Tongan language

Tongan (/ˈtɒŋən/;[4] lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga. It has around 187,000 speakers[5] and is a national language of Tonga. It is a VSO (verb–subject–object) language.

Tongan
lea faka-Tonga
Native toTonga;
significant immigrant community in New Zealand and the United States
Native speakers
187,000
  • 96,000 in Tonga (1998)[1]
    73,000 elsewhere (no date), primarily in NZ, U.S., and Australia[2]
Latin-based
Official status
Official language in
 Tonga
Language codes
ISO 639-1to
ISO 639-2ton
ISO 639-3ton
Glottologtong1325[3]

Related languages

Tongan is one of the multiple languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian, for example. Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian.

Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. As with all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.

  1. Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as /h/. (The /s/ found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop /q/; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui.[6]
  2. In proto-Polynesian, *r and *l were distinct phonemes, but in most Polynesian languages they have merged, represented orthographically as r in most East Polynesian languages, and as l in most West Polynesian languages. However, the distinction can be reconstructed because Tongan kept the *l but lost the *r.[7]

Tongan has heavily influenced the Wallisian language after Tongans colonized the island of 'Uvea in the 15th and 16th centuries[8].

Polynesian sound correspondences
Phoneme Proto-Polynesian Tongan Niuean Sāmoan Rapa Nui Tahitian Māori Cook Is. Māori Hawaiian English
/ŋ/ *taŋata tangata tagata tagata tangata taʻata tangata tangata kanaka person
/s/ *sina hina hina sina hina hinahina hina ʻina hina grey-haired
/h/ *kanahe kanahe kanahe ʻanae ʻanae kanae kanae ʻanae mullet (fish)
/ti/ *tiale siale tiale tiale tiare tiare tīare tiare kiele gardenia
/k/ *waka vaka vaka vaʻa vaka vaʻa waka vaka waʻa canoe
/f/ *fafine fefine fifine fafine vahine vahine wahine vaʻine wahine woman
/ʔ/ *matuqa[9] matuʻa matua matua matuʻa metua matua metua, matua makua parent
/r/ *rua ua ua lua rua rua[10] rua rua 'elua two
/l/ *tolu tolu tolu tolu toru toru toru toru 'ekolu three

Alphabet

Tongan is written in a subset of the Latin script. In the old, "missionary" alphabet, the order of the letters was modified: the vowels were put first and then followed by the consonants: a, e, i, o, u, etc. That was still so as of the Privy Council decision of 1943 on the orthography of the Tongan language. However, C. M. Churchward's grammar and dictionary favoured the standard European alphabetical order, which, since his time, has been in use exclusively:

Tongan alphabet
Letter a e f h i k l m n ng o p s t u v ʻ (fakauʻa)
Pronunciation /a/ /e/ /f/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/1 /o/ /p/2 /s/3 /t/ /u/ /v/ /ʔ/4

Notes:

  1. written as g but still pronounced as [ŋ] (as in Samoan) before 1943
  2. unaspirated; written as b before 1943
  3. sometimes written as j before 1943 (see below)
  4. the glottal stop. It should be written with the modifier letter turned comma (Unicode 0x02BB) and not with the single quote open or with a mixture of quotes open and quotes close. See also ʻokina.

Note that the above order is strictly followed in proper dictionaries. Therefore, ngatu follows nusi, ʻa follows vunga and it also follows z if foreign words occur. Words with long vowels come directly after those with short vowels. Improper wordlists may or may not follow these rules. (For example, the Tonga telephone directory for years now ignores all rules.)

The original j, used for /tʃ/, disappeared in the beginning of the 20th century, merging with /s/. By 1943, j was no longer used. Consequently, many words written with s in Tongan are cognate to those with t in other Polynesian languages. For example, Masisi (a star name) in Tongan is cognate with Matiti in Tokelauan; siale (Gardenia taitensis) in Tongan and tiare in Tahitian. This seems to be a natural development, as /tʃ/ in many Polynesian languages derived from Proto-Polynesian /ti/.

