Tommaso Campanella OP (Italian pronunciation: [tomˈmaːzo kampaˈnɛlla]; 5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.
Tommaso Campanella depicted by Francesco Cozza
|Born||5 September 1568|
|Died||21 May 1639 (aged 70)|
|Occupation||Philosopher, theologian, astrologer, poet|
Born in Stignano (in the county of Stilo) in the province of Reggio di Calabria in Calabria, southern Italy, Campanella was a child prodigy. Son of a poor and illiterate cobbler, he entered the Dominican Order before the age of fourteen, taking the name of fra' Tommaso in honour of Thomas Aquinas. He studied theology and philosophy with several masters.
Early on, he became disenchanted with the Aristotelian orthodoxy and attracted by the empiricism of Bernardino Telesio (1509–1588), who taught that knowledge is sensation and that all things in nature possess sensation. Campanella wrote his first work, Philosophia sensibus demonstrata ("Philosophy demonstrated by the senses"), published in 1592, in defence of Telesio.
In 1590 he was in Naples where he was initiated in astrology; astrological speculations would become a constant feature in his writings. Campanella's heterodox views, especially his opposition to the authority of Aristotle, brought him into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities. Denounced to the Inquisition, he was arrested in Padua in 1594 and cited before the Holy Office in Rome, he was confined in a convent until 1597.
After his liberation, Campanella returned to Calabria, where he was accused of leading a conspiracy against the Spanish rule in his hometown of Stilo. Campanella's aim was to establish a society based on the community of goods and wives, for on the basis of the prophecies of Joachim of Fiore and his own astrological observations, he foresaw the advent of the Age of the Spirit in the year 1600. Betrayed by two of his fellow conspirators, he was captured and incarcerated in Naples, where he was tortured on the rack. Even from the confinement of the jail, Campanella managed to influence the intellectual history of the early seventeenth century, by maintaining epistolary contacts with European philosophers and scientists, Neapolitan cultural circles, and Caravaggio's commissioners. Finally, Campanella made a full confession and would have been put to death if he had not feigned madness and set his cell on fire. He was tortured further (a total of seven times) and then, crippled and ill, was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Campanella spent twenty-seven years imprisoned in Naples, in various fortresses. During his detention, he wrote his most important works: The Monarchy of Spain (1600), Political Aphorisms (1601), Atheismus triumphatus (Atheism Conquered, 1605–1607), Quod reminiscetur (1606?), Metaphysica (1609–1623), Theologia (1613–1624), and his most famous work, The City of the Sun (originally written in Italian in 1602; published in Latin in Frankfurt (1623) and later in Paris (1638).
He defended Galileo Galilei in his first trial with his work The Defense of Galileo (written in 1616, published in 1622). During the time before his second trial, September 25, 1632, Campanella wrote to Galileo that:
To my great disgust I have heard that wrathful theologians of the Congregation aim to prohibit the Dialogues of Your Excellency, and [that] no one will be present who understands mathematics or recondite things. Be aware that while Your Excellency does state that it was appropriate to prohibit the theory of the earth's motion, you are not obliged to believe that the reasons of those who contradicted you are good. This is a theological rule, and is proved by the second Council of Nicaea which decreed that Angelorum imagines depingi debent, quam‘am vere corporei sunt (Images of angels must be depicted as they are in the flesh): while the decree is valid, the reasoning behind it is not, since all scholars today say angels are incorporeal. There are many other fundamental reasons. I fear violence from people who do not understand this. Our Pope makes a lot of noise against this and speaks as the Pope, but you haven't heard about that, nor can think about it. In my opinion Your Excellency should write to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, that since they are putting Dominicans, Jesuits, Theatines, and secular priests who are against your books in this council, they should also admit Father Castelli and me.
Campanella was finally released from prison in 1626, through Pope Urban VIII, who personally interceded on his behalf with Philip IV of Spain. Taken to Rome and held for a time by the Holy Office, Campanella was restored to full liberty in 1629. He lived for five years in Rome, where he was Urban's advisor in astrological matters.
In 1634, however, a new conspiracy in Calabria, led by one of his followers, threatened fresh troubles. With the aid of Cardinal Barberini and the French Ambassador de Noailles, he fled to France, where he was received at the court of Louis XIII with marked favour. Protected by Cardinal Richelieu and granted a liberal pension by the king, he spent the rest of his days in the convent of Saint-Honoré in Paris. His last work was a poem celebrating the birth of the future Louis XIV (Ecloga in portentosam Delphini nativitatem).
Atheism Conquered (Latin: Atheismus Triumphatus) is a philosophical work by the Italian Dominican philosopher Tommaso Campanella.
