The tonne (/tʌn/ (listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms; or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (UK). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.
The Metric Ton (tonne) is derived from the weight of 1 Cubic Meter pure water; 1,000 liters of pure water weighs one Metric Ton (tonne.)
One tonne is equal to 1000 kilograms or 1 megagram
|Unit system||Non-SI unit accepted for use with SI|
|In SI base units:||1 t = 1000 kg (1 Mg)|
The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879. Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, and should not be followed by a period. Informal and non-approved symbols or abbreviations include "T",”Te”, "mT", "MT", and "mt". Some of these are SI symbols for other units: "T" is the SI symbol for the tesla and "Mt" is the SI symbol for megatonne (equivalent to one teragram); if describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and all English-speaking countries that are predominantly metric, tonne is the correct spelling. It is usually pronounced the same as ton /tʌn/, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can also be pronounced, i.e. "tonny" /ˈtʌnɪ/. In Australia, it is also pronounced /tɒn/.
Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight (usually referred to as the long ton in the US), equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, and even then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units.
In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST; an unqualified mention of a ton almost invariably refers to a short ton of 2,000 pounds (907 kg), and tonne is rarely used in speech or writing.
Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages (cf. Old English and Old Frisian tunne, Old High German and Medieval Latin tunna, German and French tonne) to designate a large cask, or tun. A full tun, standing about a metre high, could easily weigh a tonne. An English tun (an old wine cask volume measurement equivalent to 954 litres) of wine weighs roughly a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine.
The spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960; it has been used with this meaning in France since 1842, when there were no metric prefixes for multiples of 106 and above, and is now used as the standard spelling for the metric mass measurement in most English-speaking countries. In the United States, the unit was originally referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete. The Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass.
One tonne is equivalent to:
For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of thousands or millions of tonnes. Kilotonne, megatonne, and gigatonne are more usually used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT, often loosely as approximate figures. When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, and the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached.
|Multiple||Name||Symbol||Multiple||Name||Symbol||Tonnes (t)||Kilograms (kg)||Grams (g)||US/short tons (ST)†||Imperial/long tons (LT)†|
|100||Tonne||t||106||Megagram||Mg||1 t||1,000 kg||1 million g||1.1023 ST||0.98421 LT|
|103||Kilotonne||ktǂ||109||Gigagram||Gg||1,000 t||1 million kg||1 billion g||1,102.3 ST||984.21 LT|
|106||Megatonne||Mt||1012||Teragram||Tg||1 million t||1 billion kg||1 trillion g||1.1023 million ST||984,210 LT|
|109||Gigatonne||Gt||1015||Petagram||Pg||1 billion t||1 trillion kg||1 quadrillion g||1.1023 billion ST||984.21 million LT|
|1012||Teratonne||Tt||1018||Exagram||Eg||1 trillion t||1 quadrillion kg||1 quintillion g||1.1023 trillion ST||984.21 billion LT|
|1015||Petatonne||Pt||1021||Zettagram||Zg||1 quadrillion t||1 quintillion kg||1 sextillion g||1.1023 quadrillion ST||984.21 trillion LT|
|1018||Exatonne||Et||1024||Yottagram||Yg||1 quintillion t||1 sextillion kg||1 septillion g||1.1023 quintillion ST||984.21 quadrillion LT|
*The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system currently used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.
ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is also used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, and should not be confused with kilotonne.
A metric ton unit (mtu) can mean 10 kilograms (22 lb) within metal (e.g. tungsten, manganese) trading, particularly within the US. It traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% (i.e. 10 kg) of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten:
"Tungsten concentrates are usually traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units. One metric tonne unit (mtu) of tungsten (VI) contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." (Walter L Pohl, Economic Geology: Principles and Practices, English edition, 2011, p 183.)
Note that tungsten is also known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W.
The tonne of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a proxy for energy, usually of explosions (TNT is a common high explosive). Prefixes are used: kiloton(ne), megaton(ne), gigaton(ne), especially for expressing nuclear weapon yield, based on a specific combustion energy of TNT of about 4.2 MJ/kg (or one thermochemical calorie per milligram). Hence, 1 t TNT = 4.2 GJ, 1 kt TNT = 4.2 TJ, 1 Mt TNT = 4.2 PJ.
In the petroleum industry the tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a unit of energy: the amount of energy released by burning one tonne of crude oil, approximately 42 GJ. There are several slightly different definitions. This is ten times as much as a tonne of TNT because atmospheric oxygen is used.