Syllabification

  • Each syllable has exactly one vowel. The number of syllables in a word is exactly equal to the number of vowels it has.
  • Long vowels, indicated with a toloi (macron), count as one, but may in some circumstances be split up in two short ones, in which case, they are both written. Toloi are supposed to be written where needed, in practice this may be seldom done.
  • Each syllable may have no more than one consonant.
  • Consonant combinations are not permitted. The ng is not a consonant combination, since it represents a single sound. As such it can never be split, the proper hyphenation of fakatonga (Tongan) therefore is fa-ka-to-nga.
  • Each syllable must end in a vowel. All vowels are pronounced, but an i at the end of an utterance is usually unvoiced.
  • The fakauʻa is a consonant. It must be followed (and, except at the beginning of a word, preceded) by a vowel. Unlike the glottal stops in many other Polynesian languages texts, the fakauʻa is always written. (Only sometimes before 1943.)
  • Stress normally falls on the next to last syllable of a word with two or more syllables; example: móhe (sleep), mohénga (bed). If, however, the last vowel is long, it takes the stress; example: kumā (mouse) (stress on the long ā). The stress also shifts to the last vowel if the next word is an enclitic; example: fále (house), falé ni (this house). Finally the stress can shift to the last syllable, including an enclitic, in case of the definitive accent; example: mohengá ((that) particular bed), fale ní (this particular house). It is also here that a long vowel can be split into two short ones; example: pō (night), poó ni (this night), pō ní (this particular night). Or the opposite: maáma (light), māmá ni (this light), maama ní (this particular light). Of course, there are some exceptions to the above general rules. The stress accent is normally not written, except where it is to indicate the definitive accent or fakamamafa. But here, too, people often neglect to write it, only using it when the proper stress cannot be easily derived from the context.

Although the acute accent has been available on most personal computers from their early days onwards, when Tongan newspapers started to use computers around 1990 to produce their papers, they were unable to find, or failed to enter, the proper keystrokes, and it grew into a habit to put the accent after the vowel instead of on it: not á but . But as this distance seemed to be too big, a demand arose for Tongan fonts where the acute accent was shifted to the right, a position halfway in between the two extremes above. Most papers still follow this practice.

Articles

English, like most European languages, uses only two articles:

  • indefinite a
  • definite the

By contrast, Tongan has three articles, and possessives also have a three-level definiteness distinction:

  • indefinite ha. Example: ko ha pālangi ('a white person', or any other person from somewhere other than Tonga)
  • semi-definite (h)e. Example: ko e pālangi ('the white person' in the sense that the person does not belong to some other race, but still rather 'a white person' if there are several of them)
  • definite (h)e with the shifted ultimate stress. Example: ko e pālangí ('the white person', that particular person there and no one else).

Registers

There are three registers which consist of

  • ordinary words (the normal language)
  • honorific words (the language for the chiefs)
  • regal words (the language for the king)

There are also further distinctions between

  • polite words (used for more formal contexts)
  • derogatory words (used for informal contexts, or to indicate humility)

For example, the phrase "Come and eat!" translates to:

  • ordinary: haʻu ʻo kai (come and eat!); Friends, family members and so forth may say this to each other when invited for dinner.
  • honorific: meʻa mai pea ʻilo (come and eat!); The proper used towards chiefs, particularly the nobles, but it may also be used by an employee towards his boss, or in other similar situations. When talking about chiefs, however, it is always used, even if they are not actually present, but in other situations only on formal occasions. A complication to the beginning student of Tongan is that such words very often also have an alternative meaning in the ordinary register: meʻa (thing) and ʻilo (know, find).
  • regal: hāʻele mai pea taumafa (come and eat!); Used towards the king or God. The same considerations as for the honorific register apply. Hāʻele is one of the regal words which have become the normal word in other Polynesian languages.

Pronouns

The Tongan language distinguishes three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. They appear as the three major columns in the tables below.

The Tongan language distinguishes four persons: First person exclusive, first person inclusive, second person and third person. They appear as the four major rows in the tables below. This gives us 12 main groups.

Subjective and objective

In addition, possessive pronouns are either alienable (reddish) or inalienable (greenish), which Churchward termed subjective and objective. This marks a distinction that has been referred to, in some analyses of other Polynesian languages, as a-possession versus o-possession, respectively,[11] though more Tongan-appropriate version would be ʻe-possession and ho-possession.

Subjective and objective are fitting labels when dealing with verbs: ʻeku taki "my leading" vs. hoku taki "my being led". However, this is less apt when used on nouns. Indeed, in most contexts hoku taki would be interpreted as "my leader", as a noun rather than a verb. What then of nouns that have no real verb interpretation, such as fale "house"?

Churchward himself laid out the distinction thus:[12]

But what about those innumerable cases in which the possessive can hardly be said to correspond either to the subject or to the object of a verb? What, for example, is the rule or the guiding principle, which lies behind the fact that a Tongan says ʻeku paʻanga for ' my money' but hoku fale for 'my house'? It may be stated as follows: the use of ʻeku for 'my' implies that I am active, influential, or formative, &c., towards the thing mentioned, whereas the use of hoku for 'my' implies that the thing mentioned is active, influential, or formative, &c., towards me. Or, provided that we give a sufficiently wide meaning to the word 'impress', we may say, perhaps, that ʻeku is used in reference to things upon which I impress myself, while hoku is used in reference to things which impress themselves upon me.