Campanella wrote Atheism Conquered in 1606–1607 in Italian, under the title of Recognoscimento della vera religione universale (Identification of the True Universal Religion), while in prison on suspicion of conspiracy to rebel against Spanish rule over Naples. On June 1, 1607 he dedicated it to the German scholar Caspar Schoppe, who had come to visit him and who suggested the new title. The Italian version survives in the Vatican Library; Campanella subsequently translated it into Latin. Schoppe was not able to have it published, nor was the philosopher Tobias Adami, who had other works by Campanella published in Frankfurt in 1617–1623. The Church regarded it as fomenting Pelagianism, a heresy in which the virtues of humanity are overemphasized at the expense of God's grace. In 1631, after great difficulty and censorship of the text more than once, Campanella managed to publish it in Rome, but the edition was almost immediately impounded. It was finally published in Paris in early 1636 in a collection of Campanella's writings dedicated to King Louis XIII.In the introductory chapter, Campanella juxtaposes politicians, whose viewpoint, based on self-love, maintains that all religion is political in origin and that there is no truth beyond that, and philosophers, who believe in universal truth and, seeking to benefit mankind but skeptical about supernatural dogma, live according to natural virtue. He wrote from prison that Atheism Conquered was "[a] volume against politicians and Machiavellians". In the second chapter, he presents arguments against religion, specifically Christianity, which he then rebuts in the remainder of the work from the perspective of the world being imbued with and an expression of the divine nature and of the unique nature of humanity in being able to achieve transcendent knowledge and religious insight. He argues that religion is part of natural law, that "human beings have a natural inclination toward justice and toward living within a religion", and that false religions are not an argument against the existence of religious truth, making a comparison with inept doctors not being an argument against the efficacy of medicine. He presents Christianity as the best candidate for a universal religion since it conforms best to natural law.Campanella described the work as representing his personal progression from rationalism to sincere Christian belief. However, both Protestants and Catholics found the arguments he presents for atheism disturbingly strong. In The 48 Laws of Power, Robert Greene categorizes it as "a book attacking free-thinkers, Machiavellians, Calvinists, and heretics of all stripes" in which Campanella made the statements of heretical beliefs relatively "[b]rief and eloquent" and those for Catholicism "stale clichés and convoluted rationales", so that the work in effect promoted heresy while on the surface arguing for conformism, and became "a bible for atheists, Machiavellians and libertines".City of the Sun
City of the Sun may refer to:
The City of the Sun, the 1602 utopian work by Tommaso Campanella
The City of the Sun (film), 2005 comedy film co-produced by Slovakia and the Czech Republic
City of the Sun, New Mexico, an intentional community in New Mexico
Stad van de Zon, housing project in the Netherlands
City of the Sun (TV series), a South Korean television drama series
City of the Sun (Levien novel), a 2008 novel by David Levien
City of the Sun (Maio novel), a 2014 novel by Juliana Maio
City of the Sun (band), an American acoustic post-rock trio from New York City
City of the Sun (film), film by Rati Oneli released in 2017Collective leadership
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure. It is considered an ideal form of ruling a communist party, both within and outside a socialist state.Daniel Clasen
Daniel Clasen, in Latin Danielis Clasenius or Clasenus (1 May 1622, Lüneburg – 20 November 1678, Helmstedt), was a German political theorist, religious scholar, and classicist.
His treatises, written in Latin, dealt with law, jurisprudence, religion, and politics. Clasen was one of the earliest theorists of political religion, though preceded by Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639), and argued against accommodation theory.Clasen was a major mythographer of the 17th century, and wrote commentaries on classical texts such as the so-called Tablet of Cebes (Cebetis Tabula vitae humanae), for which he provided a Latin translation.Edmund Chilmead
Edmund Chilmead (1610 – 19 February 1654) was an English writer and translator, who produced both scholarly works and hack-writing. He is also known as a musician.Fernando Ruiz de Castro Andrade y Portugal
Fernando Ruiz de Castro Andrade y Portugal (14 December 1548 - 20 September 1601) was a Galician (Spanish) nobleman who was Viceroy of Naples from 1599 to 1601. He was the 6th Count of Lemos, an old title from Galicia, centered in the lands around the town of Monforte de Lemos. He was also 3rd Marquis of Sarria and a grandee of Spain.
He was born at Lerma. Philosopher Tommaso Campanella was incarcerated during his tenure in Naples (1599). He also ordered the construction of Royal Palace of Naples, designed by Domenico Fontana.
Fernando Ruiz de Castro died in Naples two years later. His second son Francisco Ruiz de Castro succeeded him as viceroy of Naples.Fifth International
The phrase Fifth International refers to the efforts made by groups of socialists to create a new Workers' International.Lamezia Terme Town Library
The Lamezia Terme Town Library is located in the historic centre of the former village of Nicastro and more precisely in the Nicotera-Severisio historical building located in the Tommaso Campanella square.
The town library belongs to the Territorial Library System of Lamezia Terme which also includes other 17 towns libraries of as many towns of the Lamezia Terme area.Luigi Firpo
Luigi Firpo (4 January 1915 in Turin – 2 March 1989 in Turin) was an Italian historian and politician.