Like the gram and the kilogram, the tonne gave rise to a (now obsolete) force unit of the same name, the tonne-force, equivalent to about 9.8 kilonewtons: a unit also often called simply "tonne" or "metric ton" without identifying it as a unit of force. In contrast to the tonne as a mass unit, the tonne-force or metric ton-force is not acceptable for use with SI, partly because it is not an exact multiple of the SI unit of force, the newton.
The Corporation shall pay to producers selling and delivering wheat produced in the designated area to the Corporation the following sums certain per tonne basis...
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing.
Carbon is present in every hydrocarbon fuel (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) and other products when combusted.
In contrast, non-combustion energy sources—wind, solar, geothermal, hydropower, and nuclear—do not convert hydrocarbons to CO2.
CO2 is a heat-trapping "greenhouse" gas which represents a negative externality on the climate system (see scientific opinion on global warming).
Since greenhouse gas emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are closely related to the carbon content of the respective fuels, a tax on these emissions can be levied by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the product cycle of the fuel.Carbon tax offers social and economic benefits. It is a tax that increases revenue without significantly altering the economy while simultaneously promoting objectives of climate change policy. The objective of a carbon tax is to reduce the harmful and unfavorable levels of carbon dioxide emissions, thereby decelerating climate change and its negative effects on the environment and human health.Carbon taxes offer a potentially cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. From an economic perspective, carbon taxes are a type of Pigovian tax. They help to address the problem of emitters of greenhouse gases not facing the full social cost of their actions. Carbon taxes can be a regressive tax, in that they may directly or indirectly affect low-income groups disproportionately. The regressive impact of carbon taxes could be addressed by using tax revenues to favour low-income groups.A number of countries have implemented carbon taxes or energy taxes that are related to carbon content. Most environmentally related taxes with implications for greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries are levied on energy products and motor vehicles, rather than on CO2 emissions directly.
Opposition to increased environmental regulation such as carbon taxes often centers on concerns that firms might relocate and/or people might lose their jobs. It has been argued, however, that carbon taxes are more efficient than direct regulation and may even lead to higher employment (see footnotes). Many large users of carbon resources in electricity generation, such as the United States, Russia, and China, have resisted carbon taxation. In some cases, countries such as China, have resisted after questioning which countries have the most responsibility.Erik Tønne
Erik Tønne (born 3 July 1991) is a Norwegian professional footballer who plays as a winger for Ranheim.
Tønne began his playing career as a youngster with Nardo, Rosenborg and Strindheim in his native Norway before moving to England to sign for Sheffield United in 2011. He has also had loan spells at York City and HamKam.Essar Group
Essar Global Fund Limited is an Indian conglomerate group based in Mumbai, India. The Fund is a global investor, controlling a number of assets diversified across the core sectors of Energy, Metals & Mining, Infrastructure (comprising ports and EPC businesses) and Services (primarily comprising shipping and BPO businesses).Essar began as a construction company in 1969 and diversified into manufacturing, services and retail. Essar is managed by Shashi Ruia – Chairman, and Ravi Ruia – Vice Chairman.Green-water navy
Green-water navy is terminology created to describe a naval force that is designed to operate in its nation's littoral zones and has the competency to operate in the open oceans of its surrounding region. It is a relatively new term, and has been created to better distinguish, and add nuance, between two long-standing descriptors: blue-water navy and brown-water navy.
It is a non-doctrinal naval term used in different ways. It originates with the United States Navy, who use it to refer to the portion of their fleet that specializes in offensive operations in coastal waters. Nowadays such ships rely on stealth or speed to avoid destruction by shore batteries or land-based aircraft.
The US Navy has also used the term to refer to the first phase of the expansion of China's navy into a full blue-water navy. Subsequently, other authors have applied it to other national navies that can project power locally, but cannot sustain operations at range without the help of other countries. Such navies typically have amphibious ships and sometimes small aircraft carriers, which can be escorted by destroyers and frigates with some logistical support from tankers and other auxiliaries.Jay Electronica
Timothy Elpadaro Thedford (born September 19, 1976), known professionally as Jay Electronica, is an American rapper and record producer from New Orleans. Electronica first gained significant attention after the release of the musical composition Act I: Eternal Sunshine (The Pledge), which was made available on a MySpace page in 2007. It is fifteen continuous minutes of music, without drums, built from Jon Brion's soundtrack to the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. In late 2009 he released two singles, both produced by Just Blaze, "Exhibit A (Transformations)" and "Exhibit C", the latter of which won a Sucker Free Summit Award for Instant Classic. In November 2010, it was announced Jay Electronica had signed to Jay Z's Roc Nation record label.List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (T)
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitay forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. The decoration was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945. This number is based on the acceptance by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reich Labour Service and the Volkssturm (German national militia). There were also 43 foreign recipients of the award.These recipients are listed in the 1986 edition of Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's book, Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945. Fellgiebel was the former chairman and head of the order commission of the AKCR. In 1996 the second edition of this book was published with an addendum delisting 11 of these original recipients. Author Veit Scherzer has cast doubt on a further 193 of these listings. The majority of the disputed recipients had received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of Germany during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process.