ʻE possessives are generally used for:

  • Goods, money, tools, utensils, instruments, weapons, vehicles, and other possessions which the subject owns or uses (ʻeku paʻanga, "my money")
  • Animals or birds which the subjects owns or uses (ʻeku fanga puaka, "my pigs")
  • Things which the subject eats, drinks, or smokes (ʻeku meʻakai, "my food")
  • Things which the subject originates, makes, mends, carries, or otherwise deals with (ʻeku kavenga, "my burden")
  • Persons in the subject's employ, under their control, or in their care (ʻeku tamaioʻeiki "my male servant")

Ho possessives are generally used for

  • Things which are a part of the subject or 'unalienable' from the subject, such as body parts (hoku sino, "my body")
  • Persons or things which represent the subject (hoku hingoa, "my name")
  • The subject's relatives, friends, associates, or enemies (hoku hoa, "my companion (spouse)")
  • Things which are provided for the subject or devolve to them or fall to their lot (hoku tofiʻa, "my inheritance")
  • In general, persons or things which surround, support, or control the subject, or on which the subject depends (hoku kolo, "my village/town")

There are plenty of exceptions which do not fall under the guidelines above, for instance, ʻeku tamai, "my father". The number of exceptions is large enough to make the alienable and inalienable distinction appear on the surface to be as arbitrary as the grammatical gender distinction for Romance languages, but by and large the above guidelines hold true.

Cardinal pronouns

The cardinal pronouns are the main personal pronouns which in Tongan can either be preposed (before the verb, light colour) or postposed (after the verb, dark colour). The first are the normal alienable possessive pronouns, the latter the stressed alienable pronouns, which are sometimes uses as reflexive pronouns, or with kia te in front the inalienable possessive forms. (There is no possession involved in the cardinal pronouns and therefore no alienable or inalienable forms).

Cardinal pronouns
Position Singular Dual Plural
1st person exclusive
(I, we, us)
preposed u, ou, ku ma mau
postposed au kimaua kimautolu
inclusive
(one, we, us)
preposed te ta tau
postposed kita kitaua kitautolu
2nd person preposed ke mo mou
postposed koe kimoua kimoutolu
3rd person preposed ne na nau
postposed ia kinaua kinautolu

Remember:

  • all the preposed pronouns of one syllable only (ku, u, ma, te, ta, ke, mo, ne, na) are enclitics which never can take the stress, but put it on the vowel in front of them. Example: ʻoku naú versus ʻokú na (not: ʻoku ná).
  • first person singular, I uses u after kuo, te, ne, and also ka (becomes kau), pea, mo and ʻo; but uses ou after ʻoku; and uses ku after naʻa.
  • first person inclusive (I and you) is of course somewhat a misnomer, at least in the singular. The meanings of te and kita can often rendered as one, that is the modesty I.

Examples of use.

  • Naʻa ku fehuʻi: I asked
  • Naʻe fehuʻi (ʻe) au: I(!) asked (stressed)
  • ʻOku ou fehuʻi au: I ask myself
  • Te u fehuʻi kiate koe: I shall ask you
  • Te ke tali kiate au: You will answer me
  • Kapau te te fehuʻi: If one would ask
  • Tau ō ki he hulohula?: Are we (all) going to the ball?
  • Sinitalela, mau ō ki he hulohula: Cinderella, we go to the ball (... said the evil stepmother, and she went with two of her daughters, but not Cinderella)

Another archaic aspect of Tongan is the retention of preposed pronouns. They are used much less frequently in Sāmoan and have completely disappeared in East Polynesian languages, where the pronouns are cognate with the Tongan postposed form minus ki-. (We love you: ʻOku ʻofa kimautolu kia te kimoutolu; Māori: e aroha nei mātou i a koutou).

Possessive pronouns

The possessives for every person and number (1st person plural, 3rd person dual, etc.) can be further divided into normal or ordinary (light colour), emotional (medium colour) and emphatic (bright colour) forms. The latter is rarely used, but the two former are common and further subdivided in definite (saturated colour) and indefinite (greyish colour) forms.

Possessive
pronouns
definite
or not
type singular dual plural
alienable2,5 inalienable2,5 alienable2,5 inalienable2,5 alienable2,5 inalienable2,5
1st person
(exclusive)
(my, our)
definite ordinary heʻeku1 hoku heʻema1 homa heʻemau1 homau
indefinite haʻaku haku haʻama hama haʻamau hamau
definite emotional siʻeku siʻoku siʻema siʻoma siʻemau siʻomau
indefinite siʻaku siʻaku siʻama siʻama siʻamau siʻamau
emphatic3 haʻaku hoʻoku haʻamaua hoʻomaua haʻamautolu hoʻomautolu
1st person
(inclusive)4
(my, our)
definite ordinary heʻete1 hoto heʻeta1 hota heʻetau1 hotau
indefinite haʻate hato haʻata hata haʻatau hatau
definite emotional siʻete siʻoto siʻeta siʻota siʻetau siʻotau
indefinite siʻate siʻato siʻata siʻata siʻatau siʻatau
emphatic3 haʻata hoʻota haʻataua hoʻotaua haʻatautolu hoʻotautolu
2nd person
(your)
definite ordinary hoʻo ho hoʻomo homo hoʻomou homou
indefinite haʻo hao haʻamo hamo haʻamou hamou
definite emotional siʻo siʻo siʻomo siʻomo siʻomou siʻomou
indefinite siʻao siʻao siʻamo siʻamo siʻamou siʻamou
emphatic3 haʻau hoʻou haʻamoua hoʻomoua haʻamoutolu hoʻomoutolu
3rd person
(his, her, its, their)
definite ordinary heʻene1 hono heʻena1 hona heʻenau1 honau
indefinite haʻane hano haʻana hana haʻanau hanau
definite emotional siʻene siʻono siʻena siʻona siʻenau siʻonau
indefinite siʻane siʻano siʻana siʻana siʻanau siʻanau
emphatic3 haʻana hoʻona haʻanaua hoʻonaua haʻanautolu hoʻonautolu

