 2007 election where his party lost government.

Following the 2009 Liberal leadership ballot, Andrews served in the Shadow Cabinet of Tony Abbott as shadow minister for Families, Housing and Human Services until the 2013 election where his party won government. In the Abbott Government, Andrews served in the cabinet as Minister for Social Services and later Minister for Defence. At the September 2015 Liberal leadership ballot, Andrews unsuccessfully contested for the Liberal deputy leadership against Julie Bishop, while supporting Tony Abbott against Malcolm Turnbull as Liberal leader. Upon the ascension of the Turnbull Government Andrews was dropped from the new Ministry and moved to the backbench.With the retirement of Philip Ruddock at the 2016 federal election, Andrews became the Father of the House. While Warren Snowdon and Russell Broadbent have longer overall tenures in the House, Andrews is the longest continuously serving member. He is one of three parliamentary survivors of the Hawke government, the others being Snowdon and Broadbent.

List of female cabinet ministers of Australia

denotes the first female minister of that particular department.

Malcolm Turnbull

Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian former politician who was the 29th Prime Minister of Australia from 2015 to 2018. He served twice as Leader of the Liberal Party, firstly from 2008 to 2009 when he was also Leader of the Opposition, and a second time from 2015 to 2018. He was the MP for Wentworth in the House of Representatives from 2004 to 2018.

Turnbull graduated from the University of Sydney with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws, before attending Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, earning a Bachelor of Civil Law. For over two decades prior to entering politics, he worked as a journalist, lawyer, merchant banker, and venture capitalist. He served as Chair of the Australian Republican Movement from 1993 to 2000, and was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful "Yes" campaign in the 1999 republic referendum. He was first elected to the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Wentworth in New South Wales at the 2004 federal election, and was Minister for the Environment and Water from January 2007 until December 2007.

After coming second in the 2007 leadership election, Turnbull won the leadership of the Liberal Party in September 2008 and became Leader of the Opposition. However, his support of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in December 2009 led to a leadership challenge by Tony Abbott, who defeated Turnbull by a single vote. Though initially planning to leave politics after this, Turnbull chose to stay and was later appointed Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the 2013 federal election.

Citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet on 14 September 2015 and challenged Abbott, reclaiming the leadership of the Liberal Party by ten votes. He was sworn in as Prime Minister of Australia the following day. At the 2016 federal election, Turnbull led the Coalition to victory by a single seat, the smallest majority since the 1961 federal election. In August 2018, a challenge by Peter Dutton led to two Liberal leadership spills. When the second spill motion passed on 24 August 2018, Turnbull did not contest the ballot and subsequently resigned as Prime Minister. Treasurer Scott Morrison defeated Dutton in the contest. Turnbull resigned from parliament on 31 August 2018, triggering a by-election in his former seat of Wentworth. The Liberal Party lost the by-election to independent candidate Kerryn Phelps, which resulted in the Coalition losing its majority in the House of Representatives.

Scott Buchholz

Scott Andrew Buchholz (born 27 March 1968) is an Australian politician who has been a member of the House of Representatives since the 2010 federal election, representing the Division of Wright in Queensland. He is a member of the Liberal National Party of Queensland, and sits with the Liberal Party in federal parliament.

Before entering politics himself, Buchholz served as chief of staff to Queensland Senator Barnaby Joyce and was a director of CQX Group of Transport Companies for 18 years. He won preselection for the unwinnable sixth spot on the Liberal/National Senate ticket in Queensland at the 2007 election. At the 2010 election, he won LNP preselection for the safe seat of Wright, and was elected.

Buchholz was appointed the Chief Government Whip in the House of Representatives on 13 February 2015, replacing Philip Ruddock. He was removed from the position on 20 September 2015, shortly after Malcolm Turnbull replaced Tony Abbott as prime minister.

Scott Morrison

Scott John Morrison (born 13 May 1968) is an Australian politician serving as the 30th and current Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the Liberal Party since 24 August 2018. He has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2007, representing the Division of Cook in New South Wales.