Listed here are the 182 Knight's Cross recipients whose last name starts with "T". While Veit Scherzer has challenged the validity of 5 of these listings, he has also pointed out that the AKCR failed to identify Hans Turnwal as a potential recipient. The recipients are ordered alphabetically by last name. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.Long ton
Long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton, is the name for the unit called the "ton" in the avoirdupois system of weights or Imperial system of measurements. It was standardised in the thirteenth century and is used in the United Kingdom and several other British Commonwealth of Nations countries alongside the mass-based metric tonne defined in 1799.
It is not to be confused with the short ton a unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds (907.18474 kg) used in the United States, and in Canada before metrication, also referred to simply as a "ton".Metre–tonne–second system of units
The metre–tonne–second or MTS system of units is a system of physical units. It was invented in France, hence the unit names sthène and pièze, and became its legal system between 1919 and 1961 ("décret" 5 May 1961, "Journal Officiel"). It was adopted by the Soviet Union in 1933 and abolished there in 1955. It was a metric and coherent system of units, much as SI and the centimetre–gram–second system (CGS), but with larger units for industrial use, whereas the CGS system was regarded as suitable for laboratory use only.Metric system
The metric system is an internationally recognised decimalised system of measurement. It is in widespread use, and where it is adopted, it is the only or most common system of weights and measures (see metrication). It is now known as the International System of Units (SI). It is used to measure everyday things such as the mass of a sack of flour, the height of a person, the speed of a car, and the volume of fuel in its tank. It is also used in science, industry and trade.
In its modern form, it consists of a set of base units including metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time and ampere for electrical current, and a few others, which together with their derived units, can measure any physical quantity. Metric system may also refer to other systems of related base and derived units defined before the middle of the 20th century, some of which are still in limited use today.
The metric system was designed to have properties that make it easy to use and widely applicable, including units based on the natural world, decimal ratios, prefixes for multiples and sub-multiples, and a structure of base and derived units. It is also a coherent system, which means that its units do not introduce conversion factors not already present in equations relating quantities. It has a property called rationalisation that eliminates certain constants of proportionality in equations of physics.
The units of the metric system, originally taken from observable features of nature, are now defined by phenomena such as the microwave frequency of a caesium atomic clock which accurately measures seconds. One unit, the kilogram, remains defined in terms of a man-made artefact, but scientists recently voted to change the definition to one based on Planck's constant via a Kibble balance. The new definition is expected to be formally propagated on 20 May 2019.
While there are numerous named derived units of the metric system, such as watt and lumen, other common quantities such as velocity and acceleration do not have their own unit, but are defined in terms of existing base and derived units such as metres per second for velocity.
Though other currently or formerly widespread systems of weights and measures continue to exist, such as the British imperial system and the US customary system of weights and measures, in those systems most or all of the units are now defined in terms of the metric system, such as the US foot which is now a defined decimal fraction of a metre.
The metric system is also extensible, and new base and derived units are defined as needed in fields such as radiology and chemistry. The most recent derived unit, the katal, for catalytic activity, was added in 1999. Recent changes are directed toward defining base units in terms of invariant constants of physics to provide more precise realisations of units for advances in science and industry.Power-to-weight ratio
Power-to-weight ratio (or specific power or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another. Power-to-weight ratio is a measurement of actual performance of any engine or power source. It is also used as a measurement of performance of a vehicle as a whole, with the engine's power output being divided by the weight (or mass) of the vehicle, to give a metric that is independent of the vehicle's size. Power-to-weight is often quoted by manufacturers at the peak value, but the actual value may vary in use and variations will affect performance.