Notes:

  1. the ordinary definite possessives starting with he (in italics) drop this prefix after any word except ʻi, ki, mei, ʻe. Example: ko ʻeku tohi, my book; ʻi heʻeku tohi, in my book.
  2. all ordinary alienable possessive forms contain a fakauʻa, the inalienable forms do not.
  3. the emphatic forms are not often used, but if they are, they take the definitive accent from the following words (see below)
  4. first person inclusive (me and you) is of course somewhat a misnomer. The meanings of heʻete, hoto, etc. can often rendered as one's, that is the modesty me.
  5. the choice between an alienable or inalienable possessive is determined by the word or phrase it refers to. For example: ko ho fale '(it is) your house' (inalienable), ko ho'o tohi, '(it is) your book' (alienable). *Ko ho tohi, ko hoʻo fale* are wrong. Some words can take either, but with a difference in meaning: ko ʻene taki 'his/her leadership'; ko hono taki 'his/her leader'.

Examples of use.

  • ko haʻaku/haku kahoa: my garland (any garland from or for me)
  • ko ʻeku/hoku kahoa: my garland (it is my garland)
  • ko ʻeku/hoku kahoá: my garland, that particular one and no other
  • ko heʻete/hoto kahoa: one's garland {mine in fact, but that is not important}
  • ko siʻaku kahoa: my cherished garland (any cherished garland from or for me)
  • ko siʻeku/siʻoku kahoa: my cherished garland (it is my cherished garland)
  • ko haʻakú/hoʻokú kahoa: garland (emphatically mine) – that particular garland is mine and not someone else's
  • ko homa kahoa: our garlands (exclusive: you and I are wearing them, but not the person we are talking to)
  • ko hota kahoa: our garlands (inclusive: you and I are wearing them, and I am talking to you)

Other pronouns

These are the remainders: the pronominal adjectives (mine), indirect object pronouns or pronominal adverbs (for me) and the adverbial possessives (as me).

other
pronouns
type singular1 dual plural
alienable inalienable alienable inalienable alienable inalienable
1st person
(exclusive)
(my, our)
pronominal adjective ʻaʻaku ʻoʻoku ʻamaua ʻomaua ʻamautolu ʻomautolu
pronominal adverb maʻaku moʻoku maʻamaua moʻomaua maʻamautolu moʻomautolu
adverbial possessive maʻaku moʻoku maʻama moʻoma maʻamau moʻomau
1st person
(inclusive)
(my, our)
pronominal adjective ʻaʻata ʻoʻota ʻataua ʻotaua ʻatautolu ʻotautolu
pronominal adverb maʻata moʻota maʻataua moʻotaua maʻatautolu moʻotautolu
adverbial possessive maʻate moʻoto maʻata moʻota maʻatau moʻotau
2nd person
(your)
pronominal adjective ʻaʻau ʻoʻou ʻamoua ʻomoua ʻamoutolu ʻomoutolu
pronominal adverb maʻau moʻou maʻamoua moʻomoua maʻamoutolu moʻomoutolu
adverbial possessive maʻo moʻo maʻamo moʻomo maʻamou moʻomou
3rd person
(his, her, its, their)
pronominal adjective ʻaʻana ʻoʻona ʻanaua ʻonaua ʻanautolu ʻonautolu
pronominal adverb maʻana moʻona maʻanaua moʻonaua maʻanautolu moʻonautolu
adverbial possessive maʻane moʻono maʻana moʻona maʻanau moʻonau

Notes:

  1. the first syllable in all singular pronominal adjectives (in italics) is reduplicated and can be dropped for somewhat less emphasis
  • the pronominal adjectives put a stronger emphasis on the possessor than the possessive pronouns do
  • the use of the adverbial possessives is rare

Examples of use:

  • ko hono valá: it is his/her/its clothing/dress
  • ko e vala ʻona: it is his/her/its (!) clothing/dress
  • ko e vala ʻoʻona: it is his/her/its (!!!) clothing/dress
  • ko hono valá ʻona: it is his/her/its own clothing/dress
  • ko hono vala ʻoná: it is his/her/its own clothing/dress; same as previous
  • ko hono vala ʻoʻoná: it is his/her/its very own clothing/dress
  • ʻoku ʻoʻona ʻa e valá ni: this clothing is his/hers/its
  • ʻoku moʻona ʻa e valá: the clothing is for him/her/it
  • ʻoange ia moʻono valá: give it (to him/her/it) as his/hers/its clothing

Counting

0-9
0 noa
1 taha 2 ua 3 tolu
4 5 nima 6 ono
7 fitu 8 valu 9 hiva

For 'simple' two-digit multiples of ten both the 'full-style' and 'telephone-style' numbers are in equally common use, while for other two-digit numbers the 'telephone-style' numbers are almost exclusively in use:

10-90 'tens'
# 'full-style' 'telephone-style'
10 hongofulu taha-noa
20 ungofulu/uofulu ua-noa
30 tolungofulu tolu-noa
...
11-99
# 'full-style' 'telephone-style'
11 hongofulu ma taha taha-taha
24 ungofulu ma fā ua-fā
...
exceptions
# Tongan
22 uo-ua
55 nime-nima
99 hive-hiva
100-999 'simple'
# Tongan
100 teau
101 teau taha
110 teau hongofulu
120 teau-ua-noa
200 uongeau
300 tolungeau
...
100-999 'complex'
# Tongan
111 taha-taha-taha
222 uo-uo-ua
482 fā-valu-ua
...
1000-
# Tongan
1000 taha-afe
2000 ua-afe
...
10000 mano
100000 kilu
1000000 miliona
...

ʻOku fiha ia? (how much (does it cost)?) Paʻanga ʻe ua-nima-noa (T$2.50)

In addition there are special, traditional counting systems for fish, coconuts, yams, etc.[13]

Literature

Tongan is primarily a spoken, rather than written, language. The Bible and the Book of Mormon were translated into Tongan and few other books were written in it.

There are several weekly and monthly magazines in Tongan, but there are no daily newspapers.

Weekly newspapers, some of them twice per week:

  • Ko e Kalonikali ʻo Tonga
  • Ko e Keleʻa
  • Taimi ʻo Tonga
  • Talaki
  • Ko e Tauʻatāina
  • Tonga Maʻa Tonga

Monthly or two-monthly papers, mostly church publications:

Calendar

The Tongan calendar was based on the phases of the moon and had 13 months. The main purpose of the calendar, for Tongans, was to determine the time for the planting and cultivation of yams, which were Tonga's most important staple food.

Name Compared to Modern Calendar
Lihamuʻa mid-November to early December
Lihamui mid-December to early January
Vaimuʻa mid-January to early February
Vaimui mid-February to early March
Fakaafu Moʻui mid-March to early April
Fakaaafu Mate mid-April to early May
Hilingakelekele mid-May to early June
Hilingameaʻa mid-June to early July
ʻAoʻaokimasisiva mid-July to early August
Fuʻufuʻunekinanga mid-August to early September
ʻUluenga mid-September to early October
Tanumanga early October to late October
ʻOʻoamofanongo late October to early November.

[15]

Day Tongan Term
Monday Mōnite
Tuesday Tūsite
Wednesday Pulelulu
Thursday Tuʻapulelulu
Friday Falaite
Saturday Tokonaki
Sunday Sāpate
Month Transliteration
January Sānuali
February Fēpueli
March Maʻasi
April ʻEpeleli
May
June Sune
July Siulai
August ʻAokosi
September Sēpitema
October ʻOkatopa
November Nōvema
December Tisema

Notes

  1. ^ Tongan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Tongan language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tonga (Tonga Islands)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  5. ^ "Tongan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  6. ^ The glottal stop in most other Polynesian languages are the reflexes of other consonants of proto-Polynesian; for example, the glottal stop of Samoan and Hawaiian is a reflex of the original *k; the glottal stop of Cook Islands Māori represents a merger of the original *f and *s. Tongan does not show changes such as the *t to /k/ and to /n/ of Hawaiian; nor has Tongan shifted *f to /h/. Although Tongan, Samoan and other Western Polynesian languages are not affected by a change in Central Eastern Polynesian languages (such as New Zealand Māori) involving the dissimilation of /faf/ to /wah/, Tongan has vowel changes (as seen in monumanu from original manumanu) which are not a feature of other languages.
  7. ^ This loss may be quite recent. The word "lua", meaning "two", is still found in some placenames and archaic texts. "Marama" (light) thus became "maama", and the two successive "a"s are still pronounced separately, not yet contracted to "māma". On the other hand "toro" (sugarcane) already has become "tō" (still "tolo" in Sāmoan).
  8. ^ Akihisa Tsukamoto (1994). LIT Verlag Münster (ed.). Forschungen über die Sprachen der Inseln zwischen Tonga und Saamoa (in German). p. 109. ISBN 3825820157.
  9. ^ Glottal stop is represented as 'q' in reconstructed Proto-Polynesian words.
  10. ^ Archaic: the usual word in today's Tahitian is 'piti'.
  11. ^ These a and o refer to the characteristic vowel used in those pronouns. In Tongan, however, this distinction is much less clear, and rather a characteristic for the indefinite and definite forms respectively. Use of the a & o terms therefore is not favoured.
  12. ^ Churchward, C.M. (1999). Tongan Grammar. Vava'u Press Limited. p. 81. ISBN 982-213-007-4.
  13. ^ Churchward, C.M. (1999). Tongan Grammar. Vava'u Press Limited. pp. 184–189. ISBN 982-213-007-4.
  14. ^ Online Tongan edition of Liahona, lds.org
  15. ^ [1] Archived October 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