Morrison was born in Sydney and studied economic geography at the University of New South Wales. He worked as director of the New Zealand Office of Tourism and Sport from 1998 to 2000 and was managing director of Tourism Australia from 2004 to 2006. Morrison was state director of the New South Wales Liberal Party from 2000 to 2004 and was first elected to the House of Representatives at the 2007 federal election. He was appointed to the opposition frontbench after the 2010 election.

Following the Coalition's victory at the 2013 election, Morrison was appointed Minister for Immigration and Border Protection in the Abbott Government. In that capacity he was responsible for implementing Operation Sovereign Borders, one of the Coalition's flagship policies. In a December 2014 cabinet reshuffle, Morrison was instead made Minister for Social Services. He was promoted to Treasurer in September 2015, when Malcolm Turnbull replaced Tony Abbott as prime minister.In August 2018, Peter Dutton challenged Turnbull for the leadership of the Liberal Party, due to dissatisfaction from the party's conservative wing. Turnbull defeated Dutton in a leadership ballot, but tensions continued to mount and the party voted in favour of holding a second ballot; Turnbull chose not to be a candidate. In the second vote, Morrison emerged as a compromise candidate, defeating Dutton and Julie Bishop to become leader of the Liberal Party and prime minister.

September 2015 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill

A motion seeking a leadership spill of the federal parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister was proposed by Malcolm Turnbull, who requested the ballot on 14 September 2015. The incumbent Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, announced that a meeting of Liberal members of the House and Senate would take place at 9:15 pm AEST on 14 September 2015 for the purpose of a spill motion. During the meeting a vote was held for the leadership and deputy leadership. Turnbull defeated Abbott, 54 votes to 44, becoming the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister-nominee. Julie Bishop retained her position of deputy leader defeating Kevin Andrews 70 votes to 30.With no contender, a February 2015 leadership spill motion had seen Abbott defeat a motion to spill the leadership 61 votes to 39.

Shadow Ministry of Tony Abbott

The Shadow Ministry of Tony Abbott was the opposition Coalition shadow ministry of Australia from December 2009 to September 2013, opposing the Australian Labor Party governments of Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard.

The shadow ministry is a group of senior Opposition spokespeople who form an alternative Cabinet to the government's, whose members shadow or mark each individual Minister or portfolio of the Government.Since the 2007 federal election, the Liberal–National Coalition had been the Official Opposition, initially led by Brendan Nelson and later Malcolm Turnbull. In 2009, Tony Abbott defeated Turnbull in a leadership spill 42 votes to 41 in the second round and took on the role of Opposition Leader.

The Abbott shadow ministry was the first in which shadow ministers received additional pay for their roles, taking effect from 2012 after a decision of the Gillard government.

Tony Abbott (Canadian politician)

Clarke Anthony (Tony) Abbott (born November 24, 1966) is a Canadian politician and former member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. He represented Drayton Valley-Calmar and sat as a Progressive Conservative from 2001 until 2008.

Tony Abbott (author)

Tony Abbott (born 26 October 1952) is an American author of children's books. His most popular work is the book series The Secrets of Droon, which includes over 40 books. He has sold over 12 million copies of his books and they have been translated into several other languages, including Italian, Spanish, Korean, French, Japanese, Polish, Turkish, and Russian. He has also written Firegirl and The Copernicus Legacy.

Tony Abbott (disambiguation)

Tony Abbott (born 1957) is the former prime minister of Australia.

Tony Abbott or Anthony Abbott may also refer to:

Tony Abbott (author) (born 1952), American author of children's books

Tony Abbott (Canadian politician) (born 1966), member of the legislature of Alberta, Canada

Anthony Abbott (born 1930), former federal Canadian cabinet minister

Tony Abbott (governor) (born 1941), British diplomat and former Governor of Montserrat

Anthony Abbott (author) (born 1935), American author

Deputy Leaders
Shadow cabinets
State divisions
Party Related Organisations
Leadership contests
Labor (24)
Liberal (15)
Nationals (7)
Independent (1)
Outer Ministry
Parliamentary Secretaries

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.