The inverse of power-to-weight, weight-to-power ratio (power loading) is a calculation commonly applied to aircraft, cars, and vehicles in general, to enable the comparison of one vehicle's performance to another. Power-to-weight ratio is equal to thrust per unit mass multiplied by the velocity of any vehicle.Prussian G 8
The Prussian Class G 8 locomotives were eight-coupled, superheated, freight locomotives operated by the Prussian state railways. There were two variants: the G 8 built from 1902 with a 14 tonne axle load and the "reinforced G 8" (verstärkte G 8) built from 1913 (later designated the G 8.1) with a 17-tonne (17-long-ton; 19-short-ton) axle load. The latter was the most numerous German state railway (Länderbahn) locomotive, over 5,000 examples being built.Short ton
The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 2,000 pounds-mass (907.18474 kg). The unit is most commonly used in the United States where it is known simply as the ton.The short ton sometimes describes force. One short-ton contains 2,000 pounds-mass, which converted into slugs and multiplied by one standard gravity applies a weight of 2,000 pounds-force as per Newton's second law of motion.TNT equivalent
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The "ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms or one megagram) of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules (or one large calorie = 1,000 calories) of energy are released.
This convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of traditional explosive materials, of which TNT is a typical example, although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy.Ton
The ton is a unit of measure. It has a long history and has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years. It is used principally as a unit of mass. Its original use as a measurement of volume has continued in the capacity of cargo ships and in terms such as the freight ton. It can also be used as a measure of energy, for truck classification, or as a colloquial term.
It is derived from the tun, the term applied to a cask of the largest capacity. This could contain a volume between 175 and 213 imperial gallons (210 and 256 US gal; 800 and 970 l), which could weigh around 2,000 pounds (910 kg) and occupy some 60 cubic feet (1.7 m3) of space.In the United Kingdom the (Imperial) ton was formerly a unit of Statute measure, defined as 2,240 lb (1,016 kg) From 1965 the UK embarked upon a programme of metrication and gradually introduced metric units, including the tonne (metric ton), defined as 1,000 kg (2,205 lb). The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded many units and terms from "use for trade", including the ton (and the term "metric ton" for "tonne").In the United States and Canada a ton is defined to be 2,000 pounds (907 kg).
Where confusion is possible, the 2240 lb ton is called "long ton" and the 2000 lb ton "short ton"; the tonne is distinguished by its spelling, but usually pronounced the same as ton, hence the US term "metric ton". In the UK the final "e" of "tonne" can also be pronounced (), or "metric ton" when it is necessary to make the distinction.
Where precision is required the correct term must be used, but for many purposes this is not necessary: the metric and long tons differ by only 1.6%, and the short ton is within 11% of both. The ton (any definition) is the heaviest unit of weight typically used in colloquial speech.
The term "ton" is also used to refer to a number of units of volume, ranging from 35 to 100 cubic feet (0.99 to 2.83 m3) in capacity.
It can also be used as a unit of energy, expressed as an equivalent of coal burnt or TNT detonated.
In refrigeration, a ton is a unit of power, sometimes called a ton of refrigeration. It is the power required to melt or freeze one short ton of ice per day. The refrigeration ton hour is a unit of energy, the energy required to melt or freeze 1⁄24 short ton of ice.Ton-force
A ton-force is one of various units of force defined as the weight of one ton due to standard gravity. The precise definition depends on the definition of ton used.Tonne of oil equivalent
The tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a unit of energy defined as the amount of energy released by burning one tonne of crude oil. It is approximately 42 gigajoules or 11,630 kilowatt hours, although as different crude oils have different calorific values, the exact value is defined by convention; several slightly different definitions exist. The toe is sometimes used for large amounts of energy.
Multiples of the toe are used, in particular the megatoe (Mtoe, one million toe) and the gigatoe (Gtoe, one billion toe). A smaller unit of kilogram of oil equivalent (kgoe) is also sometimes used denoting 1/1000 toe.Units of transportation measurement
The units of transportation measurement describes the unit of measurement used to measure the quantity and traffic of transportation used in transportation statistics, planning, and their related fields.Wolfgang Tonne
Wolfgang Tonne (28 February 1918 – 20 April 1943) was a former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves during World War II, the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. Tonne was credited with 122 aerial victories before being killed in a flying accident on 20 April 1943 at Protville, Tunisia.World's largest airlines
The world's largest airlines can be defined in several ways.
American Airlines Group is the largest by its fleet size, revenue, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile. Delta Air Lines is the largest by assets value and market capitalization. Lufthansa Group is the largest by number of employees, FedEx Express by freight tonne-kilometers, Turkish Airlines by number of countries served and UPS Airlines by number of destinations served.