References

  • C.Maxwell Churchward, Tongan Grammar. 1999. Tonga: Vavaʼu Press ISBN 982-213-007-4 (previously: 1953. London: Oxford University Press ; 1985. Tonga: Vavaʼu Press ISBN 0-908717-05-9)
  • C.Maxwell Churchward, Tongan Dictionary: Tongan-English and English-Tongan. 1999. Tonga: Vavaʼu Press (previsouly: 1959. London : Oxford University Press)
  • Edgar Tuʻinukuafe, A Simplified Dictionary of Modern Tongan. 1993. Polynesian Press ISBN 0908597096, ISBN 978-0908597093

External links

Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands

The Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands (Tongan: Paati Temokalati ʻa e ʻOtu Motu ʻAngaʻofa) is a political party in Tonga. The party's leader at its foundation was 'Akilisi Pohiva.

The party was launched in September 2010, and included several sitting People's Representatives who were part of the Human Rights and Democracy Movement. Its policies include government transparency and economic reform.The "Friendly Islands" are a name originally given to Tonga by Captain James Cook.

Europe of Nations and Freedom

Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENF; French: Europe des nations et des libertés, ENL) was a political group in the European Parliament launched on 15 June 2015. The group was the smallest within the European Parliament during the eighth European Parliament term at just 37 members. The largest faction in the group was the French National Rally with 17 MEPs. Twenty-eight members were part of the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom (MENF), with the remaining nine MEPs being their ideological allies. The ENF was the parliamentary group of the Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom although some MEPs were without any European affiliations.

The group was replaced for the ninth European Parliament on 13 June 2019 by the Identity and Democracy group.

Grass skirt

A grass skirt is a costume and garment made with layers of plant fibres such as grasses (Poaceae) and leaves that is fastened at the waistline.

Hawaiki

In Polynesian mythology, Hawaiki (also rendered as "Avaiki" (Society Islands), "Savai'i", (Samoa), "Havai’i" (Reo Tahiti)) is the original home of the Polynesians, before dispersal across Polynesia. It also features as the underworld in many Māori stories.

Anne Salmond states Havai'i is the old name for Raiatea, the homeland of the Māori. When James Cook first sighted New Zealand in 1769, he had Tupaia on board, a Raiatean navigator and linguist. Cook's arrival seemed to be a confirmation of a prophecy by Toiroa, a priest from Mahia. At Tolaga Bay, Tupaia conversed with the priest, tohunga, associated with the school of learning located there, called Te Rawheoro. The priest asked about the Maori homelands, 'Rangiatea' (Ra'iatea), 'Hawaiki' (Havai'i, the ancient name for Ra'iatea), and 'Tawhiti' (Tahiti).

Jonathan (name)

Jonathan (Hebrew: יְהוֹנָתָן/יוֹנָתָן, Standard Yonatan / Yəhonatan Tiberian Yônāṯān) is a common male given name meaning "YHWH has given" in Hebrew. The earliest known use of the name was in the Bible, one Jonathan was the son of King Saul, a close friend of David.

Variants of Jonathan include Jonathon, Johnathan, Jonothon, Jonothan, Johnathen, Johnathon, Jhonathan, Jonatan and Jhonnathan. Biblical variants include Yehonathan, Y'honathan, Yhonathan, Yonathan, Yonatan, Yonaton, Yonoson, Yeonoson or Yehonasan. In Israel, "Yoni" is a common nickname for Yonatan (Jonathan) in the same way Jonny is in English.The name was the 31st most popular boys' name in the United States in 2011, according to the SSA.Nicknames include Jonny, John, Jon, Jono, Jon Boy and Jona. In the past, Jo and Jonty were common diminutives of Jonathan in the United Kingdom but this is much rarer now.

Names with similar meanings include Theodosius in Greek, Khodadad in Persian and Bozhidar or Bogdan in Slavonic.