He taught history of political thought at the University of Turin. He has been credited as "an excellent editor and lucky finder of texts" which were particularly influential in the study of Tommaso Campanella.He was a member of the Italian Republican Party and of the Italian Parliament serving from 9 July 1987 to March 2, 1989.Niccolò Riccardi
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Nicola Antonio Stigliola (Also: Colantonio Stelliola) (1546 Nola – 1623 Naples) was an Italian philosopher, printer, architect, and medical doctor. He was a friend to Tommaso Campanella and Giordano Bruno and a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.
He was an adherent of Copernican heliocentrism and of Bruno's ideas on Hermeticism and magic. He believed in the complex Pythagorean and Brunian cosmologies, including the view that the planets and stars were like the earth, covered in plants and animals:
"Stigliola said to me...that it seemed irrational to him that bodies so much larger than the earth and the space between the centre of the earth to the moon should be composed simply of idle fire, and not instead of all manner of elements and plants and animals and men, just as our countryman Philolaus held."
Indeed, Stigliola and Bruno were born just two years apart in the same region of southern Italy, Nola, and in the same town of Monte Cicala.Early studies and life in Naples
Stigliola studied medicine at the University of Salerno, gaining his degree in 1571, after which he lived in Naples. There, he published "Theriace et Mithridatia Libellus" (1577), a polemic defending his teacher Maranta on the use of theria (a subclass of mammals), against the medical school at Padua - an effort that meant he could not progress as a medical student.
Instead, he turned his attentions to architecture and teaching. He became, in the 1580s, topographer to the city of Naples, and developed new plans for the city's port and city wall, neither of which were implemented. Instead, he turned to teaching, perhaps medicine as well as architecture. He was said to have had, at one time, 400 students.
He also turned his hand to the very risky business of printing, establishing a press on the Porta Reale from 1593 to 1606. Eighty-two of these printed works are known today and the press was "one of the greatest of his day".
He was tried for heresy in Naples in 1595.His epitaph, in part, reads:
TO THE MEMBER OF THE LYNCEAN ACADEMY,
NICOLA ANTONIO STIGLIOLA,
NOT ONLY A PHILOSOPHER, BUT DISTINGUISHED
IN ALL THE LIBERAL ARTS
IN ADDITION TO THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES, POLITICS, ETHICS,
ARCHITECTURE, MILITARY ARTS, AND
ALL THAT PERTAINS TO THE PYTHAGOREAN SCIENCES
ENDED HIS CAREER AS THE SUPREME MATHEMATICIAN
IN THE CITY OF PARTHENOPE
AT THE AGE OF NEARLY EIGHTY YEARS
ON APRIL 11, 1623...The following are works by Stigliola:
Theriace et Mithridatia Libellus (1577)
De gli elementi mechanici (1597)
Telescopio, over ispecillo celeste (1627 posth.)
Encyclopedia pythagorea (1616) [Only the index and section Delle apparenze celesti (1616) are believed to exist]Palazzo Campanella
Palazzo Tommaso Campanella, mostly called Palazzo Campanella, is a major building in Reggio Calabria, Italy, as it is the seat of the Regional Council of Calabria (Consiglio Regionale della Calabria).Persecution of philosophers
Philosophers throughout the history of philosophy have been held in courts and tribunals for various offenses, often as a result of their philosophical activity, and some have even been put to death. The most famous example of a philosopher being put on trial is the case of Socrates, who was tried for, amongst other charges, corrupting the youth and impiety.Religious communism
Religious communism is a form of communism that incorporates religious principles. Scholars have used the term to describe a variety of social or religious movements throughout history that have favored the communal ownership of property.Romano Amerio
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San Giorgio Morgeto (Calabrian: San Giorgiu Morgetu or simply San Giorgi) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 70 kilometres (43 miles) southwest of Catanzaro and about 50 km (31 mi) northeast of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 3,356 and an area of 35.1 square kilometres (13.6 sq mi).San Giorgio Morgeto borders the following municipalities: Canolo, Cinquefrondi, Cittanova, Mammola, Polistena.Socialist Party of Aotearoa
The Socialist Party of Aotearoa was a minor political party in New Zealand. It was formed in 1990 through a split in the Socialist Unity Party, led by G. H. (Bill) Andersen. The last known leader of the party was Brendan Tuohy.The party published a monthly newspaper called Red Flag. It operates the Workers' Institute of Scientific Socialist Education (WISSE).The party is best known through the influence of its late founder Bill Andersen, a well-known trade unionist who served as president of the Auckland Trades Council, national secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, and president of the National Distribution Union.It did not stand any candidates at the 2014 election.The City of the Sun
The City of the Sun (Italian: La città del Sole; Latin: Civitas Solis) is a philosophical work by the Italian Dominican philosopher Tommaso Campanella. It is an important early utopian work. The work was written in Italian in 1602, shortly after Campanella's imprisonment for heresy and sedition. A Latin version was written in 1613–1614 and published in Frankfurt in 1623.Tommaso Campana
Tommaso Campanella (active 1620-1640) was an Italian painter active during the Baroque, mainly in his native Bologna. He was originally a pupil of the Carracci, but afterwards followed the style of Guido Reni. In the church of San Michele in Bosco at Bologna, he painted Scenes from the life of St. Cecilia.
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