In the English-speaking world, the name saw its first popularity with the Puritans during the English Civil War. Following Puritan migration to North America, the name became synonymous with New England and the United States as a whole, with the character Brother Jonathan becoming a personification of the country during the American Revolutionary War.

LGBT rights in Tonga

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Tonga face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Homosexuality is illegal in Tonga, with a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment, but the law is not enforced.Tongan society is very socially conservative and highly religious. The Tongan Government requires all religious references on broadcast media to conform to mainstream Christian beliefs. The mixture of conservative values and colonial-era laws has resulted in a climate of fear, discrimination and homophobia for LGBT people. Along with Kiribati, Tonga is the only Polynesian country to not have signed or expressed support for the 2011 "joint statement on ending acts of violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity" at the United Nations, which condemnes violence and discrimination against LGBT people.Many gay and lesbian Tongans emigrate to Australia or New Zealand in order to live a more open life that they may not get to experience in their native land.

Legislative Assembly of Tonga

The Legislative Assembly (Tongan: Fale Alea) of Tonga has 25 members in which 17 members elected by majority of the people for a 5-year term in multi-seat constituencies via the single non-transferable vote system. There are 8 members elected by the 33 hereditary nobles of Tonga. The Assembly is controlled by the speaker of the House who is elected by majority of the elected members of Parliament and constitutionally appointed by the king.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania. Although it is mostly ocean and spans many continental plates, Oceania is often listed with the continents.

This list follows the boundaries of geopolitical Oceania, which includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. The main continental landmass of Oceania is Australia.The boundary between Asia and Oceania is not clearly defined. For political reasons, the United Nations considers the boundary between the two regions to be the Indonesian–Papua New Guinean border. Papua New Guinea is occasionally considered Asian as it neighbours Indonesia, but this is rare, and it is generally accepted to be part of Oceania. Geographically, Papua and West Papua provinces are part of Oceania.

Marae

A marae (in New Zealand Māori, Cook Islands Māori, Tahitian), malaʻe (in Tongan), meʻae (in Marquesan), and malae (in Samoan) is a communal or sacred place that serves religious and social purposes in Polynesian societies. In all these languages, the term also means "cleared, free of weeds, trees, etc". Marae generally consist of an area of cleared land roughly rectangular (the marae itself), bordered with stones or wooden posts (called au in Tahitian and Cook Islands Māori) perhaps with paepae (terraces) which were traditionally used for ceremonial purposes; and in some cases, a central stone ahu or a'u. In the Rapa Nui culture of Easter Island, the term ahu has become a synonym for the whole marae complex.

In some modern Polynesian societies, notably that of the Māori of Aotearoa New Zealand, the marae is still a vital part of everyday life. In tropical Polynesia, most marae were destroyed or abandoned with the arrival of Christianity in the 19th century, and some have become an attraction for tourists or archaeologists. Nevertheless, the place where these marae were built are still considered tapu (sacred) in most of these cultures.

Māhū

Māhū ('in the middle') in Kanaka Maoli (Hawaiian) and Maohi (Tahitian) cultures are third gender persons with traditional spiritual and social roles within the culture, similar to Tongan fakaleiti and Samoan fa'afafine, Kāne (men) who have sexual relationships with men are Aikāne.

According to present-day māhū kumu hula Kaua'i Iki:

Māhū were particularly respected as teachers, usually of hula dance and chant. In pre-contact times māhū performed the roles of goddesses in hula dances that took place in temples which were off-limits to women. Māhū were also valued as the keepers of cultural traditions, such as the passing down of genealogies. Traditionally parents would ask māhū to name their children.

Nicholas

Nicholas, Nickolas, Nikolas, Nikolaus or Nicolas is a male given name, derived from the Greek name Νικόλαος (Nikolaos), a compound of νίκη nikē 'victory' and λαός; laos 'people'. The name became popular through Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra in Lycia, the inspiration for Santa Claus. The Greek word laos originates from the word root -las, as found in the word λα-τομεῑο la-tomeio meaning "stone" or "rock" (as in Greek Mythology, Deucalion and Pyrrha recreated the people after they had vanished in a catastrophic deluge, by throwing stones behind their shoulders while they kept marching on) and the name can be understood to mean victory of the people. The name Nikolaos (Νικόλαος) pre-existed the Bishop of Myra who became Saint Nicholas, by several centuries. The Athenian historian Thucydides mentions that in the second year of the Peloponnesian war (431 to 404 BC) between Sparta and Athens, the Spartans sent a delegation to the Persian king to ask for his help to fight the Athenians; Nikolaos was one of the delegates. The customary English version of spelling "Nicholas", using an "h", first came into use in the 12th century and has been firmly established since the Reformation, though "Nicolas" is occasionally used.

In the United States, Nicholas – and its variations – was the 17th most popular male name given to babies in 2006. Roughly 0.7151% of the baby boys born that year, or 15,414, were given that name. It is decreasing in popularity, from a high in 1997, when 27,248 males in the United States were given the name Nicholas. That year was the most popular year for Nicholas since 1880, when U.S. records were kept for given names.The Eastern Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Anglican Churches celebrate Saint Nicholas every year on December 6, which is the name day for "Nicholas". In Greece, the name and its derivatives are especially popular in maritime regions, as St. Nicholas is considered the protector saint of seafarers.

Niuean language

Niuean (; ko e vagahau Niuē) is a Polynesian language, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages. It is most closely related to Tongan and slightly more distantly to other Polynesian languages such as Māori, Sāmoan, and Hawaiian. Together, Tongan and Niuean form the Tongic subgroup of the Polynesian languages. Niuean also has a number of influences from Samoan and Eastern Polynesian languages.

Pākehā

Pākehā (or Pakeha; , Māori pronunciation: [ˈpaːkɛhaː]) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent (a distinct Pakeha lineage has formed due to interbreeding between settlers and Maori over the course of New Zealand's colonized history). The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. Papa'a has a similar meaning in Cook Islands Māori.Its etymology is unclear, but the term pākehā was in use by the late 18th century. In December 1814, the Māori children at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands were "no less eager to see the packaha than the grown folks".

In Māori, plural nouns of the term include ngā pākehā (the definite article) and he pākehā (the indefinite article). When the word was first adopted, the usual plural in English was "pakehas". However, speakers of New Zealand English are increasingly removing the terminal "s" and treating the term as a collective noun.

Opinions of the term vary amongst European New Zealanders. Some reject it on the ground that they claim it is offensive, or they object to being named in a language other than their own. A sample of 6,507 New Zealanders found no support for the claim that the term "Pākehā" is associated with a negative evaluation, and a great many Pākehā take pride in the name as a symbol of their connection to Aotearoa.In 2013, the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study carried out by the University of Auckland found no evidence that the word was widely considered to be derogatory; however, only 12 per cent of New Zealanders of European descent chose to be identified by the term, with the remainder preferring "New Zealander" (53 per cent), "New Zealand European" (25 per cent) or "Kiwi" (17 per cent).

Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free

"Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free" is the national anthem of Zambia. The tune is taken from the hymn "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" (English: "Lord Bless Africa"), which was composed by South African Enoch Sontonga, in 1897. The lyrics were composed after Zambian independence to specifically reflect Zambia, as opposed to Sontonga's lyrics which refer to Africa as a whole.

Tonga Broadcasting Commission

Tonga Broadcasting Commission (TBC) (Tongan: Komisoni Fakamafolalea Tonga) is the first and largest broadcasting station in Tonga, solely owned by the government of Tonga. It operates two free-to-air TV channels (Television Tonga and Television Tonga 2), one AM commercial radio channel (Radio Tonga), one FM commercial radio channel (Kool 90FM), and a 24-hour Radio Australia relay channel (FM103). TBC relies on profits from its TV & radio advertising sales, and from its retail radio shop outlet located in Vava'u. Its retail radio shop in Nukuʻalofa's Central Business District was among the numerous businesses destroyed in the riots of 16 November 2006.

Tonga language

Tonga may refer to five different languages:

Tongan language, or Tonga (ISO 639-3: ton) – a Polynesian language spoken in Tonga in the South Pacific

Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe), or Chitonga (ISO 639-3: toi) – a Bantu language spoken in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique

Tonga (Nyasa) language, or Chitonga (ISO 639-3: tog) – a Bantu language spoken in Malawi

Guitonga language (Mozambique), or Gitonga (ISO 639-3: toh) – a Bantu language spoken in Mozambique

Ten'edn, also known as Tonga or Mos (ISO 639-3: tnz) – a Mon-Khmer language spoken in Thailand and Malaysia

Tongan

Tongan may refer to:

Something of, from, or related to the country of Tonga

Tongans, people from Tonga

Tongan language, the national language of Tonga

Tong'an District, a district in Xiamen, Fujian, China

Tongan paʻanga

The paʻanga is the currency of Tonga. It is controlled by the National Reserve Bank of Tonga (Pangikē Pule Fakafonua ʻo Tonga) in Nukuʻalofa. The paʻanga is not convertible and is pegged to a basket of currencies comprising the Australian, New Zealand, and United States dollars and the Japanese yen.

The paʻanga is subdivided into 100 seniti. The ISO code is TOP, and the usual abbreviation is T$ (¢ for seniti). In Tonga, the paʻanga is often referred to in English as the dollar, the seniti as the cent and the hau as the union. There is also the unit of hau (1 hau = 100 paʻanga), but this is not used in everyday life and can be found only on commemorative coins of higher denominations.

ʻOkina

The ʻokina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

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